Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
Standardization and customization
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Standardization and customization

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  • The matrix shows that market development is defined as taking existing products into new markets. Wal-Mart’s expansion into Guatemala and other Central American countries is an example of this strategy.
    Diversification is developing new products for new markets. South Korea’s LG Electronics has created new products for the American home appliance market. Innovations such as a $3,000 refrigerator with a built-in flat panel LVD TV have been instrumental in Home Depot’s decision to carry the appliance product line.
  • Companies that use price as a competitive weapon may use global sourcing to access cheap raw materials or low-wage labor. Companies can seek to improve process efficiencies or gain economies of scale with high production volumes.
    Marketers may be able to reduce non-monetary costs by decreasing the time and effort customers expend to learn about or seek out the product.
    A market is defined as people and organizations that are both able and willing to buy. A successful product or brand must be of acceptable quality and consistent with buyer behavior, expectations, and preferences. If a company is able to offer a combination of superior product, distribution, promotion benefits and lower price than competitors, it should enjoy a competitive advantage. Japanese automakers made significant gains in the American market in the 1980s by creating a superior value proposition. They offered cars with higher quality and lower prices than those made by American car companies.
  • Because countries and people are different, marketing practices that work in one country will not necessarily work in another. Customer preferences, competitors, channels of distribution, and communication may differ. Global marketers must realize the extent to which plans and programs may be extended or need adaptation. The way a company addresses this task is a reflection of its global marketing strategy (GMS).
    Standardization versus adaptation is the extent to which each marketing mix element can be executed in the same or different ways in various country markets.
    Concentration of marketing activities is the extent to which marketing mix activities are performed in one or a few country locations.
    Coordination of marketing activities refers to the extent to which marketing mix activities are planned and executed interdependently around the globe.
    Integration of competitive moves is the extent to which a firm’s competitive marketing tactics are interdependent in different parts of the world.
  • The design is basically the same but the name is frequently transliterated into local languages. The Arabic label is read right to left; the Chinese label translates “delicious/happiness.”
  • Ethnocentric orientation leads to a standardized or extension approach. Foreign operations are typically viewed as being secondary or subordinate to the country in which the company is headquartered. Sometimes valuable managerial knowledge and experience in local markets may go unnoticed. Manufacturing firms may view foreign markets as dumping grounds with little or no marketing research conducted, manufacturing modifications made or attention paid to customer needs and wants.
    Example: In Nissan’s early days of exporting to the United States, the company shipped cars for the mild Japanese winters. Executives assumed that when the weather turned cold, Americans would put a blanket over their cars just like Japanese would. Nissan’s spokesperson said, “We tried for a long time to design cars in Japan and shove them down the American consumer’s throat. That didn’t work very well.”
    Michael Mondavi, former CEO of the wine company said, “Robert Mondavi was a local winery that thought locally, grew locally, produced locally, and sold globally. . . . To be a truly global company, I believe it’s imperative to grow and produce great wines in the world in the best wine-growing regions, regardless of the country or the borders.”
  • For example, Citicorp used this approach until the mid-1990s when John Reed instilled a geocentric approach. He sought to instill a higher degree of integration among operating units.
    James Bailey, Citicorp executive, said, “We were like a medieval state. There was the king and his court and they were in charge, right? No. It was the land barons who were in charge. The king and his court might declare this or that, but the land barons went and did their thing.”
    Jack Welch at GE also sought to instill a geocentric approach.
  • At GM, executives were given considerable autonomy in designing autos for their regions. One result was the use of 270 different radios being installed around the world.
  • EX: GM now assigns engineering jobs worldwide. A Detroit global council determines $7 billion annual budget allocation for new product development. One goal is to save 40 percent on the cost of radios by using only 50 instead of 270 different ones. Basil Drossos, president of GM Argentina, said, “We are talking about becoming a global corporation as opposed to a multinational company; that implies that the centers of expertise may reside anywhere that best reside.”
    Other examples: Harley-Davidson (U.S.), Waterford (Ireland), Gap (U.S.)
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