Plant and Animal Taxonomy  Bio 19 by:  Ms. GEonyzl  J. Lepiten
Objectives : <ul><li>To define  TAXONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>To trace the history of  taxonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>To know th...
What is taxonomy to you? <ul><li>TAXONOMY………… </li></ul><ul><li>* is a practice and science of  classification . </li></ul...
<ul><li>It is a science that  classify  organisms into  groups </li></ul><ul><li>and its natural relationships </li></ul><...
3. Evolutionary taxonomy –  classify  organisms based on combination and divergence - also called  TRADITIONAL TAXONOMY   ...
Theophratus   (370 – 285 B.C.) * Greek student of  Plato * established a first documentation local  flora. * discussed mor...
Some  generic name made  by Theophratus......... Daucus  -  carrots Asparagus  Narcissus -
<ul><li>Dioscorides   (1 st  century A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>-  Roman military  surgeon </li></ul><ul><li>writing a five v...
Represented modern Families identified by Dioscorides: Fabaceae Lamiaceae Apiaceae
Albertus Magnus (1200 – 1280 A.D.) <ul><li>known as: </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Albert the Great   </li></ul><ul><li>and  Alb...
THE  HERBALIST
John Gerard (1542 – 1612) <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Published the book titled, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Herball, or Gen...
Leonhart Fuchs (1501 – 1566) <ul><li>Provide a  clear  </li></ul><ul><li>illustrations of the  plant  </li></ul><ul><li>sp...
Rembert Dodoens  (1517-1585) he include the medical  importance of the  plants and its  localities. “ Aloe groweth very pl...
Artificial  Classification Carolous Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) (1707-1778) <ul><li>Develop a  ‘sexual system’  that divided...
Natural  Classifications <ul><li>1883  the  “Genera Plantarum”  was completed, the fruit of a 21-year collaboration with S...
Phylogenetic  Classifications
 
 
 
 
 
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Plant And Animal Taxonomy

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Plant And Animal Taxonomy

  1. 1. Plant and Animal Taxonomy Bio 19 by: Ms. GEonyzl J. Lepiten
  2. 2. Objectives : <ul><li>To define TAXONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>To trace the history of taxonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>To know the people who pioneered taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the nature of taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of taxonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of taxonomy to you. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is taxonomy to you? <ul><li>TAXONOMY………… </li></ul><ul><li>* is a practice and science of classification . </li></ul><ul><li>* from two Greek words: </li></ul><ul><li>- “taxis ” , 'order' + νόμος , </li></ul><ul><li>-“nomos ” , 'law' or 'science'. </li></ul><ul><li>* taxonomic units known as: </li></ul><ul><li>- taxa (singular taxon ), </li></ul><ul><li>* a part of systematics </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It is a science that classify organisms into groups </li></ul><ul><li>and its natural relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Three main Schools of Taxonomy : </li></ul><ul><li>Phenetic taxonomy – classify organisms based on overall form and structure or genetic similarity </li></ul><ul><li>- also called NUMERICAL TAXONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>Cladistics taxonomy - classify organisms based on branching points. </li></ul><ul><li>- not based on origin but on the shared characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>- also called PHYLOGENETIC TAXONOMY </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. Evolutionary taxonomy – classify organisms based on combination and divergence - also called TRADITIONAL TAXONOMY <ul><li>HISTORY………. Long long time ago……  </li></ul><ul><li>GREEKS and ROMANS - practiced naming and classification of organisms based to its use and they feared most. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the naming were done </li></ul><ul><li>by the Herbalist </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theophratus (370 – 285 B.C.) * Greek student of Plato * established a first documentation local flora. * discussed more than 500 species and varieties of plants from lands bordering the Atlantic and Mediterranean Published works on systematics : 1. Inquiry into Plants – translated by Theodorus Gaza 2. The Causes of Plants
  7. 7. Some generic name made by Theophratus......... Daucus - carrots Asparagus Narcissus -
  8. 8. <ul><li>Dioscorides (1 st century A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>- Roman military surgeon </li></ul><ul><li>writing a five volume book </li></ul><ul><li>De Materia Medica </li></ul><ul><li>* most influential herbal books </li></ul><ul><li>Added 100 species of flora </li></ul><ul><li>from Mediterranean </li></ul>
  9. 9. Represented modern Families identified by Dioscorides: Fabaceae Lamiaceae Apiaceae
  10. 10. Albertus Magnus (1200 – 1280 A.D.) <ul><li>known as: </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Albert the Great </li></ul><ul><li>and Albert of Cologne , was a </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican friar </li></ul><ul><li>Produced a first recognized </li></ul><ul><li>classification of plants into: </li></ul><ul><li>a. MONOCOT </li></ul><ul><li>b. DICOT </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE HERBALIST
  12. 12. John Gerard (1542 – 1612) <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Published the book titled, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Herball, or Generall Historie of Plants ” (1597) </li></ul><ul><li>Added 182 new plants </li></ul><ul><li>Revised the arrangement and appended his observations </li></ul><ul><li>But it was corrected by Thomas Johnson </li></ul>
  13. 13. Leonhart Fuchs (1501 – 1566) <ul><li>Provide a clear </li></ul><ul><li>illustrations of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>specimens </li></ul>
  14. 14. Rembert Dodoens (1517-1585) he include the medical importance of the plants and its localities. “ Aloe groweth very plenteously in India, and from thence commeth the best iuyce ... It is to be seene also in this Countrie in the gardens of some Herboristes. ... it is a soueraigne medicine for vlcers about the secrete partes, and fundement. The same boyled with wine and hony, healeth the outgrowinges & riftes of the fundament, & stoppeth the abounding fluxe of the Hemorrhoides.” Source: Dodoens / Lyte (1578)
  15. 15. Artificial Classification Carolous Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) (1707-1778) <ul><li>Develop a ‘sexual system’ that divided the plants into 24 classes </li></ul><ul><li>develop the Linnean System of naming or Binomial nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>- Published 23 volumes of the book “Species Plantarum” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Natural Classifications <ul><li>1883 the “Genera Plantarum” was completed, the fruit of a 21-year collaboration with Sir Joseph Hooker. </li></ul><ul><li>This monumental work outlined what became known as the Bentham-Hooker classification system for flowering plant </li></ul>George Bentham (1800 -1884)
  17. 17. Phylogenetic Classifications

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