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Free and Open Source Software, Licenses, Technologies, Scientific Publications, Courseware, ... Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Free and Open Source Software Licenses Technologies Scientific Publications Courseware ... Prof. Dr. Frederik Questier fquestie@vub.ac.be - http://questier.com Workshop for the International Training Program on Information Stimulate 9 04/10/05 | pag. 1 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License Belgium
  • 2. My background Your background? ➢ Head of Educational Innovation & Service ➢ Educational innovation projects ➢ Training & consultancy for academic teachers ➢ Development and support of E-learning environment ➢ Teaching Educational technology, E-learning, … ➢ Your background and interests? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 2 2
  • 3. Our social responsibility: how open is the future? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 3 3
  • 4. Would you accept tools with these rules? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ modify this paper-clip ➢ let other people use your hammer ➢ use this hammer for removing nails ➢ tell others what is written in this book Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 4 4
  • 5. Why do we accept such rules for software tools? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ copy ➢ reverse engineer ➢ modify ➢ use in certain circumstances ➢ use in certain countries ➢ ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 5 5
  • 6. Recent examples Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 6 6
  • 7. Electronic books? ➢ Would you buy or advise your students ➢ electronic versions of (educational) books ➢ if they were 30% cheaper than paper books ➢ maybe many books on a good reading device ~ paper? ➢ ➢ Be aware: often ➢ limited to 1 year ➢ no access in the higher years of study ➢ limited to buyer ➢ no second hand buying or sale ➢ no library ➢ no extensive printing Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 7 7
  • 8. Expensive and incompatible Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 8 8
  • 9. Text To Speech software on e-books ➢ Blessing for the blind ➢ 'Copyright violation' according to 'Author's Guild' (publishers) → TTS disabled in Amazon Kindle 2 Remote kill flags discovered! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 9 9
  • 10. DRM: Digital Rights Management or Digital Restrictions Management? ➢ Restricted ➢ export ➢ copying ➢ printing ➢ Text To Speech ➢ in time ➢ to buyer (no second hand market) ➢ biometric identification ➢ user info “inscribed” in the work (Microsoft Reader) ➢ access info sent back to publisher ➢ to certain hardware (e.g. Mac OS X - Apple hardware) ➢ to geographic regions Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 10 10
  • 11. Regional lockout (DVDs, Videogames, UMD, ...) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 11 11
  • 12. DRM ➢ is killing innovation ➢ can prevent legal rights such as ➢ fair use private copying ➢ time shifting ➢ lending services (library) ➢ 2nd hand resale of works ➢ donation ➢ access for disabled ➢ archival ➢ public domain ➢ … Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 12 12
  • 13. Copyright Law started good... ➢ UK 1710: ➢ “for the encouragement of learning” ➢ 1 copy for royal library and each academic library ➢ protection for authors ➢ against abuse and monopoly of publishers ! ➢ reproduction privilege ➢ on request 14 year; on request 14 year renewal ➢ afterwards public domain Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 13 13
  • 14. Copyright Law started good... ➢ US 1790: ➢ “to promote the progress of science and useful arts ➢ by securing for limited times ➢ to authors and inventors ➢ the exclusive right ➢ to their respective writings and discoveries." Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 14 14
  • 15. Copyright Law started good... ➢ Balance between ➢ stimulating authors ➢ and allowing reuse → Private or non-commercial reproductions allowed Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 15 15
  • 16. Today disturbed balance ➢ Educational and scientific goals ➢ replaced by economic goals ➢ Protection automatically, not on request ➢ Copyrights most often again owned by publishers ➢ Protection term extended: ➢ now 70 years after dead author ➢ American & international lobby work ➢ pro ➢ copyright protection term extension ➢ against ➢ exceptions for private, educational and scientific use Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 16 16
