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  • 1. 1 Practical Plant Taxonomy Overview: It is very important as complementing and giving support tothe theoretical course. Students need to have some practice both in labactivities about the topic and field observation. Objectives: Learning some methods of plant taxonomy & gettingfamiliar with plant morphology, classification, identification,nomenclature, flora, herbaria, botanical gardens, phylogeny &phytogeography. Main References: Simpson, M. G., 2006, Plant systematics. Elsevier Academic Press.Canada. Lawrence, G. H., 1951, Taxonomy of vascular plants. Oxford & IBH /Macmillan, New Delhi, India. Lawrence, G. H., 1955, An introduction to plant taxonomy. CentralBook Depot / Macmillan, India. ‫ا لموسوى، علي حسين، ٧٨٩١ ، علم تصنيف النبات. جامعة بغداد‬ Pandey, B. P., 2005, Modern practical botany, S. Chand, India. Pandey, B. P., 2000, Taxonomy of angiosperms. S. Chand, New Delhi. Hickey, M., & C. King, 1997, Common families of flowering plants,Cambridge U. P. Tounsend, C. C., E. Guest, et al. 1966-85, Flora of Iraq, 6 volumes,Iraqi Min. of Agr., printed at Glasgow, U. K. Kumar, S.. A textbook of plant taxonomy, Campus Books InternationalIndia.Plant Taxonomy Course Syllabus 1. Introduction. 2. Plant morphology. 3. Selected common Eudicotfamilies. 4. Selected common Monocot families. 5. Field and herbariumtechniques. 6. Selected economic plants. 7. Taxonomic literature & flora.8. Plant distribution, ecology and geography. 9. Other taxonomic criteria.10. Evolution, phylogeny, genetics, and plant breeding. 11. Paleobotany. 1
  • 2. 2 Introduction Plant taxonomy (systematics): is the science of plant identification,classification and nomenclature. Identification: is the decision on the identity of a plant by putting it in aknown described species. Classification: is putting the plant categories in a systematic order ofclasses (taxa, sing. taxon). Nomenclature: is the giving of scientific names to plant populationsand taxa of different levels. A species (plural also species): is a distinct plant population of the samegenetic origin and is a basic unit of taxonomy.The Plants ClassificationDomain Eukaryota = Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Phyla of: I Nonvascular plants (e.g. Bryophyta, .. etc.). II Vasculars without seeds (e.g. Polypodiaceae, .. etc.). III Gymnosperm vascular seed plants (e.g. Pinaceae, ..etc.). IV Phylum Anthophyta = Magnoliophyta = Angiospermae (The Flowering, vascular seed plants) Dozens of Orders of: 1 Eudicots = (formerly, Dicots). 2 Monocots. 3 Some small primitive orders. Hundreds of Families. Thousands of Genera. Hundreds of thousands of Species. Some Infra-specific ranks.2
  • 3. 3 Some Selected Eudicot and Monocot FamiliesOrder I. Asterales Family 1. Asteraceae = Compositae Ref.: Simpson, p. 326.Special Characters 1. Predominantly herbs. 2. Flowers are arranged in a head called a capitulum (a mass of small florets on a disk surrounded by special bracts called (involucre). 3. Flowers are typically bisexual, some are unisexual. 4. Two kinds of flower are present: (a) Disk flowers, actinomorphic symmetry, united petals (gamopetalous) without ligules. (b) Ray flowers, zygomorphic, gamopetalous with ligules. 5. Calyx (sepals) is modified to pappus. 6. Corolla (petals) is pentamerous (5 parts). 7. Flower parts are epigynous (inferior ovary). 8. Ovary of 2 carpels, 1 chamber, & one seed 9. Placentation is basal. 10. Stamen number 5. 11. The fruit is a kind of achene called cypsela, and is distributed by the pappus with the wind. Distribution It is the largest eudicot family of the world. It has about 1000 genera, &20,000 species, found everywhere in all habitats.Economlc importance Helianthus annuus , sunflower, a food oil crop. Lactuca sativa, lettuce. Carthamus tinctorias, oil and dye yielding. Gundelia tourneforte, thistle. Some ornamentals are Calendula, Dahlia, & Aster. 3
