Where and When???
• The Russian Revolution started in 1917 in Russia.
• But there was revolution before, in 1905. It
started because Russia was defeated by Japan in
the war of 1905. Although the revolution of 1905
didn’t succeed it was an important influence for
the next revolution because:
– It was the first time that the Soviets appeared
– The tsar gave to the people a Duma (Parliament)
• The film “the battleship Potemkin” (“Acorazado Potemkin”)
of Eisenstein shows the repression against the
demonstrators. Here you have the link:
• There was a deep discontent because:
• There was a lack of representative system (Russia
was still an Absolute Monarchy).
• Russia was a rural country that was not
• Peasants lived in horrible conditions.
• And the few factory workers of Moscow and
Petrograd were starting to organize the workers’
• When WWI started the discontent of the
• Revolution of February (1917)
This first revolution was more moderate. The
liberals and the bourgeoisie controlled the
Kerensky was the political leader of this period
(and the political party were the SR)
The radical right and the radical left didn’t like this
regime and each one will try a coup d’état.
of March the tsar Nicholas II abdicated and
Russia was transformed into a Republic.
• August - Coup d'état of General Kurnilov (1917)
The general Kurnilov represented the traditional
military powers and wanted to install back the old
This coup d'état didn’t succeed.
As a consequence the government of Kerensky is
going to get weaker and won’t be able to stand the
• October Revolution (1917)
– The radical left (bolsheviks) organized by Lenin
and Trotsky tried their own coup.
– This revolution succeeded and the Soviets took
control of the most important cities and official
• Civil War (1917-1921)
– The white Russians fought against the red
– The European powers and USA helped the white
Russians with money and with soldiers.
– Finally the red Russians won the conflict.
– Creation of the Soviet Union (Federated State).
USSR (URSS in Spanish)
– Creation of the Communist Party.
– Creation of the III International (also called
Communist International or Comintern).
• The last feudal and absolutist nation of Europe
• The first communist country of the world
• Millions of people died during the civil war. (from 5
to 20 millions).
• The state is going to become the owner of all the
means of production and controls the economy
• The Soviet Union became the leader of all the
workers’ movements of the world.
• The USSR supported the most radical
movements, the ones that renounced to gain
power through elections and used radical and
• It is also going to be the origin of the Soviet
Imperialism after WWII.
• Lenin will die in 1924 and the next leader will
be Stalin. He created a cruel and repressive
system, killing many opponents and also many
civilians. (It’s estimated that 1,2 million of
people died because of this repression).