  • 17. Today disturbed balance ➢ Technological anti-copy measures (DRM) ➢ are bypassing legal exceptions and public domain ➢ are protecting ➢ not authors or artists ➢ but corporate profits and broken business models ➢ The law provides protection ➢ for "technological measures", ➢ any technology device or component ➢ which is designed ➢ to restrict or prevent certain acts ➢ which are not authorised by the rightholder. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 17 17
  • 18. Software Patents ➢ Software can be protected by ➢ copyright ➢ (not perfect, but acceptable) ➢ software patents ➢ killing (incremental) innovation ➢ killing fair competition ➢ Compare with patent on books with passionate murder story ➢ Companies file patents to get protection against patents ➢ ~ People buy guns to get protection against guns Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 18 18
  • 19. Software Patents ➢ Valid and enforceable in US ➢ Not valid nor enforceable in EU ➢ but already >30.000 EU software patents ➢ registrered by European Patent Office (€ € €) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 19 19
  • 20. Limiting your control Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 20 20
  • 21. The horror of 'Trusted' computing ➢ DVD User Operation Prohibition ➢ HD-DVD key revocation system (disable your player) ➢ Broadcast flag (no TV recording) ➢ Advanced Access Content System (AACP) ➢ High-Definition Content Protection (HDCP) ➢ Image Constraint Token (ICT) ➢ MS Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) ➢ not protecting ➢ users against viruses and malware, ➢ but content owners against users Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 21 21
  • 22. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 22 22
  • 23. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 23 23
  • 24. DRM in cars Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 24 24
  • 25. Side effects of DRM ➢ extra cost ➢ extra waste ➢ lower quality ➢ less competition ➢ less innovation Digital Rights Management: A failure in the developed world, a danger to the developing world http://www.eff.org/IP/DRM/itu_drm.php Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 25 25
  • 26. The computer of the future? ➢ # Mobile phones = 3 x # PCs ➢ performance ~ end-1990s PC ➢ positive mobile e-learning studies! ➢ P. Thornton & C. Houser, Using mobile phones in English education in Japan, 2005, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 21, pp217–228 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 26 26
  • 27. → Dead of the multi purpose computer ! ➢ (Initially) forbidden to ➢ run your own programs ➢ use other phone company ➢ Unlocked iPhones remotely destroyed ➢ Now ➢ software requires ➢ approval ➢ non disclosure agreement ➢ no approval for 'duplicate software' ➢ e.g. no iTunes competition ➢ remote software kill switch Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 27 27
  • 28. Effect on education? ➢ Computers without programming environment ➢ Black box devices and software ➢ Point and click courses → less students study computer science Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 28 28
  • 29. 1 computer per user? ➢ Esperenza Computer Classroom ➢ with software sponsored by Microsoft Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 29 29
  • 30. 1 computer per user? Computer access for every person is a nice goal ! But is there really a need for one computer per user? Microsoft: “maximum one concurrent user per license (computer)!” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 30 30
  • 31. Free yourself from dogmas! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 31 31
  • 32. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 32 32
  • 33. Multiplied = multi seat desktop ➢ Real example 1200€ ➢ 1 PC shared by 6 persons simultaneously ➢ 3 dual video cards ➢ 6 monitors (35€) , keyboards (with USB hub), mice Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 33 33
  • 34. K12LTSP Linux Terminal Server Project ➢ Networked classrooms ➢ Fat server ➢ runs the applications ➢ Thin clients ➢ visualize the applications ➢ need no hard disk ➢ can be 15 years old PC's Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 34 34
  • 35. Sharing "The most fundamental way of helping other people, is to teach people how to do things better or how to better their lives. For people who use computers, this means sharing the recipes you use on your computer, in other words the programs you run." Richard Stallman Free Software Foundation. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 35 35
  • 36. Free (Open Source Libre) Software FLOSS ➢ The freedom to ➢ run the program for any purpose ➢ study how the program works, and to adapt it to your needs ➢ redistribute copies ➢ improve the program, and release your improvements to the public. ➢ These freedoms require access to the source code Source code: if encrypt(password) == encryptedpassword, then login=1, end Compiled code: 001001011101010011001100001111011000110001110001101 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 36 36