  • 4. 4 Asteraceae4
  • 5. 5Ateraceae 5
  • 6. 6Asteraceae .Asa6
  • 7. 7Asteraceae 7
  • 8. 8Order 2. FABALES (Leguminales)Family 2 Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Papilionaceae) –Bean/Pea family 643 genera/ 18,000 spp. They are herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines. Roots ofmany members have a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixingbacteria (Rhizobium spp.), which induce formation of root nodules.Leaves are usually compound (pinnate, bipinnate, trifoliolate, palmate),or simple, arranged spirally. Inflorescence is variable. Flowers are mostlybisexual, zygomorphic (corolla apopetalous or sympetalous, 5papilionaceous petals). Stamens are 10 (1+9). Gynoecium has 1 carpel,with a superior ovary, and1 locule. Style and stigma are solitary.Placentation is marginal; ovules are 2- ∞/ carpel. Nectaries are a ring atthe base of ovary. Fruit is a legume. The Fabaceae is a very large group with a worldwide distribution, andecologically important for containing nitrogen-fixing rhizobial nodules. Economically, legumes are important plants, being the source ofnumerous pulses: such as:a. Arachis hypogaea, peanut; b. Glycine max, soybean; c. Lensculinaris, lentil; d. Phaseolus spp., beans; e. Pisum sativum, pea. f.Vicia faba, broad bean, .. etc. Fodder and soil rotation plants are: a. Medicago sativa, alfalfa; b.Trifolium spp., clovers, ..etc. Oils, timber trees, gums, dyes, andinsecticides are also important products of this family. K 5 or (5) C 5 or (5) A 5, 10, or ∞ G 1, superior, placentationmarginal.8
  • 9. 9• Fabaceae 9
  • 10. 10Fabaceae10
  • 11. 11 Order 3- Poales (Graminales) Family 3- Poaceae (Gramineae) The Cereals Family This is the most important family of the plant kingdom to humans allover the world and along their extreme old history. Still now our bread,sugar, rice, oil, starch and many other food materials are inside this groupof plants. This is a monocot family of mostly herbs called grasses, few shrubs arealso included. Roots are fibrous; leaves simple linear, parallel-veined,sheathing hollow stems at bases. The inflorescence is a compound spikeor a compound panicle of spikelets. A spikelet is composed of 1, 2, ormore florets. Flowers are unisexual or bisexual, within some specialbracts called glumes, perianth not found, stamens are 3. Fruit is acaryopsis, a special dry fruit of 1 seed, where fruit and seed coats areunited.Economic importance:Wheat, Triticum aestivum, T. durum, etc.Barley, Hordeum spp.Rice, Oryza sativa.Corn, Zea mays.Sugar cane, Saccharum officinalis. Ecologically also this family comprises the most great amount of greenfood available on land to all herbivorous animals, and a great part of thephotosynthetic plant mass of the world, by their vast numbers of speciesand huge numbers of populations and individuals of the species. 11
  • 12. 12Poaceae12
  • 13. 13Poaceae 13
  • 14. 14Order 4- Brassicales ( = Cruciales)Family 4- Brassicaceae (Crucifera) This eudicot group is well known from old times, they are characterizedby cross-like petals (cruciform corolla), of 4 distinct parts. Most of themare herbs, many with storage roots. Stems and leaves are hairy and mostplants have acrid, pungent or bitter taste due to many organic products.Flowers are bisexual, stamens 6, ovary of 2 carpels. Fruits are dry, openlengthwise into 2 parts. Most of crucifera grow everywhere as weeds. Some of them arevegetables:Brassica oleracia var. cpitata, cbbage; B.napa, turnip; Raphanus sativus,Rdish.Order 5- Apiales (Umbellales)Family 5- Apiaceae (Umbeliferae) This is the celery family (Apium) or the carrot (Daucus carota). It iswell-known all over the world. Most of them are herbs of aromatic tasteand flavor and many of them are known as spices. Leaves are compound.Inflorescences are compound umbels. Flower is pentamerous. Fruit is aschizocarp of 2 separated dry carpomeres.Vegetables included are:Celery, Apium graveolens; Parsley, Petroselinum; Dill, Anethum; andCarrot, Daucus carota.The spices include many genera and species like:Carum,Cuminum, Coriandrum, etc.14
