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Free LibreOpen Source Software      Prof. dr. Frederik Questier       Vrije Universiteit Brussel    Guest Lecture for the ...
This presentation can be found at             http://questier.comhttp://www.slideshare.net/Frederik_Questier
Contents    ➢    Ethics    ➢    Software model    ➢    Development model    ➢    Business models                          ...
Our social responsibility:              how open is the future?                                    Frederik QuestierWerken...
Early software days  ➢   In the 1950s and into the 1960s almost all software      was produced by computer science academi...
Open Letter toHobbyists:“Your sharing isstealing”Bill Gates, 1976
"The most fundamental  way of helping other          people,   is to teach peoplehow to do things better or how to better ...
1980s: RMS defined                  “Free Software”➢   The freedom to    ➢   use    ➢   study    ➢   distribute    ➢   imp...
Free Software Licenses    ➢    The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses,         e.g.           ➢    GNU GPL (...
1998: “Open Source” sounds better as “Free Software”?
Different kinds of software    ➢    Proprietary software (closed source – commercial)           ➢    $$$    ➢    Shareware...
1991 comp sci    studentUsenet posting to thenewsgroup"comp.os.minix.":“Im doing a (free)operating system (just ahobby, wo...
6117 persons, 659 companieshave contributed to Linux kernel
Linus Torvalds“Making Linux GPLdwas definitelythe best thing I ever did.”                          15
"Congratulations, youre on the winning team.Linux has crossed the chasm to mainstream adoption."      ➢   Jeffrey Hammond,...
Linux runs 92% of Top 500 Super Computers
Top 20 of 381 Linux Distributions  tracked by distrowatch.com
Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel   19
Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel   21
Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel   22
Open Source browsers dominate!
➢    Compatible with MS Office    ➢    Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...)    ➢    Open document Format (ODF)           ...
Drupal meeting Antwerp 2005
Drupalcon DC 2009
Drupal    Content Management Platform➢   Powers 2% of websites    ➢   USA White House, MTV UK, Sony Music, Al Jazeera, ......
➢   Founded 2007➢   $23.5 million venture capital➢   700 enterprise customers➢   109 employees➢   quarterly revenue increa...
My personal example                      31
1998: how it started➢   In a Belgian University    ➢   many people were frustrated        by the inflexible, non-free elea...
2004: fork 1original author wants to break free➢   Growing number of users    ➢   outside the university    ➢   requesting...
2010: fork 2the community wants to break free                                34
Automated Chamilo analysis      by Ohloh.net                             35
36
Yes, there is ahuge world of FLOSS communities                                  37
Build and Manage  a Community?                         Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios          May 201104/10/05 | ...
DevelopmentLinus Torvalds stylerelease early and oftendelegate everything you canbe open to the point of promiscuityLinus ...
Book published underOpen Publication License19 lessons for open sourcedevelopmentCommercial development= Cathedral styleOp...
The Cathedral and the Bazaar           about developers1. Every good work of software        starts by scratching a develo...
The Cathedral and the Bazaar              about users6. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle    route...
The Cathedral and the Bazaar           about development17. A security system is only as secure as its secret.        Bewa...
FLOSS characteristics      User friendly                                      ← written by users for users      Cross-plat...
45
46
Business ?                                      Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios                       May 201104/10...
Gartner:                         “24% of software market”                                               Frederik QuestierW...
Study on Economic impact                         Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation       ...
Study on Economic impact                         Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation       ...
Study on Economic impact                         Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation       ...
"Open Source: Why Freedom                      Makes a Better Business Model"                      Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQ...
Success in FLOSS requires you to serve➢ those who spend time to save money➢ those who spend money to save time    -- Mårte...
"Open Source: Why Freedom                     Makes a Better Business Model"                     Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL,...
Creating wealth by sharing     "Seven open source business strategies for competitive advantage”                John Koeni...
Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios          May 201104/10/05 | pag. 56                     56
Android
business models                         www.flossmetrics.org/   2009                                                 Frede...
The possible effects                                    Example: extremadura           ➢    poorly developed region → econ...
Reflection task    ➢    Why would you open source your (company) software?                                                ...
Joachim                         Henkel,                         2004                         Frederik QuestierWerken met p...
What are problems with            closed source software?➢   No (external) quality control on the source code     ➢   Back...
