Learning outcomes By the end of the lesson you will have….. Debated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and predicted the outcome
Task 1 You need to get into groups as follows…. Group 1 Leighton, Ewan, Ridwan, Rachel Group 2 Michael, Abu, Leah, Beth Group 3 Daniel, Daniyal, Elvin, Oliver Group 4 Aran, Sonia, James, Rakim Group 5 Fela, Jacob, Josh, Sam Group 6 Hamza, Tom, Jonathan, Jack Group 7 Amrick, Sehrish, Usmaan, Zafreen
In your group you take on the role of the British Government
In your group you take on the role of the American Government
In your group you take on the role of the French Government
S C R A P AAR OLONIES HINELAND LSACE – LORRAINE OLISH CORRIDOR
Make it a mandate under direct control of the League so that everyone can use it as a sea-route. Have a plebiscite to see what they want in the area Give it to Poland to allow the country access to the sea P olish Corridor A strip of land which would give Poland access to the sea, but split Germany into two sections. Return it to France Have a plebiscite to see if it wants to be French or German Turn it into an independent state A lsace-Lorraine Taken from France in 1870 Turn it into an independent State Make it a “ Mandate ” of the League, under French control. Demilitarise it permanently, but leave it as part of Germany R hineland The border area between Germany and France, heavily defended. Make them “ Mandates ” – divide them between the winners, who rule them under supervision of the League. Have plebiscites in each one to see if they want independence Give them all to Britain C olonies Mainly in Africa, cause of great rivalry with GB. Give it to France Give it to France for 15 years, then a plebiscite Have a plebiscite to allow the inhabitants self-determination. S aar Rich iron-producing area, the industrial heartland of Germany. C B A
“ To what extent do you agree that the decisions reached by the Big 3 with relation to territory were a sensible compromise?”: Answer the above question by completing the following two sentences using as many key words as you can. In some respects, the decisions reached at Versailles about territory were a sensible compromise. Firstly, ??? was a sensible decision because ???. Secondly, …??? In other respects, however, the decisions reached regarding territory cannot be regarded as a sensible compromise. For example, ??? was not a sensible compromise because ???. Similarly, …??? Consolidation • Once the role-play negotiations have finished, each member of the class will read out their score. • Your teacher will then tell you what decisions were eventually reached – keep a score of how many your group of three got right! Discussion point: What issues were the most controversial? ??? ??? Self-Determination ??? ??? Mandate ??? ??? Plebiscite Example Definition
As you read through the SCRAP sheet in your groups, you have to decide which option your chosen country will go for at the Treaty. EACH member of the group must then write down this option, onto a separate sheet of paper under the five headings….as you will have to go to a new group to argue your case!
Once you have all 5 points. You have to come to a group decision , and RANK, the choices in order of 1 = Lowest priority 5 = Highest priority
NEW GROUPS – You will now be in a new group of 3 – representing your country at the Treaty talks. You now have to come to a group decision – democratically – in order to see what will be done in the SCRAP * A 2-1 majority is ok *
Polish Corridor Alsace-Lorraine Rhineland Colonies Saar Option your group chose Area of disagreement
Debrief of groups :– what outcomes did we come to…
So, what should be the question you’re wanting to ask now?
Given back to Poland, taken off Germany Polish Corridor Taken off Germany – given back to France Alsace-Lorraine Became a demilitarised zone Rhineland Germany’s overseas empire was taken away Colonies Run by the League of Nations and then a plebiscite to be held after 15 years Saar Option your group chose Area of disagreement
“ The League of Nations was a sensible compromise”. How far do you agree with the following statement? [10 marks ] Balanced answer......RTTQ
Lesson objectives: <ul><li>To think about whether the Peace Agreement was fair. </li></ul><ul><li>To examine if it would bring lasting peace in Europe. </li></ul>
Starter: <ul><li>Examine what the 3 major powers wanted at the end of World War 1. </li></ul>Georges Clemenceau He was the Prime Minister of France. He wanted revenge , and to punish the Germans for what they had done. He wanted to make Germany pay for the damage done during the war. He also wanted to weaken Germany, so France would never be invaded again. Woodrow Wilson He was President of America. He was a History professor. He wanted to make the world safe . He wanted to end war by making a fair peace . In 1918, Wilson published ‘ Fourteen Points’ saying what he wanted. He said that he wanted disarmament , and a League of Nations (where countries could talk out their problems, without war). He also promised self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe. David Lloyd George He was Prime Minister of Great Britain. He said he would ‘ make Germany pay’ – because he knew that was what the British people wanted to hear. He wanted ‘ justice ’, but he did not want revenge . He said that the peace must not be harsh – that would just cause another war in a few years time. He tried to get a ‘ halfway point’ – a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau. He ALSO wanted to expand the British Empire, maintain British control of the seas, and increase Britain's trade.
