University of SulaimaniCollege of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year Practical Entomology 2010-2011 9 Lab. th External Morphology Abdomen and Abdominal Appendages Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objective• To provide familiarities with basic structure of insect abdominal region.• Giving basic knowledge about reproductive and non-reproductive abdominal appendages.
Basic Structure•The abdomen of an adult insect typically consists of 11to 12 segments and is less strongly sclerotized than thehead or thorax.•Each segment of the abdomen is represented by asclerotized tergum, sternum, and pleura.•During the embryonic stage of many insects and thepostembryonic stage of primitive insects, 11 abdominalsegments are present.•In modern insects there is a tendency toward reductionin the number of the abdominal segments
Basic Structure•The pregenital segments in male insects arenumbered 1 through 8.• The pregenital segments in female insects arenumbered 1 through 7.•Biologically, the abdomen of insects plays animportant role in respiration, reproduction,digestion, excretion and intermediatemetabolism.
References• Imes, Rick. (2000). Beginner’s guide to Entomology. London. Chancellor Press, 160 pp.• Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht., The Netherlands. 831 pp.• Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.• Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.