  • 37. Free Software Licenses ➢ The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses, e.g. ➢ GNU GPL (General Public License) ➢ The 4 freedoms + copyleft (share alike) ➢ if binary offered, source code must be offered too ➢ (on request, at low cost) ➢ redistributed modified GPL programs must stay GPL. ➢ BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) ➢ Attribution ➢ No copyleft requirements for distribution ➢ BSD code often in closed source software (MS, Mac, ...) ➢ Apple Public Source License v2 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 37 37
  • 38. Legal aspects ➢ Free licenses protect users and developers ➢ Free licenses come on top of legal copyright ➢ versus public domain ➢ Recent versions are co-authored by legal experts ➢ GPL is proven in court to be enforceable ➢ Limited number of different licenses → saves work for legal officer Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 38 38
  • 39. Different kinds of software ➢ Proprietary software (closed source – 'commercial') ➢ $$$ ➢ Shareware ➢ x days for free, afterwards $ ➢ Adware ➢ for free, with ads ➢ Freeware ➢ for free (small projects and often spyware!) ➢ Free Software / Open Source Software ➢ Free as in Freedom, not as in free beer ➢ OSS, FOSS, FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 39 39
  • 40. Servers Internet / Institution ➢ Operating systems: Linux, BSD, OpenSolaris, Android, ... ➢ Domain Name Resolving: BIND ➢ Web server: Apache ➢ Mail: Sendmail, Postfix, Cyrus, Exim ➢ E-learning: Moodle, Dokeos, Claroline, Chisimba ➢ Helpdesk: Open Ticket Request System, RT ➢ ERP: Compière, SugarCRM, (Chisimba) ➢ Library: Greenstone, Koha, Evergreen, PMB ➢ Institutional repository: Greenstone, Dspace, Eprints, Fedora ➢ ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 40 40
  • 41. Free & Open Source Integrated Library Systems ➢ Greenstone http://www.greenstone.org ➢ Koha http://koha.org/ ➢ Evergreen http://www.evergreen-ils.org/ ➢ PhpMyBibli http://www.sigb.net ➢ NewGenLib http://www.newgenlib.com/ ➢ ABCD http://reddes.bvsalud.org/projects/abcd Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 41 41
  • 42. ➢ http://www.greenstone.org ➢ UNESCO ➢ GNU GPL ➢ Cross-platform ➢ Linux / Win / Mac OS X ➢ Multi-lingual ➢ Serve collections on Web or write them to CD-ROM ➢ Document formats: HTML, Word, PDF, PS, plain text, ... ➢ Metadata formats: XML, DC, OAI, MARC, … Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 42 42
  • 43. Free & Open Source (institutional) repository software ➢ Dspace http://www.dspace.org/ ➢ Eprints http://software.eprints.org/ ➢ Fedora http://fedora-commons.org/ ➢ Greenstone http://www.greenstone.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 43 43
  • 44. Desktop Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 44 44
  • 45. Linux ➢ GPL unix-like kernel ➢ 1991 Comp Sci student Linus Torvalds -> 1000 dev, 100 professionals ➢ GNU/Linux distributions ➢ (K)ubuntu, Debian (27K programs), Redhat, Mandriva, Suse, ... ➢ With user friendly window managers (KDE, Gnome, ...) ➢ Support for many languages, also the non-commercial profitable Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 45 45
  • 46. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 46 46
  • 47. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 47 47
  • 48. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 48 48
  • 49. ➢ Free Open Source version of Sun's StarOffice ➢ Compatible with MS Office ➢ Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...) ➢ Open document Format (ODF) XML based, OASIS & ISO standard ➢ ➢ >50M users, 170K community members, 12500 developers ➢ 60 languages ➢ PDF & Flash export ➢ Bibliographic manager Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 49 49
  • 50. ➢ Platform independent web browser (Win, Linux, Mac, PDA, ...) ➢ 40 languages ➢ '101 reasons why Mozilla is better than MS IE' ➢ Standards compliancy, popupblokkers, tabbed browsing, ... ➢ >< MS IE ➢ Security problems! ➢ Only for Windows. (no longer for Mac) ➢ Development was stalled for many years ➢ MSHTML violates W3C standards ➢ validator.w3.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 50 50
  • 51. Personal example: Dokeos ➢ www.dokeos.com ➢ Open Source Learning & Collaboration Management ➢ started by T. Depraetere, professor in philosophy at UCL ➢ used by >1700 organisations ➢ multi-lingual (>34 languages) ➢ > 21 main developers ➢ Dokeos company ➢ support, consulting, development, hosting, migration, ... ➢ GPL licensed ➢ Easy for programmers [PHP; MySQL] ➢ User friendly ➢ Excellent features Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 51 51