Why is FLOSS                                   not used more?    ➢    Anti-competitive behaviour of closed source companie...
Total Cost of Ownership    ➢    Free Software is about freedom, not price           ➢    In practice: zero cost acquisitio...
Where to find more                             FLOSS?    ➢    Use your software package manager           ➢    if your are...
Where to find more                              FLOSS?    ➢    http://livecdlist.com/           ➢    If you want to test s...
Open Society?  ➢    "How open is the future?         Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios         based on Free & ...
DARE                                                         TO SHARECopyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brusse...
Questions? Comments?                         Thanks!                                           Frederik QuestierWerken met...
Credits    ➢    Cartoon Open Source Fish by openssoft    ➢    Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by)    ➢    T-Shirt “B...
Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry
Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry
Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry
Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry
Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry
Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry
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Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry

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F. Questier, Free Libre Open Source Software - Guest Lecture for the course Business Aspects of Software Industry of Prof. M. Goldchstein, with students from management science and computer science, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (19/05/11)

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Free Libre Open Source Software - Business Aspects of Software Industry

  1. 1. Free LibreOpen Source Software Prof. dr. Frederik Questier Vrije Universiteit Brussel Guest Lecture for the course Business Aspectsof Software Industry 19th of May 2011
  2. 2. This presentation can be found at http://questier.comhttp://www.slideshare.net/Frederik_Questier
  3. 3. Contents ➢ Ethics ➢ Software model ➢ Development model ➢ Business models Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 4 4
  4. 4. Our social responsibility: how open is the future? Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 5 5
  5. 5. Early software days ➢ In the 1950s and into the 1960s almost all software was produced by computer science academics and corporate researchers working in collaboration. ➢ Source code was generally distributed with the software ➢ IBM “SHARE” user group ➢ Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (DECUS)Source code: if encrypt(password) == encryptedpassword, then login=1, endCompiled code: 00100101110101001100110000111101100011000111000110101
  6. 6. Open Letter toHobbyists:“Your sharing isstealing”Bill Gates, 1976
  7. 7. "The most fundamental way of helping other people, is to teach peoplehow to do things better or how to better their lives. For people who use computers, this means sharing the recipes you use on your computer, in other wordsthe programs you run." 8
  8. 8. 1980s: RMS defined “Free Software”➢ The freedom to ➢ use ➢ study ➢ distribute ➢ improve the program 9
  9. 9. Free Software Licenses ➢ The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses, e.g. ➢ GNU GPL (General Public License) ➢ The 4 freedoms + copyleft (share alike) ➢ if binary offered, source code must be offered too ➢ (on request, at low cost) ➢ must stay GPL. ➢ BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) ➢ Attribution ➢ No copyleft requirements for distribution ➢ BSD code often in closed source software (MS, Mac, ...) ➢ Apple Public Source License v2 Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 10 10
  10. 10. 1998: “Open Source” sounds better as “Free Software”?
  11. 11. Different kinds of software ➢ Proprietary software (closed source – commercial) ➢ $$$ ➢ Shareware ➢ x days for free, afterwards $ ➢ Adware ➢ for free, with ads ➢ Freeware ➢ for free (small projects and often spyware!) ➢ Free Software / Open Source Software ➢ Free as in Freedom, not as in free beer ➢ OSS, FOSS, FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software) Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 12 12
  12. 12. 1991 comp sci studentUsenet posting to thenewsgroup"comp.os.minix.":“Im doing a (free)operating system (just ahobby, wont be big andprofessional like gnu) for386(486) AT clones.”
  13. 13. 6117 persons, 659 companieshave contributed to Linux kernel
  14. 14. Linus Torvalds“Making Linux GPLdwas definitelythe best thing I ever did.” 15
  15. 15. "Congratulations, youre on the winning team.Linux has crossed the chasm to mainstream adoption." ➢ Jeffrey Hammond, principal analyst at Forrester Research, LinuxCon, 2010“Linux has come to dominate almost every category ofcomputing, with the exception of the desktop” ➢ Jim Zemlin, Linux Foundation Executive Director, 2011
  16. 16. Linux runs 92% of Top 500 Super Computers
  17. 17. Top 20 of 381 Linux Distributions tracked by distrowatch.com
  18. 18. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 19
  19. 19. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 21
  20. 20. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 22
  21. 21. Open Source browsers dominate!
