Hitler And Nazism In Germany (1921 1945)


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Hitler And Nazism In Germany (1921 1945)

  1. 1. HITLER AND NAZISM IN GERMANY (1921-1945) Eastview High School – AP European History McKay, et al., 8 th edition – Ch29 Section 4
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>What conditions exist in Germany which afford the opportunity for Hitler to come to power? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t other European countries check Hitler’s aggressive acts and policies? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do the German people follow Hitler’s plan of a ‘final solution’? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Roots of Nazism <ul><li>Hitler was born in Austria, was a school dropout, and was rejected by the Imperial art school. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler became a fanatical nationalist while in Vienna, where he absorbed anti-Semitic and racist ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>He adopted the ideas of some fanatical Christians (e.g. Lueger) that capitalism and liberalism resulted in excessive individualism . </li></ul><ul><li>He became obsessed with anti-Semitism and racism , and believed that Jews and Marxists lost the First World War for Germany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He believed in a Jewish-Marxian plot to destroy German culture. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Nazi Party <ul><li>By 1921, he had reshaped the tiny extremist German Workers’ group into the Nazi party, using the mass rally as a particularly effective tool of propaganda . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The party grew rapidly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler and the party attempted to overthrow the Weimar government, but he was defeated and sent to jail (1923). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hitler’s Road to Power <ul><li>The trial after Hitler’s attempted coup brought him much publicity, but the Nazi party remained small until 1929. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in jail, his autobiography, Mein Kampf, was an outline of his desire to achieve German racial supremacy and domination of Europe , under the leadership of a dictator (Fuhrer). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The depression made the Nazi party attractive to the lower middle class and to young people , who were seized by panic as unemployment soared and Communists made election gains. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The German Reichstag <ul><li>By 1932, the Nazi party was the largest in the Reichstag. </li></ul><ul><li>The Weimar government’s orthodox economic policies intensified the economic collapse and convinced the middle class that its leaders were incompetent ; hence, they welcomed Hitler’s attacks on the republican system. </li></ul><ul><li>Another reason Hitler won is that the Communists welcomed Hitler as the last breath of monopoly capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was a skilled politician, a master of propaganda and mass psychology who generated enormous emotional support with his speeches . </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative and nationalistic politicians believed that they could control Hitler; Hitler was legally appointed chancellor in 1933. </li></ul>The German Reichstag in Berlin
  7. 7. The Nazi State & Society <ul><li>The Enabling Act of March 1933 gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power . </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis took over every aspect of German life —political, social, economic, cultural, and intellectual. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany became a one-party state ; only the Nazi party was legal. </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes were forbidden and labor unions abolished. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing houses and universities were brought under Nazi control, and life became violently anti-intellectual . </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler took over total control of the military by purging the storm troopers . </li></ul><ul><li>The Gestapo, or secret police , used terror and purges to strengthen Hitler’s hold on power. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler set out to eliminate the Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nuremberg Laws (1935) deprived Jews of their citizenship . </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were constant victims of violence and outrages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hitler’s Popularity <ul><li>Hitler promised and delivered economic recovery through public works projects and military spending . </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment dropped and the standard of living rose. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who were not Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, communists, or homosexuals experienced greater opportunities and equality . </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler reduced Germany’s traditional class distinctions; the old ruling elites had to give way to lower-middle-class people in Hitler’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet few historians believe that Hitler brought on a real social revolution : The well-educated classes held on to their advantaged position, and women remained largely housewives and mothers . </li></ul><ul><li>He appealed to Germans for nationalistic reasons . </li></ul><ul><li>Communists, trade unionists, and some Christians opposed Hitler; many who opposed him were executed. </li></ul>“ We National Socialists believe that in political affairs Adolf Hitler is infallible.” - Herman Goering
  9. 9. Questions for your review <ul><li>What was the common link between Nazi Germany, Stalinist Soviet Union, and Fascist Italy? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Chancellor Bruning attempt to cope with the Great Depression? What was the result? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main themes that Hitler outlined in Mein Kampf ? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the most important factor that contributed to Hitler’s success in his rise to power? </li></ul><ul><li>According to historian D. Goldhagen, who were willing accomplices in the “final solution”? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Enabling Act and how did it come about? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Hitler purge the SA? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Laws? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Hitler bring about economic recovery? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the status of women under Hitler’s reign? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Hitler appeal to the masses? What happened to those who opposed him? </li></ul>