World War I


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World War I

  1. 1. The Great War: World War I<br />1914-1917<br />
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  3. 3. Causes of The Great War<br />
  4. 4. Cause #1<br />Nationalism<br />being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one&apos;s country<br />German Unification – 1871<br />Example: Alsace-Lorraine<br />
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  6. 6. Cause #2<br />Imperialism<br />when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule<br />By 1900 the British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa<br />increased British and French rivalry with Germany<br />
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  8. 8. Cause #3<br />Alliances<br />Many alliances signed by countries between 1879 – 1914<br />This meant that some countries had no option but to declare war if one of their allies declared war first<br />
  9. 9. 1879The Dual AllianceGermany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia<br />1881Austro-Serbian AllianceAustria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia<br />1882The Triple AllianceGermany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia<br />1914Triple Entente (no separate peace)Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peaceseparately.<br />1894Franco-Russian AllianceRussia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary<br />1907Triple EntenteThis was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany.<br />1907Anglo-Russian EntenteThis was an agreement between Britain and Russia<br />1904Entente CordialeThis was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  10. 10. Cause #4<br />Militarism<br />army and military forces are given a high profile by the government<br />Led to arms race <br />New technology (weapons, battleships, etc)<br />
  11. 11. Cause #5<br />Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand<br /><ul><li>Heir to Austro-Hungarian throne
  12. 12. June 14, 1914 – Archduke and wife Sophie assassinated by Serbian Nationalist, Gavrilo Princip</li></li></ul><li>
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  14. 14. Serbian Nationalist <br />Gavrilo Princip<br />
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  16. 16. Classwork<br />Read “People in World History: Archduke Francis Ferdinand”<br />Write out the answers to questions 1-3 on the back<br />You have 7 minutes to complete this task - individually<br />This will be a class grade for today…<br />
  17. 17. Who vs. Whom?<br />Look at the map on p. 527<br />Partner up and label the following on the map handout entitled “Europe 1914” with the country name and:<br /> A for Allied Powers (15) <br />C for Central Powers (4)<br />N for Neutral Nations (8)<br />First team that finishes (all correct) wins a prize…<br />
  18. 18. Allied Powers<br /><ul><li>Montenegro
  19. 19. Morocco
  20. 20. Portugal
  21. 21. Romania
  22. 22. Russia
  23. 23. Serbia
  24. 24. Tunisia
  25. 25. United Kingdom</li></ul>Algeria<br />Australia<br />Belgium<br />Egypt<br />France<br />Greece<br />Italy<br />Japan<br />Libya<br />
  26. 26. Central Powers<br />Austria-Hungary<br />Bulgaria<br />Germany<br />Ottoman Empire (Turkey)<br />
  27. 27. Neutral Powers<br />Albania<br />Denmark<br />Luxembourg<br />Netherlands<br />Norway<br />Spain<br />Sweden<br />Switzerland<br />
  28. 28. Check for Understanding<br />List the 5 causes of “The Great War”<br />Partner up -<br />1 minute <br />
  29. 29. Check for Understanding<br />List the 5 causes of “The Great War”<br />Nationalism<br />Imperialism<br />Alliances<br />Militarism<br />Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand<br />
  30. 30. Excitement of War<br />Youth on both sides were eager to go to war<br />Nationalism had created a sense of invincibility <br />All over Europe, but especially in Germany, the superiority of their culture was promoted<br />
  31. 31. Total War<br />Warring nations engaged intotal war: <br />the channeling of a nation’s entire human and natural resources to the war effort<br />
  32. 32. Total War<br />Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport and supply huge fighting forces<br />All nations except Britain imposed universal military conscription, or “the draft” <br /> Governments: <br /><ul><li>raised taxes
  33. 33. borrowed money
  34. 34. rationed food and other products</li></li></ul><li>Mobilization:preparing military<br />troops & equipment for war<br />
  35. 35. Global Conflict<br />The Great Powers turned to their own colonies for troops, laborers,and supplies<br />
  36. 36. Homework<br />Use the rest of class to work on your homework <br />Gavrilo Princip Worksheet<br />Color code your map (3 colors with a key at the top)<br />