  22. 22. ➢ Compatible with MS Office ➢ Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...) ➢ Open document Format (ODF) ➢ XML based, OASIS & ISO standard ➢ PDF & Flash export ➢ Bibliographic manager Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 24 24
  23. 23. Drupal meeting Antwerp 2005
  24. 24. Drupalcon DC 2009
  25. 25. Drupal Content Management Platform➢ Powers 2% of websites ➢ USA White House, MTV UK, Sony Music, Al Jazeera, ...➢ 1111 themes➢ 9732 modules➢ 7815 developers➢ 1M registered users on drupal.org➢ 2M/month unique visitors on drupal.org
  26. 26. ➢ Founded 2007➢ $23.5 million venture capital➢ 700 enterprise customers➢ 109 employees➢ quarterly revenue increased 300 percent between the first quarters of 2010 and 2011
  27. 27. My personal example 31
  28. 28. 1998: how it started➢ In a Belgian University ➢ many people were frustrated by the inflexible, non-free elearning systems they had to use ➢ Prof. dr. Thomas Depraetere ➢ starts the Claroline e-learning platform ➢ publishes it as Free Software ➢ got grants for it 32
  29. 29. 2004: fork 1original author wants to break free➢ Growing number of users ➢ outside the university ➢ requesting professional services ➢ Prof. dr. Thomas Depraetere ➢ starts a company, Dokeos ➢ cant call it Claroline, cause university has trademark ➢ can reuse software code, as it is Free !!! 33
  30. 30. 2010: fork 2the community wants to break free 34
  31. 31. Automated Chamilo analysis by Ohloh.net 35
  32. 32. 36
  33. 33. Yes, there is ahuge world of FLOSS communities 37
  34. 34. Build and Manage a Community? Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 38 38
  35. 35. DevelopmentLinus Torvalds stylerelease early and oftendelegate everything you canbe open to the point of promiscuityLinus Law"given enough eyeballs,all bugs are shallow." 39
  36. 36. Book published underOpen Publication License19 lessons for open sourcedevelopmentCommercial development= Cathedral styleOpen Source development= Bazaar style 40
  37. 37. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about developers1. Every good work of software starts by scratching a developers personal itch.2. Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse). 41
  38. 38. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about users6. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging.7. Release early. Release often. And listen to your customers.8. Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone.11. The next best thing to having good ideas is recognizing good ideas from your users. Sometimes the latter is better. 42
  39. 39. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about development17. A security system is only as secure as its secret. Beware of pseudo-secrets.18. To solve an interesting problem, start by finding a problem that is interesting to you.19. Provided the development coordinator has a medium at least as good as the Internet, and knows how to lead without coercion, many heads are inevitably better than one. 43
  40. 40. FLOSS characteristics User friendly ← written by users for users Cross-platform ← recompile source code High development pace ← reuse of best modules High quality ← peer review, reuse = survival of the fittest High security ← peer review, Unix origin, modular, encryptionCopyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 44
  41. 41. 45
  42. 42. 46
  43. 43. Business ? Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 47 47
  44. 44. Gartner: “24% of software market” Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 48 48
  45. 45. Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. ➢ FLOSS applications are 1st, 2nd, 3rd in many markets ➢ High market penetration ➢ 65% written by individuals, 15% companies, 20% other institutions ➢ FLOSS code base = $12B ➢ FLOSS code base = 131000 programmers years ➢ FLOSS code base doubles every 18-24 months ➢ Proprietary software firms only responsible for 10% of total software developers, so no cannibalisation fear ➢ FLOSS can save companies 36% on R&D costs ➢ Unique (European) opportunities to create new software businesses Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 49 49
  46. 46. Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 50 50
  47. 47. Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 51 51
  48. 48. "Open Source: Why Freedom Makes a Better Business Model" Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL, 2009 ➢ FLOSS ➢ is ➢ not against ownership ➢ not anti-commercial ➢ not a business model ➢ but is ➢ a smarter way to produce the goods ➢ a smarter way to distribute the goods ➢ Differentiation! Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 52 52
  49. 49. Success in FLOSS requires you to serve➢ those who spend time to save money➢ those who spend money to save time -- Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL 53