Starter task: <ul><li>Write down the main aim of each of the 3 main powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Which major country seems to be missing? </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine you are in 1919 – these are the views of the leaders of the 3 major powers. What chance do you think Germany has of getting a favourable peace settlement? Explain your answer referring back to the views of the main leaders. </li></ul>
Task 1: <ul><li>Read the source sheet that provides information and also includes 3 sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Then answer the following 5 questions. </li></ul><ul><li>In your opinion do you think the war was costly? Use information from the info sheet to support your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how Clemenceau regarded the Germans at the end of World War 1. </li></ul><ul><li>How was Wilson’s opinion different to Clemenceau’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at some of the terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty – do you think it was to harsh? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think it wasn’t wise to punish a country, like Germany, so harshly? </li></ul>
Cost of war. Source D More than 65 million men fought in the First World War; over eight million of them were killed. In addition, nearly nine million civilians died - from starvation, disease, artillery fire and air raids. Twelve million tons of shipping were sunk. In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed. The human cost of the war - in terms of damaged minds and bodies, and ruined lives – was beyond calculation. In some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War. Background Info: Making Peace? In November 1918, Germany had signed a cease-fire. It was called ‘the Armistice ’. The Germans could not fight any longer. But they did not think they had surrendered! In January 1919, delegates from 32 countries met at Versailles , near Paris, to make treaties to end the war. The meeting was known as the Versailles Conference . Unlike other treaties in history, the Treaty of Versailles was not negotiated between Germany and the Allies. Only the Allies were invited to the Conference - and they believed they had won! They imposed their terms upon Germany. Source A America is far away, protected by the ocean. Not even Napoleon himself could touch England. You are both sheltered; we are not. Clemenceau summed up his attitude: 'There are 20 million Germans too many!' Georges Clemenceau, Source B Wilson believed that punishing Germany would only make Germany want revenge. He suggested Fourteen Points which he felt would bring world peace. He wanted countries such as Poland, a neighbour of Germany, to become independent. He wanted France to feel safe against German attack. Wilson also wanted to set up a League of Nations Source C We want a peace which will be just, but not vindictive... Above all, we want to protect the future against a repetition of the horrors of this war. Lloyd George speaking. (1919) Versailles Peace Treaty. Germany had to accept the blame for starting WW 1. Germany’s army was cut and they were not allowed to have a navy or Air force. Reparations – Germany was forced to pay a massive bill for the war. This was compensation to be given to France and Britain etc. This was crushed Germany economically. Germany was stripped of all its territories and overseas colonies.
Task 2 <ul><li>You have now seen that there were a range of feelings towards Germany at the end of WW1. </li></ul><ul><li>I want you to imagine that it is the day after the Versailles Treaty has been written. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a headline for a French, and German newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>I then want you to write a newspaper article explaining your countries view of the war and the Versialles Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>You must either be writing for a French or German newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A description of the cost of the war for all involved. </li></ul><ul><li>When and how the war ended and where the Peace Treaty was signed </li></ul><ul><li>What the Treaty includes or says should happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly the opinion of the newspaper to the news. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if you are a French newspaper you are going to say that the Treaty is too lenient and soft on Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>however, if you are a German newspaper you are going to stress how the Treaty is far too harsh and will cripple Germany and damage Europe. </li></ul>
GCSE Exam Question How satisfied were the Allied leaders with the Treaty of Versailles? Explain your answer using the sources and your own knowledge . H/W to be handed in Monday 18 th February 2008
Level 5 - Explains they were satisfied OR they were not satisfied. Increasing depth of factual knowledge shown in the essay. May refer to sources or HK. Level 6 – Explains how they were satisfied AND they were NOT satisfied. Examines events and reasons for results of change. MUST refer to sources otherwise L5. Level 7 – Explains some of the satisfaction and some of the disatisfaction and a SUPPORTED CONCLUSION. Increasing depth of factual knowledge and HK. Must refer to sources, if not L5. Level 8 – Coherent and succinct work as per Level 7 with no spelling mistakes/incorrect factual knowledge and MUST include a discussion using HK of the view of historians over the TOV. NB – If do not finish the essay – L5 max L5 max if incorrect facts/dates/ spelling / structure poor. If do not refer to all sources – max L5 L4 – If do not mention the background to TOV, date of it, 3 leaders involved etc