DRAW A LINE BETWEEN TODAY AND THE LAST LESSONRIGHT CORNER: 1) Write: Name: _, Period: _,Date: 03/21/12, Topic: WWI: 1914-1918LEFT CORNER: Write “Opener #17” and then:1) Write 1 high+1 low in last 24 hours2) Rate your comprehension for thisweek’s topic so far: lost<1-5>easy3) Respond to the Opener by writingat least 1 sentences about:Your opinions/thoughts OR/ANDQuestions sparked by the clip OR/ANDSummary of the clip OR/ANDAnnouncements: None
Agenda1) WWI: 1914-1918What you will be able to do:1) How did WWI change the world?Reminder1) Keep up with your readings
Opener 1 Permission Slip Due Fri Bruce Lee2)Hi-talked with friends, Lo-Feeling tired Period 22) Why was Japan’s military modernizationturn out better than China’s? 8/25/123) 3 Asian ImperialismNotes #1a Meiji Emperor more symbol than powerMeiji Young, handsome, wore Western clothesEmperorActiv #1a 1) 3 because tradition is importantDebate 2) 5 because survival is most importantActiv #1b 1) The reason students returned was nationalism.Reading 2) I think people are more individualistic today.Military #1Ruso War?Closing your country to threats can weaken you.
Notes #16a, Title: “WWI Causes Notes”1) Family Connections: Family rivalryUK QUEEN VICTORIA (the mother queen)Edward III – Her sonKing George V – Her grandsonGERMANYKaiser Wilhelm I - Her son in law(Bismarck Journ.s for Kaiser)Kaiser Wilhelm II – Her grandson(KW II fires Bismarck)RUSSIACzar Nicolas I – His wife is her granddaughter
1) Queen Victoria’s Grandchildren Queen Victoria UK Germ RussiaKaiser of Germany jealous of the power of his cousin in UK.
2) Long Term Causes: M.A.N.I.A.(not in chronological order)Militarism-Arms raceAlliances-Mutual protection agreementsNationalism-Belief they were betterImperialism-Competition for territoryAngst+Assasination: Society’s restlessness and problems at homeIf in chronological order: N.I.M.A.A.NationalismImperialismMilitarismAlliancesAngst3) Immediate Trigger of WWI: Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
4) Militarism: Arms race:a) Bismarck: said Germany should not build a strong navy to avoid a race with UKb) Wilhelm II: Feels inferior to UK, starts naval race c) Dreadnaught: Class of battleship was the superweapon 21 - UK 14 - Germany
5) Alliances: Alliances designed to create peace:a) Bismark’s Plan: Germany satiated (needs nomore Eur. land), just wants to keep France fromtaking back W. border (won in Franco-Prussian War)b) Imperial Alliance (1882): Germany creates aalliances of kings: Germany, Austria, Italy, + Russiac) Wilhelm II’s Plan (1892): Fears Russia will getstrong, stops trade with Russia, thinking Russia(dictator) will never ally with France (republic)d) Franco-Russian Alliance (1894): F+R ally, UKlosing out to German ind. rev. joins France + Russiae) Russian Slavic Protection: Russia shares cultural ties with and has interests in the Balkans (East Europe), so pledges to protect them (esp Serbia)f) Ottomans Ally with Germany (1914): Turkey allies w. the Eur it hates least + who they thought will win
Secret Alliance Network: Country’s agree to defend each other. Tradition was for alliances to be secret. Germany France Russia Ottomans Austria Serbia UK
1) Everyone stand up. Everyone secretlyally with 2 other people (no 4 way) in theclass, write their name down under 1)2) What happened with X and Y went towar?When we startthe war, you’llstand by whoyou are alliedwith, if there’sa conflict, yousit the war out.
Activ. #16a, “Alliance Debate”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Alliances provide CON: Alliances make warextra security more likely1) Alliances make war so 1) If any one goes to war,devastating, it makes we are all involved,countries think twice creating a more likelybefore going to war trigger2) Having more partners 2) Having more partnersmeans more security means more to defend
WWI Causes Notes1) Long Term Causes: M.A.N.I.A.(not in chronological order)Militarism-Arms raceAlliances-Mutual protection agreementsNationalism-Belief they were betterImperialism-Competition for territoryAngst: Society’s restlessness and problems at homeIf in chronological order: N.I.M.A.A.NationalismImperialismMilitarismAlliancesAngst2) Immediate Trigger of WWI: Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Notes #16b, Title: “WWI Trigger Notes”1) Balkans: Diverse area between Austria, Russia, and Middle East, mixed Christian, Muslim. Controlled by the Ottomans, but Holy Alliance take control (1st with Greece)2) Europeans Slice the Balkans (1828–1908):a) Serbia: Win their independenceb) Bosnia: Austria takes, angers Serbs who wanted Bosniac) Northern Balkan: Russia
6) Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Heir to Austrian empire assassinated on Bosnia visit: 6/28/19147) Kaiser’s Blank Check: German says it will back Austria no matter what, itching for war8) Austrian Demands: Austria demands Serbia to denounce terrorism + allow Aust. to investigate with in Serbian borders9) Serbian Response: Agrees to most10) Austrian Response: Austria rejects the reply + declares war (no turning back)11) Russia backs Serbia: Declares war on Austria12) Germany backs Austria: Declares war on Russia13) France backs Russia: Declares war on Germany14) Reluctant Allies:a) Italy: Refuses to back ally Germany + Austria.b) UK: Hesitant to back France and Russia.
