Russia was unprepared both militarily and technologically for the Great War Tzar Nicolas 2 insisted on taking personal charge of armed forces despite lack of ability and training Russian industry couldn’t produce the weapons needed for the army Soldiers trained using broomsticks and told to pick one up off of a dead comrade in battle 2 million soldiers were killed between 1914-1916 and another 4-6 million wounded or captured Background
Tsar Nicolas 2 was an autocratic ruler who relied on his army and bureaucracy to hold up his regime His German born wife Alexandra had fallen under the influence of Grigori Rasputin Rasputin was an uneducated Siberian peasant who believed he was a holy manBeginnings of Upheaval
Alexandra relied upon Rasputin because he seemed to be the only one who could stop the bleeding of her son Alexis Alexis had hemophilia With the tsar at the front Alexandra made all of the decisions She insisted on consulting with Rasputin “her beloved, never-to-be- forgotten teacher, savior and mentor” Rasputin was considered to be the power behind the throne and did not hesitate to interfere in government leadership Rasputin
As Rasputin gained more power the people grew more upset Aristocrats felt they needed to do something to save the situation December 1916 Rasputin was assassinated He was shot three times, tied up and threw in the Neva River He managed to untie the knots in the water before he drowned His assassination was not enough to save the monarchyRasputin
A series of strikes led by working class women broke out in the capital city of Petrograd The government had started to ration bread a few weeks earlier after the price had skyrocketed Women who stood in bread lines also worked 12 hour days March 8 10,000 women marched through the city demanding “Peace and Bread” and “Down with Autocracy” They were joined by other workersThe March Revolution1917
Together a general strike was held Strike shut down the factories till March 10 Alexandra wrote to Nicolas “This is a hooligan movement. If the weather were very cold they would all probably stay home.” Nicolas called out troops to break up crowds by shooting them Large numbers of soldiers joined inThe March Revolution
The Duma was a legislative body that had been dissolved by the tzar met anyway March 12 it established a provisionary government Consisted of middle class Duma representatives The tzar was urged to step down March 15th he stepped down ending the 300 year old Romanov DynastyDuma
Alexander Kerensky was the head of the government Decided to carry on in the war to preserve Russia’s honor Had to deal with the soviets Soviets are the name used for several different Russian political organizations , could substitute the word council for soviet Composed of representatives of the workers and soldiers Generally socialists Many different factionsProvisional Government
Bolsheviks began as a small faction of the Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats Came under the leadership of Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov or V.I. Lenin Lenin believed a violent revolution was necessary to destroy the capitalist system 1900-1917 he spent most of his time abroad Viewed March 1917 as the opportunity to seize power April 1917 German military leaders (hoping to create disorder) shipped Lenin to Russia Sent in a sealed train to prevent their ideas from infecting GermanyThe Rise of Lenin
Lenin’s arrival opened a new state in the Bolshevik Revolution He believed that soldiers, peasants and workers were ready made instruments of power Wanted Bolsheviks to work towards gaining power of these groups to take control Reflected on the discontent of the pople Promised to end war, transfer factories and industries from capitalists to committees of workers, redistribution of land and transfer of governmental power to the sovietsThe Rise of Lenin
PEACE, LAND, BREAD! WORKER CONTROL OF PRODUCTION! ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knjUx7A- G3wRally slogans
Party numbers grew as a result of Lenin’s work Leon Trotsky as the head of the Petrograd soviets the Bolsheviks were able to claim power in the name of all soviets November 6 Bolshevik forces seized the Winter Palace Outwardly Lenin “turned over power” to the congressional government March 3, 1918 Lenin sighed the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk with Germany Gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic StatesBolsheviks Seize Power
Many people were opposed to the new Bolshevik or Communist regime Allies against the communist take over were joined by groups loyal to the tzar and also anti- Lenin socialists Sent thousands of troops to various parts of Russia in hopes of bringing Russia back into the war Sent material 1918-1921 Communist (Red) army was forced to fight on many fronts against the WhitesCivil War
Royal family was a victim of the war After the czar abdicated Nicolas, Alexandra and their 5 children were taken into captivity July 16th they were murdered and their bodies were burned in a local mine shaft http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXrb1rM2TqoCivil War
Well disciplined Red Army Leon Trotsky was an organizational genius Soldiers who deserted or refused to obey were shot on the spot Disunity of the anti-communists Czarists vs. democracy No common goal War communism Government seized control of banks, grain, ect. In order to help the war effort Revolutionary terror Red secret police Presence of foreign armies on Russian soil Patriotic Russians fought foreigners attempts to control the country What led to the triumph of the Communists?
1921 the Communists were in total control of Russia Became a communist regime with a single party dominating the political scene State was largely hostile to the Allies as they had tried to help communist enemies in the civil warVictory!