  • 52. Where to find more FLOSS? ➢ Use your software package manager ➢ if your are using a Free and Open Operating System! ➢ Sourceforge.net ➢ Hosting and tools for >230K Open Source projects ➢ >2M registered users (contributors) ➢ Freshmeat.net ➢ >40.000 projects, mostly Free Software ➢ Google: x AND GPL OR “open source” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 52 52
  • 53. Where to find more FLOSS? ➢ http://livecdlist.com/ ➢ If you want to test software without installing ➢ http://www.theopendisc.com/ ➢ If you want to use FLOSS on Windows: Firefox, Openoffice, Inkscape, Scribus, Clamwin, GIMP, Audacity, Filezilla, 7-zip, PDFCreator, ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 53 53
  • 54. The free software world Characteristics ➢ Huge ➢ e.g. IBM > 1 billion $ per year ➢ e.g. 230K projects, 2M contributors @ sourceforge.net ➢ Well organised ➢ Several business models ➢ User friendly ← written by users for users ➢ Cross-platform ← recompile source code ➢ High development pace ← reuse of best modules ➢ High quality ← peer review, reuse = survival of the fittest ➢ High security ← peer review, Unix origin, modular, encryption Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 54 54
  • 55. Development Linus Torvalds' style ➢ release early and often ➢ delegate everything you can ➢ be open to the point of promiscuity Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 55 55
  • 56. Book published under Open Publication License 19 lessons for open source development ➢ Commercial development = Cathedral style ➢ Open Source development = Bazaar style Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 56 56
  • 57. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about developers 1. Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer's personal itch. 2. Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse). Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 57 57
  • 58. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about users 6. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. 7. Release early. Release often. And listen to your customers. 8. Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone. 11. The next best thing to having good ideas is recognizing good ideas from your users. Sometimes the latter is better. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 58 58
  • 59. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about development 17. A security system is only as secure as its secret. Beware of pseudo-secrets. 18. To solve an interesting problem, start by finding a problem that is interesting to you. 19. Provided the development coordinator has a medium at least as good as the Internet, and knows how to lead without coercion, many heads are inevitably better than one. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 59 59
  • 60. Open Source business models ➢ "Seven open source business strategies for competitive advantage", John Koenig, IT Manager's Journal, may 2004 ➢ “Companies continue to waste their development dollars on software functionality that is otherwise free and available through Open Source. They persist in buying third-party proprietary platforms or creating their own proprietary development platforms that deliver marginal product differentiation and limited value to customers” Picture reproduced with permission Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 60 60
  • 61. Total Cost of Ownership ➢ Free Software is about freedom, not price ➢ In practice: zero cost acquisition ➢ Support is similar or cheaper because of competition ➢ No license management / procurement needed ➢ Cheaper hardware can be used ➢ Less administration work ➢ Bandwidth savings (local central update/software repository) ➢ Training ➢ Usability tests ➢ {MS Windows XP → Vista} = {MS Windows → Linux} ➢ {MS Office 2003 → 2007} > {MS Office 2003 → OpenOffice} Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 61 61
  • 62. Privacy and security? ➢ From the European Parliament investigation into the Echelon system (05/18/2001): ➢ “ensure that sensitive information is only transmitted via secure media....” ➢ “If security is to be taken seriously, only those operating systems should be used whose source code has been published and checked, since only then can it be determined with certainty what happens to the data.” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 62 62
  • 63. From open source to open innovation? ➢ Software development started Open Source avant la lettre ➢ 1976: Bill Gates open letter to hobbyists: 'your sharing is stealing' ➢ Modifyable nature and modularity ideal for fostering innovation ➢ All major internet software started open ➢ TCP/IP, mail, web, newsgroups, irc, wiki, ... ➢ Community maintained software repositories ➢ Live CDs ➢ 3D desktops ➢ Virtual Networking Computing ➢ Netbooks, $100 laptop ➢ Google (File system, Chrome browser, ...) ➢ ... ➢ Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 63 63