  37. 37. Children&apos;s CrusadeYoung men, soldiers, Nineteen FourteenMarching through countries they&apos;d never seenVirgins with rifles, a game of charadesAll for a Children&apos;s CrusadePawns in the game are not victims of chanceStrewn on the fields of Belgium and FrancePoppies for young men, death&apos;s bitter tradeAll of those young lives betrayedThe children of England would never be slavesThey&apos;re trapped on the wire and dying in wavesThe flower of England face down in the mudAnd stained in the blood of a whole generationCorpulent generals safe behind linesHistory&apos;s lessons drowned in red winePoppies for young men, death&apos;s bitter tradeAll of those young lives betrayedAll for a Children&apos;s CrusadeThe children of England would never be slavesThey&apos;re trapped on the wire and dying in wavesThe flower of England face down in the mudAnd stained in the blood of a whole generation<br />
  38. 38. Technology & Trench Warfare in WW<br />
  39. 39. The Schlieffen Plan<br />2-front war<br /><ul><li>Eastern Front
  40. 40. Western Front</li></ul>Germans banked on:<br /><ul><li>Slow Russian mobilization
  41. 41. Take Paris/Metz</li></ul>6-7 weeks<br />Rape of Belgium<br />Did it work?<br />
  42. 42. Schlieffen Plan<br />Failed<br /><ul><li>Russia mobilized faster than expected
  43. 43. Germans sent troops to East, weakening those in the West
  44. 44. French proved tougher than anticipated
  45. 45. Battle of the Marne
  46. 46. GB & France beat Germany</li></li></ul><li>Stalemate<br />After the Schlieffen Plan failed, trenches were dug on 2 fronts<br />The war that was to last 7 weeks lasted 4 years<br />
  47. 47. Impact of Industrialization<br />First War for:<br />Machine guns<br />Tanks<br />Airplanes<br />Battleships<br />Poison Gas<br />
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  49. 49. Chemical Warfare<br />Most common gasses used:<br /><ul><li>Chlorine
  50. 50. Mustard </li></li></ul><li>
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  54. 54. WWI Technology<br />Industrialization had a tremendous impact on WWI<br />Problem for both sides: New weapons, old tactics<br />
  55. 55. Trench Warfare<br />Frontline Trenches were usually about seven feet deep and six feet wide<br />The top two or three feet would consist of a thick line of sand bags to absorb any bullets or shell fragments<br />Diagram: pages 534-535<br />
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  61. 61. Problems with Trench Warfare<br />What happens when you stand in water for months at a time?<br />Disease<br />Trench foot<br />Trench rats<br />“Cooties” (lice)<br />Suicide & “SIWs”<br />
  62. 62. Trench Foot<br />
  63. 63. One soldier described finding a group of dead bodies while on patrol: &quot;I saw some rats running from under the dead men&apos;s greatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies.<br /> His helmet had rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, stripped of flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat.&quot;<br />
  64. 64. Suicide:<br /><ul><li>Self Inflicted
  65. 65. Enemy Inflicted</li></ul>SIW’s (Self-Inflicted Wounds):<br />&quot;A bullet fired deliberately at the foot was the only way out. Perhaps those who call this man a coward will consider the desperation to which he was driven, to place his rifle against the foot, and drive through the bones and flesh the smashing metal. Let me hope that the court-martial&apos;s sentence was light. Not that it matters, for, in truth, the real sentence had been inflicted long ago.&quot;<br />
  66. 66. Why Trench Warfare Didn’t Work<br />Consider the strategy…<br />Contributed to stalemate<br />Contributed to millions of deaths…<br />
  67. 67. “In the chapel of St. Cyr (before it was destroyed during World War II) the memorial tablet to the dead of the Great War bore only a single entry for “the class of 1914.”<br /> -Guns of August by Barbara Tuchman<br />
  68. 68. WW I – Military Casualties* (approximations)<br />WW I Military CasualtiesDoes not include civilian casualties<br />*Does not include civilian casualties<br />
  69. 69. Wartime Propaganda<br />Both sides waged a propaganda war <br />Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause<br />Posters<br />
  70. 70. US Enters the War<br />State of Europe:<br /> Lacking supplies<br />Millions of casualties<br />Morale = low<br />Doughboys to the Rescue<br />April, 1916 US declares war <br />June, 1916 US to Europe<br />
  71. 71. WWI Ends<br />Nov. 9, 1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates<br />At 11:00 on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice<br />
  72. 72. Treaty of Versailles<br />Ends the war<br />“Big Four”<br /><ul><li>GB – David Lloyd George
  73. 73. US – Woodrow Wilson
  74. 74. France – Georges Clemanceau
  75. 75. Italy – Vittorio Orlando</li></ul>(Left to right) The “Big Four”: David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States, the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles.<br />
  76. 76. Terms of Treaty of Versailles<br />Germany <br /><ul><li>Loses territories
  77. 77. Demilitarization
  78. 78. Takes all of blame
  79. 79. Must pay reparations </li>