Vitai Lampada by Sir Henry NewboltTHERES a breathless hush in the Close to-nightTen to make and the match to win -A bumping pitch and a blinding light,An hour to play and the last man in.And its not for the sake of a ribboned coat,Or the selfish hope of a seasons fame,But his Captains hand on his shoulder smote"Play up! play up! and play the game!"
Vitai Lampada by Sir Henry NewboltThe sand of the desert is sodden red, -Red with the wreck of a square that broke; -The Gatlings jammed and the colonel dead,And the regiment blind with dust and smoke.The river of death has brimmed his banks,And Englands far, and Honour a name,But the voice of schoolboy rallies the ranks,"Play up! play up! and play the game!"
Vitai Lampada by Sir Henry NewboltThis is the word that year by yearWhile in her place the School is setEvery one of her sons must hear,And none that hears it dare forget.This they all with a joyful mindBear through life like a torch in flame,And falling fling to the host behind -"Play up! play up! and play the game!"
Notes #16c, Title: “Start of WWI Notes”1) Schlieffen Plan: Germany’s secret plan (each country had a plan they thought was fool proof)a) 90% of Forces at France: Russia slow to mobilize, knock France out firstb) Invade France from North: Defeat France by surprise invasion thru neutral Belgiumc) Russia Last: Once France done, attack Russia right as Russia troops mobilized in east
2) UK Joins the War: Hesitant to join to uphold alliance:a) invading neutral Belgiumb) French + UK media exaggerates up Ger. atrocities in BelgiumAllies: Russia, France, UKCentral: Austria, Germ, Otto
8/04/14, Daily Mirror (Newspaper)Huge crowds cheer their majesties atpalace - voted in Commons in five minutes.German invasion of Belgium with airshipsGreat Britain is in a state of war withGermany. Speaking in a crowded and hushedHouse the Premier yesterday afternoon madethe following statement: We have made arequest to the German Government that weshall have a satisfactory assurance as tothe Belgian neutrality before midnighttonight.The German reply to our request,officially stated last night, wasunsatisfactory.
3) Schlieffen Plan Fails: Ger. relied on too many things to go right + wrong for enemya) Belgium fights back: Slowing march to Franceb) Russia mobilizes faster than expected: Forcing Ger to send more troops eastc) UK troops in France: UK + France win at the Battle of the Marne
Notes #16c, Title: “WWI: 1914-1918 Notes”4) Western Front: 2 mo. after start, both dig in trenches. 4 years: 10+- mi. movement.5) Trench Warfare: 300-600 yds separated sides by “no mans land. Tech favored defense: barbed wire, machine guns, explosive artillery
6) Stalemate: Clear that unless 1 side gets more allies or loses an ally, no one has advantage. Allies=more ppl, Germans=more tech
7) Total War: Whole nation’s economy transformed into a war machine.a) National Conscription: All men must fight (women also take on more jobs=politic power)b) Centralized Econ: Gov control biz decisionsc) Rationing: Limiting non-war use of materialsd) Propaganda: Pro-war messages spreade) Censorship: Gov limit anti-war messages (including letters from warfront)
8) War Technology: German’s more willing to usea) Gas: Ger. 1st to use, unpredictable, more 4 fearb) Uboats: Ger. 1st to use, sink supply shipsc) Blimps: Ger. 1st to use, bomb citiesd) Airplanes: Both, reconnaissance, light attackse) Tanks: UK 1st to use, break trench defenses
9) Battle of the Sommes (1916): 1 mil Brits fighta) Day Later: 50,000 casualties, 100 yds gainedb) Mo Later: 400,000 casualties, 2 mi gained10) Trench Life: Dirty, wet, diseased, rat and lice infested, feet rot, crowded, lack of sleep.“My memories are of sheer terror and the horrorof seeing men sobbing because they had trenchfoot that had turned gangrenous. They knew theywere going to lose a leg. Memories of lice in yourclothing driving you crazy. Filth and lack ofprivacy. Of huge rats that showed no fear of youas they stole your food rations. And cold deep wetmud everywhere. And of course, corpses. Idnever seen a dead body before I went to war. Butin the trenches the dead are lying all around you.You could be talking to the fellow next to youwhen suddenly hed be hit by a sniper and falldead beside you. And there hes stay for days.”
