The bourgeois revolutions

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The bourgeois revolutions

  1. 1. The Bourgeois Revolutions 1820-1830-1848
  2. 2. Revolutions of 1820 and 1830 Where did these revolutions take place? Did they succeeded or not? • Spain 1820: it succeeded for three years • 1820 Portugal, Naples, Piedmont and some German states: it did not succeed • Greece 1821-1830: it succeeded • France 1830: it succeeded • Belgium 1830: it succeeded • Poland 1831: it did not succeed
  3. 3. La Libertad guiando al Pueblo. Eugéne Delacroix, 1830.
  4. 4. Do a short summary of each revolution. (2 or 3 lines) • Spain 1820: The Cadiz constitution had been agreed, but Ferdinand VII ignored it. General Riego led a military uprising in 1820 and Ferdinand finally accepted constitution. The Congress of Verona sent french soldiers and defeated the rebels • Greece 1821: Greece started a War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. At the end Greece gained the Independence • France 1830: Charles X was an absolutist king. The liberal bourgeoisie and the people opposed him and replaced him by Louis-Phillippe of Orleans • Belgium 1830: after The Congress of Vienna, Belgium and The Netherlands were joined under the ruled of The Netherlands. Belgium wanted to be independent so they started a rebellion resulting in the final independence of Belgium with Leopold I • Poland 1831: The kingdom of Poland was ruled by Russia. Poland started a rebellion in order to gain independence. The rebellion was completely crashed and they did not manage to gain independence.
  5. 5. What are the ideas that they supported? The ideas that they supported were Nationalism and Liberalism.
  6. 6. The liberal revolutions of 1848 Also called the Spring of Nations
  7. 7. They took place in: - France - Prussia - Austro-Hungarian Empire - Some Italian states - Some German states One important factor was: - The crop failures of 1846
  8. 8. What social group is starting to ask for more rights and what rights do they want? The new social group is the proletariat. They wanted universal suffrage (democracy) and social equality. What are the ideas supported in these revolution? The ideas that they supported were: - Liberalism - Nationalism - Democracy (universal suffrage) - Social equality
  9. 9. France In France the Second Republic was proclaimed, which had a social concern. The social and political demands scared the bourgueoisie and they imposed a conservative regime. Napoleon won the elections and will proclaim himself emperor after a coup d’état. (with the name of Napoleon III). The bourgeoisie will took control of the revolutions and will put an end to more extensive reforms. This will mean a definitive division between bourgeoisie and lower classes. In general
  10. 10. General Trends • At the beginning (1820) it was a fight against absolutism (very influenced by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution). • Later (1830) these revolutions are more identified with liberal ideas, nationalism and with the bourgeoisie. • Finally (1848) a new social group will participate in the revolution, the proletarians, and will add a social character to the revolution. The demands will include universal male suffrage and social equality. This tendency will be stopped by the bourgeoisie.
  11. 11. General Trends (part 2) • In the territorial aspect we are going to have more countries with liberal regimes in Europe: Great Britain, The Netherlands, France, Greece, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Piedmont Sardinia. • Europe will be transformed from an Absolutist continent into a liberal continent. • Serfdom was abolished in almost all central and eastern countries (with the exception of Russia).

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