  • 15. 15Brassicaceae 15
  • 16. 16Apiaceae16
  • 17. 17Order 6- LamialesFamily 6- Lamiaceae (Labiatae)Mint Family This family is one of the well-known plant groups from old ages. Manymembers have been used as medicinal herbs, spices, food products orornamentals. Most of them are herbs. Hairy vegetative parts have perfumed glandulartrichomes giving different volatile oils. Stems are recognized by quadrateappearance (square sections). Flower is well distinguished by its labiate(or bilabiate) corolla tube, of 5 united petals. Ovary has 4 chambers, eachwith 1 seed.Useful medicinal, spice, perfume and ornamental plants in this familyare:Mints, Mentha spp. ;Thyme, Thumus spp.;Basil, Ocimum spp.;Rosemary, Rosmarinus spp. 17
  • 18. 18 Mentha sp.18
  • 19. 19Lamium 19
  • 20. 20Order 7- RosalesFamily 7- Rosaceae (Rose Family) This family is mostly herbaceous but contains some trees and shrubs.Leaves are simple or compound. Flower is pentamerous but may havenumerous petals (5, 10, ..25 .. or more) . A structure called hypanthiumcomposed of receptacle parts united to some flower parts, after thatbecomes a part of the fruit. This fruit is called a pome, e.g. apples. Ovarymay be 1 or more in 1 flower. Stamens are always numerous. Anotherkind of fruit here is a drupe, e.g. apricots. Some have aggregate fruitsfrom union of many ovaries of one flower (strawberry and blackberry).Economic important plants of this family are: Fruit trees of : Apples, Malus spp. ; Pears, Pyrus spp. ; Almond, Amygdalus spp. Apricot, Prunus armeniaca; Peach, P. persica; Plums, Prunus spp. Other plants are; Strawberry, Fragaria sativa; Roses, Rosa spp.; etc.20
  • 21. 21Rosaceae 21
  • 22. 22 Plant Morphology Plant morphology is the science of external study of the plant bodystructure, shape and composition. It studies the plant’s habit, i.e. shape ofthe plant body. Habit may be a herb, bush, shrub, tree, or vine. Plants areherbaceous or woody, (some herbs are also woody). Herbs are annual,biennial, or perennial. Shrubs, trees and vines are evergreen or deciduous(shed leaves in winter). Morphology includes the study of roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences,flowers, fruits, and seeds. It studies the organs’ shapes, structure, kinds,parts, and modifications. Most the attention is to flower parts, and thehigh diversification in their structure, number, shape, color, and specialmodifications to different reproductive function types and environments. Morphology also deals with different adaptations to methods ofperennation (wintering), pollination, and distribution. These are relatedto anatomy, physiology, genetics, evolution and ecology. Morphology isa separate branch of botany, but is also studied in taxonomy, for itsimportance to classification methods. Laboratory activities in plant taxonomy include:-Observation of plant specimens, fresh and dried, macroscopically andmicroscopically in morphology, anatomy and some physiologic aspects.-Practice of some methods of plant preservation, drying, and keeping.-Practice of some classification methods using keys of local plants.-Taking some ideas about work in a herbarium, e.g. arrangement,keeping, and maintenance. Field observation is very important in plant taxonomy to recognize theactual plant populations in the natural habitat. Plant ecology, sociology,and geography are closely related topics to taxonomy and their relationsare well understood only in the natural habitat.22
