Tdc 1   phrasal verbs
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  • 1. TDC 1 Pedagogical Grammar Phrasal Verbs
  • 2. Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are also called two-word verbs or three-word verbs. A phrasal verb consists of a VERB + a particle (a preposition or an adverb). Examples: •Peter got up late. (adverb) •Peter turned off the lights. (preposition)
  • 3. 1. ELLs avoid using phrasal verbs first because they do not know of their existance and also because they seem to be more difficult. 2. There is a single word equivalent to almost all phrasal verbs in the dictionary; these equivalents are often of Latin origin. •Did you throw up? (Anglo-Saxon form) •This medicine may cause you to vomit. ( Latin form) Examples: •Could you put out your cigarrete? (Anglo-Saxon form) •Please extinguish all smoking materials. (Latin form) Phrasal Verbs
  • 4. The term phrasal verb is used to name a verb and a particle and/or a preposition forming a single semantic unit. This semantic unit cannot be understood based upon the meanings of the individual parts in isolation, but rather it must be taken as a whole. Sentence Meaningful Parts She ran up the hill. SUBJ. + VERB + PREP. PHRASE (ADV.) She ran up the bill. SUBJ. + PHRASAL VERB + DIR. OBJ. Consider these sentences: Phrasal Verbs
  • 5. Why are phrasal verbs so difficult? a) If you change the particle of a phrasal verb, you change its meaning completely. Just like any other verb, phrasal verbs determine the meaning of an entire sentence. Because very few languages have phrasal verbs, the idea of multiple words to express one action is hard to assimilate. Examples: • We managed to get our message across. (make other people understand it) • We found a way to get around our problems. ( to overcome or escape)
  • 6. b) Phrasal verbs are often polysemic Polysemy of Take Up Meanings Examples 1. Reduce in size, alter Please take up these pants. 2. To continue something after somebody else has stopped I’d like to take up the the point you raised earlier. 3. consume Buying a car took up all my savings. 4. Develop an interest on something new I took up tennis in college. 5. Absorb, internalize A sponge takes up water. 6. Accept a challenge or an offer We took up his offer in 2008 7. Deal with, work with Let’s take up these issues one at a time.
  • 7. c) It’s hard for an ELL to know wether a phrasal verb can be separated or not. There are three possibilities to separate a phrasal verb , look at the chart below. Separable Phrasal Verbs Phrasal Verb VERB + NOUN Separated by NOUN VERB + PRONOUN Separated by PRONOUN Call off (cancel) Call off the game Call the game off Call it off Fill in (write information) Fill in the blanks Fill the blanks in Fill them in Leave out (omit) Leave out the sentence Leave the sentence out Leave it out Put on (wear) Put on your coat Put your coat on Put it on Separable phrasal verbs can be separated when there is a noun object. If there is a pronoun object, the phrasal verb MUST be separated.
  • 8. For non-separable phrasal verbs, the verb and the particle must be together all the time. Non-Separable Phrasal Verbs Phrasal Verb VERB + NOUN Separated by NOUN VERB + PRONOUN Separated by PRONOUN Count on (depend on) Count on your help Count on it Get in (enter) Get in a car Get in it Put up with (tolerate) Put up with that noise Put up with it Watch out (for) (be careful) Watch out for that dog Watch out for it o Three-word phrasal verbs are always non-separable.
  • 9. These verbs NEVER have an object Intransitive Phrasal Verbs Intransitive Phrasal Verbs Phrasal Verb Verb + NO OBJECT Break down Stop functioning My car broke down. Eat out Eat in a restaurant It’s expensive to eat out every day. Grow up Become an adult I grew up in Canada.
  • 10. Common ELL mistakes 1. ELLs frequently avoid using phrasal verbs and use the single-word equivalent found in a dictionary, doing so ELL’s English sound more technical or formal. Too formal: How can I ascertain which bus goes downtown? Correct: How can I find out which bus goes downtown? 2. ELLs confuse the meaning of phrasal verbs. Wrong: The coach put down the game because of bad weather. (destroy) Correct: The coach called off the game because of bad weather. (cancel) 3. ELLs frequently forget to use the whole phrasal verb. Wrong: I picked him at the airport last night. Correct: I picked him up at the airport last night. 4. ELLs do not separate a separable phrasal when the object is a pronoun. Wrong: Turn down it, it’s too loud. Correct: Turn it down, it’s too loud.