  50. 50. "Open Source: Why Freedom Makes a Better Business Model" Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL, 2009 ➢ Software freedom allows you to tap into innovation power and network effects otherwise not available Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 54 54
  51. 51. Creating wealth by sharing "Seven open source business strategies for competitive advantage” John Koenig, IT Managers Journal, 2004“Companies continue towaste their developmentdollars on softwarefunctionality that isotherwise free andavailable through OpenSource. They persist inbuying third-partyproprietary platforms orcreating their ownproprietary developmentplatforms that delivermarginal productdifferentiation and limitedvalue to customers” Picture reproduced with permission 55
  52. 52. Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 56 56
  53. 53. Android
  54. 54. business models www.flossmetrics.org/ 2009 Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 60 60
  55. 55. The possible effects Example: extremadura ➢ poorly developed region → economic revival ➢ based on FLOSS (customized GNU/LinEx) ➢ computer access for every student ➢ saved >18M € on initial 80,000 school computers ➢ total software cost: 1.08 Euro/PC/year ➢ bigger project ➢ stimuli for companies, centres for citizens ➢ economic revival -> European regional innovation award Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 61 61
  56. 56. Reflection task ➢ Why would you open source your (company) software? Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 62 62
  57. 57. Joachim Henkel, 2004 Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 63 63
  58. 58. What are problems with closed source software?➢ No (external) quality control on the source code ➢ Backdoors?➢ Combined with secret formats → data lock-in➢ Vendor lock-in➢ Monopolies and abuse of it➢ Security through obscurity does not work➢ Worse ratio black hat / white hat security people➢ Non-paying users are called “pirates”➢ Slow bug fixing➢ No shared efforts means wasted efforts➢ Less incremental innovation➢ Burden of ➢ license management ➢ anti-copy measures
  59. 59. Why is FLOSS not used more? ➢ Anti-competitive behaviour of closed source companies ➢ Monopoly abuse ➢ Secret formats & protocols ➢ Data lock-in ➢ Vendor lock-in ➢ Not a lot of advertising ➢ Not a lot of teaching Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 65 65
  60. 60. Total Cost of Ownership ➢ Free Software is about freedom, not price ➢ In practice: zero cost acquisition ➢ Support is similar or cheaper because of competition ➢ No license management / procurement needed ➢ Cheaper hardware can be used ➢ Less administration work ➢ Bandwidth savings (local central update/software repository) ➢ Training ➢ Usability tests ➢ {MS Windows XP → Vista} = {MS Windows → Linux} ➢ {MS Office 2003 → 2007} > {MS Office 2003 → OpenOffice} Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 66 66
  61. 61. Where to find more FLOSS? ➢ Use your software package manager ➢ if your are using a Free and Open Operating System! ➢ Sourceforge.net ➢ Hosting and tools for >240K Open Source projects ➢ >2M registered users (contributors) ➢ Freshmeat.net ➢ >40.000 projects, mostly Free Software ➢ Google: x AND GPL OR “open source” Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 67 67
  62. 62. Where to find more FLOSS? ➢ http://livecdlist.com/ ➢ If you want to test software without installing ➢ http://www.theopendisc.com/ ➢ High Quality OSS for Windows: Firefox, Openoffice, Inkscape, Scribus, Clamwin, GIMP, Audacity, Filezilla, 7- zip, PDFCreator, Freemind, ... Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 68 68
  63. 63. Open Society? ➢ "How open is the future? Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios based on Free & Open Source Software" Book: Eds. M. Wynants & J. Cornelis (Crosstalks) Open Courseware and Open Scientific Publications Chapter: F. Questier, W. Schreurs Openly published under CCPL See questier.com, crosstalks.vub.ac.be Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 69 69
  64. 64. DARE TO SHARECopyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 70
  65. 65. Questions? Comments? Thanks! Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 71 71
  66. 66. Credits ➢ Cartoon Open Source Fish by openssoft ➢ Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by) ➢ T-Shirt “Best things are life are free” by http://zazzle.com ➢ Photo Linus Torvalds: GFDL. Permission of Martin Streicher, Editor-in- Chief, LINUXMAG.com ➢ Picture (open source business strategies) from IT Managers Journal, may 2004, with personal permission from John Koenig ➢ Drupalcon DC 2009 copyright by “Chris” (Flickr) ➢ Screenshot Acquia ➢ Screenshot http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ ➢ Screenshot https://developers.facebook.com/opensource/ Screenshot ohloh.net ➢ Screenshot Google Frederik QuestierWerken met portfolios May 201104/10/05 | pag. 72 72

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