  • 64. Why is FLOSS not used more? ➢ Anti-competitive behaviour of closed source companies ➢ Monopoly abuse ➢ Secret formats & protocols ➢ Data lock-in ➢ Vendor lock-in ➢ Not a lot of advertising ➢ Not a lot of teaching Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 64 64
  • 65. Who can break the monopoly? ➢ Education ➢ We teach MS because that is what companies use ➢ Companies ➢ We cannot use OSS because our employees don't know it ➢ Employees ➢ Growing number starts using OSS at home ➢ Not happy with inferior software at work Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 65 65
  • 66. The possible effects Example: extremadura ➢ poorly developed region → economic revival ➢ based on FLOSS (customized GNU/LinEx) ➢ computer access for every student ➢ saved >18M € on initial 80,000 school computers ➢ total software cost: 1.08 Euro/PC/year ➢ bigger project ➢ stimuli for companies, centres for citizens ➢ economic revival -> European regional innovation award Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 66 66
  • 67. FLOSS bridging the digital divide? ➢ Open Source Foundation for Africa (FOSSFA): ➢ "Africa can bridge the digital divide ➢ by adopting open source ➢ thus narrowing the effect of techno-colonialism" ➢ “Need for technology ➢ that is controlled by local communities ➢ and not by foreign companies, ➢ that is public property ➢ and empowers people to be self-reliant” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 67 67
  • 68. Why for education? ➢ Social responsibility ➢ freedom and user rights ➢ home use for students without costs or piracy ! ➢ Savings ➢ Zero cost of software acquisition ➢ Less administration effort ➢ No license management effort ➢ Study of internal workings of software ➢ Student projects ➢ experience international online collaboration ➢ FLOSS knowledge = competitive advantage Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 68 68
  • 69. Disadvantages? Issues? ➢ Plethora of choice can be overwhelming ➢ Largest projects are high quality and well supported ➢ But be aware of small projects ➢ (US) software patents could be used for FLOSS attacks ➢ Not enforceable in EU. Africa/Asia/...? ➢ Now: patent attacks against closed > against open source ➢ In OSS: possibility to remove the patented feature ➢ Legal awareness and willingness to comply is large ➢ Patented multimedia codecs not included in main repository ➢ DRMed content most often not readable Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 69 69
  • 70. Secret data formats Secret protocols ➢ Vendor and data lock-in ➢ (changes) force us/others to buy (and buy again) ➢ → viral ➢ vendors don't want us to talk together or to share data ➢ vendors want us to use buy their products ➢ no free competition ➢ no guarantee eternal access ➢ Students need more and more (costly?) software ➢ Students' IT diversity risks to be beaten down ➢ Integration with other tools is hindered (e.g. indexing on e-learning platforms) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 70 70
  • 71. (Open?) standards ➢ De facto “standards” ➢ Wrong term for something that is used a lot. ➢ No real standards unless published ➢ e.g. MS Office file formats ➢ De jure standards ➢ Quality recognized by a standards organization ➢ E.g. ethernet, WiFi Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 71 71
  • 72. Open standards ➢ Definition EU commission: ➢ The standard is adopted and will be maintained by a not-for-profit organisation, and its ongoing development occurs on the basis of an open decision-making procedure available to all interested parties (consensus or majority decision etc.) ➢ The standard has been published and the standard specification document is available either freely or at a nominal charge. It must be permissible to all to copy, distribute and use it for no fee or at a nominal fee. ➢ The intellectual property - i.e. patents possibly present - of (parts of) the standard is made irrevocably available on a royalty-free basis. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 72 72
  • 73. Open standards ➢ E.g.: TCP IP, HTML, XML, ODF, PDF, ... ➢ Sometimes called 'open specifications' until approval by standards organization Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 73 73
  • 74. Office standard ➢ Open Document format ➢ Developed by OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) and OpenOffice ➢ Incorporates other open standards (SVG, MathML, ...) ➢ ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standard since 5/2006 ➢ Native format of OpenOffice, KDE Office, ... ➢ Open (Document) Formats requested by growing number of governments ➢ Decision Belgian government 23th of june 2006: ➢ ODF obligatory in administration ➢ in 2008 administration can only exchange documents in ODF Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 74 74