Notes #16d, Title: “WWI - Middle East Notes”1) Ottoman Empire: German ally, control Turkey and parts of Middle East (w help of Bulgaria, cuts off Russia-Allied supply route)
2) Battle of Gallipoli (1915): Failed British (Indian/ Australian) naval assault of seaside forts defending Black Sea, 200k casualties
3) Armenian Genocide: Turkey kills 1-2 million Armenians (Christians) in Turkey (fear they side w Russia). No more Armenians in Turkey.
4) Arab Revolt (1916): UK (Lawrence of Arabia) convince Palestine + Iraq to revolt from Otto. in return for independence (promise broken)5) Sykes-Picot (1916): UK + France secretly split up Mid. East (no regard for local ppl+borders)
Notes #16e, Title: “WWI - Russia Notes”1) Eastern Front: Russia had more casualties than any other ally, mass starvation, riots erupt
Notes #16e, Title: “WWI - Russia Notes”1) Vladimir Lenin: Russian communist leader in exile, Germany sends him to Russia to spark another revolution (though Kaiser hate comm.)
Notes #15c, Title: “WWI - Russia Notes”2) February Revolution (1917): Tsar Nicholas II steps down, Alex Kerensky (socialist) leads transitional govt, but won’t end the war (hopes for victory)
Notes #15c, Title: “WWI - Russia Notes”3) Russian Peace Treaty (1918): Lenin (communist) ends war, Germany throw all troops west (but US takes Russia’s place)
Create a Prezi.com1) Explain who your person is2) Place a clean copy of primary source3) Place an annotated copy of the primary source4) Include any visuals, turn in to: tinyurl.com/chianghogan (make you prezi public)1) Engles2) Marx3) Lenin4) Trotsky5) Stalin6) Mao7) Che Guevara
Notes #16d, Title: “WWI - Russia Notes”4) Russian Peace Treaty (1918): Germany throw all troops west (but US takes Russia’s place)
Notes #16d, Title: “WWI - Russia Notes”5) Germany Gov Controlled Media: Promotes UK+France weakening, Ger. about to win now 1 front war (reality, Ger weakening too)
Notes #16d, Title: “WWI- US Notes”6) US Isolationism: US ppl wanted to stay out7) UK Needed Supplies: US loan money to UK to buy US supplies (France borrows $ too)8) Lusitania (1915): British cruise ship carrying war materials sinks (1,198 die, 128 US)a) UK turn event into propaganda toolb) Ger. stops unrestricted u-boat, but too late
9) Unrestricted U-Boats Resume (1917): Germany losing, gambles at “starving” UK into defeat (600k tons sank, UK only 6 wk supplies)10) Zimmerman Telegram: Ger. For. Sec. Zim. sends secret note to Mexico to ask them to join Central powers (UK had deciphered Ger. secret code machines)
Notes #16d, Title: “WWI- US Notes”11) US Congress Declares War (4/06/1917): US not prepared to fight, but had fresh men + industry
“On the first of February, we intend tobegin unrestricted submarine warfare.In spite of this, it is our intentionto endeavor to keep the United Statesof America neutral.In the event of this not succeeding, wepropose an alliance on the followingbasis with Mexico: That we shall makewar together and make peace together.We shall give generous financialsupport, and an understanding on ourpart that Mexico is to reconquer thelost territory in New Mexico, Texas,and Arizona. The details of settlementare left to you.”
14 Points: US Pres. Wilson argues war fought to prevent future wars thru defending freedom, world cooperation, + self- determination
“We have no selfish ends toserve. We desire no conquest,no dominion… we shall fight forthe things which we havealways carried nearest ourhearts - for democracy, for theright of those who submit toauthority to have a voice in theirown Governments, for the rightsand liberties of small nations,for a universal dominion of rightby such a concert of freepeoples as shall bring peaceand safety to all nations andmake the world itself at lastfree.” -US President Wilson
Notes #16d, Title: “WWI- US Notes”12) 14 Points: US President Wilson presents 14 goals for the end of the war:a) Reduce military weapons (M)b) Alliances should be made in the open (A)c) Nationalism of ppl should be respected by creating borders that respect cultures (N)d) Trade should be open (I)e) People of the world should self-determine their form of govt (I)f) Create an international league of nations that can collectively resolve conflicts (A)