Revolutions of 1820 and 1830
Where did these revolutions take place?
Did they succeeded or not?
• Spain 1820: it succeeded for three years
• 1820 Portugal, Naples, Piedmont and some German states: it did not
• Greece 1821-1830: it succeeded
• France 1830: it succeeded
• Belgium 1830: it succeeded
• Poland 1831: it did not succeed
La Libertad guiando al
Eugéne Delacroix, 1830.
Do a short summary of each revolution. (2 or 3 lines)
• Spain 1820: The Cadiz constitution had been agreed, but Ferdinand VII
ignored it. General Riego led a military uprising in 1820 and Ferdinand finally
accepted constitution. The Congress of Verona sent french soldiers and
defeated the rebels
• Greece 1821: Greece started a War of Independence against the Ottoman
Empire. At the end Greece gained the Independence
• France 1830: Charles X was an absolutist king. The liberal bourgeoisie and
the people opposed him and replaced him by Louis-Phillippe of Orleans
• Belgium 1830: after The Congress of Vienna, Belgium and The Netherlands
were joined under the ruled of The Netherlands. Belgium wanted to be
independent so they started a rebellion resulting in the final independence of
Belgium with Leopold I
• Poland 1831: The kingdom of Poland was ruled by Russia. Poland started a
rebellion in order to gain independence. The rebellion was completely
crashed and they did not manage to gain independence.
What are the ideas that they supported?
The ideas that they supported were
Nationalism and Liberalism.
The liberal revolutions of 1848
Also called the
Spring of Nations
They took place in:
- Austro-Hungarian Empire
- Some Italian states
- Some German states
One important factor was:
- The crop failures of 1846
What social group is starting to ask for more rights and
what rights do they want?
The new social group is the proletariat.
They wanted universal suffrage (democracy) and social
What are the ideas supported in these revolution?
The ideas that they supported were:
- Democracy (universal suffrage)
- Social equality
In France the Second Republic was proclaimed, which had a social
The social and political demands scared the bourgueoisie and they
imposed a conservative regime.
Napoleon won the elections and will proclaim himself emperor after a
coup d’état. (with the name of Napoleon III).
The bourgeoisie will took control of the revolutions and
will put an end to more extensive reforms. This will mean
a definitive division between bourgeoisie and lower
• At the beginning (1820) it was a fight against
absolutism (very influenced by the Enlightenment and
the French Revolution).
• Later (1830) these revolutions are more identified with
liberal ideas, nationalism and with the bourgeoisie.
• Finally (1848) a new social group will participate in the
revolution, the proletarians, and will add a social
character to the revolution. The demands will include
universal male suffrage and social equality. This
tendency will be stopped by the bourgeoisie.
General Trends (part 2)
• In the territorial aspect we are going to have more
countries with liberal regimes in Europe: Great Britain,
The Netherlands, France, Greece, Belgium, Spain,
Portugal, Piedmont Sardinia.
• Europe will be transformed from an Absolutist
continent into a liberal continent.
• Serfdom was abolished in almost all central and
eastern countries (with the exception of Russia).