  • 75. Office standard? ➢ Microsoft Office Open XML (OOXML) ➢ Complex ➢ 6000 pages ➢ No incorporation of existing standards ➢ Reference to unpublished old MS Office formats ➢ MS needed 150 man years for Mac version → competition? ➢ Patent problems ➢ Ecma (European Computer Manufacturers Association) standard since 7th of december 2006 ➢ ISO fasttrack approval april 2008 ➢ Many complaints about irregularities ➢ No implementation in software Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 75 75
  • 76. EU recommendation ➢ For all parties involved, ➢ the exchange of documents and data ➢ between authorities, businesses and citizens ➢ must be possible without technical barriers. ➢ The public administration ➢ must not exclude anyone ➢ from participating in an electronic procedure ➢ owing to the use of a specific product. ➢ The Member States are agreed that in the future ➢ electronic documents should be exchanged ➢ fully on the basis of open document exchange formats Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 76 76
  • 77. Reflection task ➢ Which problems do you see (in libraries) around copyright, scientific journals, access, … issues? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 77 77
  • 78. Copyright / journal / access problems for libraries ➢ $$$ for access to scientific journals ➢ prices rising much faster than consumer price index ➢ difficult in developed countries ➢ impossible in developing countries ➢ only for universities and largest companies ➢ problems for doctors, journalists, … the public ➢ Paper → Electronic subscriptions with centralized copies ➢ No access (to old material) after end of subscription ➢ All copies lost for the world ➢ if data loss at publisher? ➢ if publisher goes bankrupt? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 78 78
  • 79. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 79 79
  • 80. The scientific publishing model Scientists Commercial publishers Have ideas Search grants Perform research Describe research Search reviewers Review Demand all copyrights Print (or serve online) Pay for scientific journals Make profit Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 80 80
  • 81. Activism ➢ "An Open Letter to Scientific Publishers" ➢ Signed by 34,000 scholars in 2001 ➢ Wanted unrestricted free distribution rights after embargo time of 6 months since publication → Unsatisfying response from publishers → Foundation of Public Library of Science Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 81 81
  • 82. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 82 82
  • 83. Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities ➢ free, irrevocable, worldwide ➢ right of access to, ➢ and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly ➢ and to make and distribute derivative works, ➢ in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, ➢ subject to proper attribution of authorship ➢ Published in a online repository by an academic institution, government agency, ... ➢ ➢ 255 signatories, including all Belgian Universities. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 83 83
  • 84. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 84 84
  • 85. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 85 85
  • 86. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 86 86
  • 87. Open Content licenses ➢ Free licenses ➢ Public domain ➢ No control at all ➢ No attribution required ➢ Can be locked up in commercial works ➢ Free Documentation License = GNU FDL ➢ Interesting for technical documentation, manuals, ... ➢ Creative Commons Public License = CCPL Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 87 87
  • 88. Creative Commons ➢ www.creativecommons.org Share what you want, keep what you want ➢ 6 combinations of ➢ Commercial – no commercial use allowed ➢ Modifications – no modifications allowed ➢ Sharealike – not sharealike Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 88 88
  • 89. Creative Commons ➢ Movie ➢ Wanna work together? ➢ http://support.creativecommons.org/videos/#wwt ➢ > 1000 journals under CCPL ! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 89 89
  • 90. Why Open Course Ware? ➢ Why not: should we consider academic knowledge as (secret) Intellectual Property? ➢ The dark ages of scarcity of information are over! ➢ (Peer) recognition ➢ for teacher ➢ Whose course is referred to most? ➢ Yours or the one one from your 'competitor'? ➢ for university/schools Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 90 90