  • 23. 23 Methods of taxonomy are morphological, anatomical, physiological,cytological, molecular, chemical, ecological, etc. A Flora means the sum of the plants growing together in a region in atime. We can speak of the flora of our country as a particular group ofplants different from floras of other places. Each part of a country mayhave a different flora, and may have some common plants with otherparts. A Flora also means a book that contains lists, descriptions anddetails of the flora of any place. So “The Flora of Iraq” is one of the mostuseful documents of this area, (see list of references). The study of florais called floristics. A Herbarium is a kind of national museum of the plants of a countrydried and kept in a preserved state. There are many large and famousherbaria in all the countries of the world. They contain dry specimens ofall known plants stored for centuries without damage. There are specialtechniques of field and herbarium sampling, drying, arrangement andmaintenance. Chemicals are used against pests and international rules arethere for herbarium keeping. Seed banks and gene banks are also partsof many herbaria which keep thousands of specimens available to worldstudents and botanical researchers. Botanical gardens are other international and regional scientificfoundations of very great importance. They are artificial habitats for mostof the wild plants of the world, grown and maintained in experimentalmethods for research purposes. Phylogeny is the principle of the evolutionary relationships betweenthe taxonomic groups of plants revealed by DNA, fossils, and othermodern studies. Paleontology, embryology, and plant geography givegood evidence on phylogenetic relationships. Phytogeography means the plant geography. It deals with the world-wide distribution of plants according to ecological and environmentalfactors and studies the differences between various floras. 23
  • 24. 24Some Common Monocot Orders & FamiliesWith some economically important examples: I. Asparagales:- 1. Alliaceae: Onion, Allium cepa ; Garlic, A. sativum; Leek, A. ampeloprasum. 2. Amaryllidaceae: Daffodil, Narcissus spp. 3. Iridaceae: Iris, Iris spp.; Saffron, Crocus sativus. 4. Orchidaceae: Vanilla, Vanilla planifolia; Orchids, Orchis spp. 5. Asparagaceae: Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis. II. Liliales:- 6. Liliaceae: Lilies, Lilium spp. Tulips, Tulipa spp. III. Arecales:- 7. Arecaceae: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera; Coconut palm, Cocos nucifera. IV. Zingiberales:- 8. Musaceae: Bananas, Musa spp. 9. Zingiberaceae: Gingers, Zingiber spp. V. Poales:- 10. Bromeliaceae: Pineapple, Ananas comosus. 11. Poaceae.24
  • 25. 25 Some Eudicot Orders & Families With some economic important examples:-I. Caryophyllales:- 1. Amaranthaceae:- Beets, Beta vulgaris; Spinach, Spinacea oleracea. 2. Caryophyllaceae:- Carnation, Dianthus.II. Vitales:- 3. Vitaceae:- Grape vine, Vitis vinifera.III. Myrtales:- 4. Lythraceae:- Pomegranate, Punica granatum. 5. Myrtaceae:- Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus spp. Myrtle, Myrtus spp.IV. Cucurbitales:- 6. Cucurbitaceae:- Squash, pumpkin, Cucurbita spp. ; Melon, Cucumis melo; Cucumber, Cucumis sativa; Water melon, Citrullus lanatus. V. Fabales:- 7. Fabaceae:- = Leguminosae. VI. Fagales:- 8. Fagaceae:- Beech, Fagus; Oak, Quercus spp. Chestnut, Castanea. 9. Juglandaceae:- Walnut, Juglans spp. VII. Rosales:- 10. Moraceae:- Mulberry, Morus spp.; Fig, Ficus carica. 11. Rosaceae:- VIII. Brassicales:- 12. Brassicaceae:- = Cruciferae. 25
  • 26. 26IX. Malvales:- 13. Malvaceae:- Mallows, Malva, Hibiscus; Cotton, Gossypium spp.; Cacao, Theobroma cacao; Cola, Cola nitida; Okra, AbelmoschusX. Sapindales:- 14. Ancardiaceae:- Cashew, Anacardium; Pistachio, Pistacia vera; Terebinth, Pistacia spp.; Sumacs, Rhus spp. 15. Rutaceae:- Oranges, Citrus spp. (lemons, grapefruit, etc.)XI. Ericales:- 16. Theaceae:- Tea, Camellia sinensis.26