WWI Critical Year of 1917

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WWI Critical Year of 1917

  1. 1. Reflection Can anything be more ridiculous than that a man has a right to kill me because he lives on the other side of the water, and because his ruler has quarrel with mine, although I have none with him? ~Blaise Pascal
  2. 2. Critical Year of 1917
  3. 3. Expansion of the war Campaigns inconclusive, hard and costly Morale down Food was hard to come by
  4. 4. Break of the stalemate (1) Collapse of Russia  Some soldiers in Russian army had no weapons  Picked off of ground after death  No food  People revolted against the tsar and a provisional government was put in place  Because of turmoil it was easier for Germans to defend and step up pressure on Russians  Bolsheviks seized power, determined to end participation of Russia in the war
  5. 5. Treaty of Brest-Litvosk March 3,1918 Agreed to give up Poland, Finland and the Baltic states and a large part of Ukraine to Germany Germany was able to shift its forces to the Western front and Germans now outnumbered the allies
  6. 6. Break of the Stalemate (2) Entrance of the U.S.  Mixed feelings  Irish-American’s hated the British  German-American’s sided with the Germans  Germans did not want the U.S. in the war  Determined to break the British strength of the sea  Germany would sink on sight any merchant ships heading to Britain or western European ports  U.S. broke off relations with Germany
  7. 7. Zimmerman Telegram A note sent from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico If Mexico allied with Germany, they would be given New Mexico, Texas and Arizona Mexico was also to speak to Japan regarding the idea
  8. 8. Zimmerman TelegramMost SecretFor Your Excellencys personal information and to be handed on to the Imperial Minister in MexicoWe intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare on the first of February. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of an alliance on the following basis: Make war together, make peace together, generous financial support, and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement detail is left to you.You will inform the President [of Mexico] of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves.Please call the Presidents attention to the fact that the unrestricted employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England to make peace within a few months. Acknowledge receipt.Zimmerman
  9. 9. Zimmerman Telegram Germans also sunk many of the American ships April 2,1917 President Wilson asked for a declaration of war  American entry into the war raised Allied morale  Selective service draft
  10. 10. Turning the Tide French offensive stalled  Mutinies and desertions Flanders  British offensive, but Germans pushed them back further from where started Southern Front  Italians lost morale and started to desert
  11. 11. End of Fighting Spring of 1918 allied troops under French General Ferdinand Foch  The Germans mounted their offensive  wanted to split the Allies and drive the British to the sea  came to within 37 miles of Paris before being stopped by the Allies  they were low on reserves and morale the Allies had high morale and high reserves because of the US entering the war  the Allied forces pushed the Germans back and slowly one by one the resistance of the Central Powers fell  November 11 at 11am the Germans signed the Armistice  The Germans had lost the war while its troops still held territory from France to the Crimean Peninsula
  12. 12. Decoding a Message In substitution codes, the letters of the plaintext (message to be put into secret form) are replaced by other letters, numbers, or symbols. In this code system, each letter of the alphabet and each of the numbers from 1 to 9 appears in the matrix of the grid. Each letter in the grid is replaced by two letters in the coded message. The first letter in the message is from the vertical axis of the grid, and the second letter is from its horizontal axis. For example, if "DG" were the first two letters to decipher in a cryptogram, you would find the letter "D" on the vertical axis and the letter "G" on the horizontal axis. Trace them across the grid to their intersection at the letter "A" in the plaintext. To decode the fictitious message in the cryptogram, begin by grouping each set of two letters starting with the first two letters (FG) and continuing through the message. The code letters are arbitrarily arranged in groups of five letters. Some letter pairs will carry over from one line to the next. As you locate each letter in the grid, you should write that letter above the pair of code letters to which it corresponds. There are no punctuation marks in the telegram, so your teacher may need to help you in clarifying the message.
  13. 13. CryptogramFGAFA AAVXA DGAVX VADAD DVDDD VGAVXVDX DVDDF AFDXG XGDDG AVFDV XVAAFX GDADX VDDXD AVXXVAAAVD AVXDA VVGDD XAVDG DXGXV XVDVF VVAFD XAVAFVXDXV DFDAF XAVVV FAVAF VVVVV ADGXV AXAFD GGXFX AFAVVADGDF VFAXV DVXXF DAVXG DVAAF XGDAD XVDVF AVAFV FDGAVAFVXV DAXAF DGXDA FAFVA AADGV VVVXV VDDFV VGDVD AVVXDFVDVX DADXA FAAAFA VDFVV VXVDA VFGFG XFDGV VGDDA DFFXVXVDDF FDDX

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