  • 91. Why Open Course Ware? ➢ Increase quality ➢ Teachers working together ➢ Best course modules are ➢ reused most often ➢ getting most feedback ➢ getting better again ➢ Saving time & costs ➢ Teachers can start building course from existing material ➢ Creation of animated or interactive learning objects is often too expensive for development/use by only one institution Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 91 91
  • 92. (Firefox) Creative Commons Search Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 92 92
  • 93. www.gutenberg.org (public domain) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 93 93
  • 94. ocw.mit.edu (CCPL) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 94 94
  • 95. www.merlot.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 95 95
  • 96. cnx.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 96 96
  • 97. wikibooks.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 97 97
  • 98. Example made with my students nl.wikibooks.org/wiki/Onderwijstechnologie Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 98 98
  • 99. OLPC One laptop per child ➢ non-profit organization, education project ➢ based on constructionist learning theories ➢ aimed at first 6 years of study (often no more ed) ➢ $100 laptops designed from scratch for learning ➢ minimal power consumption ➢ hand or foot operated power generator ➢ screen readable in sunlight ➢ robust, water resistant ➢ safe and environmentally friendly materials ➢ low voltage ➢ zero admin ➢ wireless mesh networks Mesh Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 99 99
  • 100. OLPC software ➢ Linux based (no costs; adaptable; no limits for study) ➢ Completely new user interface ➢ Student-teacher & student-student interaction Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 100 100
  • 101. OLPC deployment Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 101 101
  • 102. openmoko FIC 1973 smartphone ➢ open software (linux based) ➢ open hardware design ➢ wish for community of mobile application developers Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 102 102
  • 103. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 103 103
  • 104. Reflection task ➢ Which recommendations do you take home? ➢ What can you do for a more open world? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 104 104
  • 105. Recommendations for libraries ➢ Use FLOSS for ➢ Integrated Library System ➢ Repository ➢ library computers ➢ Use multiseat computers or thin clients ➢ Lend out or distribute CDs/DVDs with FLOSS ➢ Provide links to ➢ Open Access journals and repositories ➢ Consider local cache systems such as LOCKSS ➢ If internet in your country is slow: take copies with you! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 105 105
  • 106. Recommendations for teachers & researchers ➢ Publish your research and teaching material using ➢ Free Licenses ➢ Open Access journals ➢ Open repositories ➢ Teach students FLOSS and give Free CD/DVDs Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 106 106
  • 107. Recommendations for universities ➢ Start with Open Source Lab and sensitization ➢ Consider migrating in phases ➢ servers / (multiplatform) desktop applications / desktop OS ➢ starting with new computers ➢ Policy: FLOSS, except if no good alternative ➢ Ask argumentation and which alternatives considered ➢ Policy: open formats ➢ Contribute to FLOSS ➢ Share experiences Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 107 107
  • 108. Open Society? ➢ "How open is the future? Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios based on Free & Open Source Software" Book: Eds. M. Wynants & J. Cornelis (Crosstalks) Open Courseware and Open Scientific Publications Chapter: F. Questier, W. Schreurs Openly published under CCPL See questier.com, crosstalks.vub.ac.be Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 108 108
  • 109. Questions? Comments? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 109 109
  • 110. Credits ➢ Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by) ➢ Photo Linus Torvalds: GFDL. Permission of Martin Streicher, Editor-in- Chief, LINUXMAG.com ➢ Picture (open source business strategies) from IT Manager's Journal, may 2004, with personal permission from John Koenig ➢ Screenshot http://www.olsonbroserv.com/autorepair.htm ➢ Screenshot http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/05/right-repair-law-pro ➢ Screenshot http://www.lockss.org ➢ Screenshot http://www.doaj.org/ ➢ Screenshot http://www.retrovirology.com/content/3/1/55/abstract/ ➢ Screenshot http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ ➢ Addendum classroom picture by Zania Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 110 110
  • 111. Addendum: teacher and participants Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Stimulate, 06/2009 04/10/05 | pag. 111 111