Verbals And Gerunds


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Verbals And Gerunds

  1. 1. Verbals - Infinitive Esmail Karbalaee Phone:00989131004316 Location : Iran - Esfahan ١
  2. 2. Introduction In English a verb form may sometimes function in a sentence as another part of speech. Verb forms that are used as other parts of speech are called “verbals”. The infinitive and gerund form of a verb are two examples of verbals. Look at these sentences. verbals sentences 1. To exercise is good for your health. (subject) 2. Exercising is good for your health. (subject) g g y ( j ) 3. Some people really like to exercise. (direct object) 4. Some people really enjoy exercising. (direct object) ٢
  3. 3. Simple Form Note : the verbs help, have, let, make and verbs of sense such as feel, see, and hear are followed by nouns or object pronouns and simple form of the verb without to. The instructor helped Th i t t h l d us organize our outlines. i tli He let us use our dictionaries. He had the students write the composition in class. He saw me open my dictionary several times. I made myself write as neatly as I could. ٣
  4. 4. Infinitive/Infinitive phrase functioning as subject and subject complement Subject of the sentence 1. To study takes a lot of time. y 2. To learn another language is not easy. 3. To be a student is a difficult job. Subject complement 1. My goal is to get good grades. 2. His desire has been to enter graduate school. 3. Her job last summer was to answer the phone. ٤
  5. 5. The word “It” as the “false” subject of the sentence… It is not easy to save. (To save is not easy.) It is fun to read. (To read is fun.) It is fun to read a good mystery story. It takes a lot of money to buy a house. house It takes a lot of time to furnish our new home. ٥
  6. 6. …It as false subject Note : sometimes the false subject “It” is followed by for+ noun/pronoun+ infinitive construction. In these sentences, the true subjects are underlined. It is difficult for me to learn a second language. It will be easy for Mike to pass this class. Note : in sentences where “it” is used as the false subject. Certain adjectives may be followed by the preposition of + noun /pronoun+ infinitive construction. It was nice of you to visit me in the hospital. It was foolish of me to ski without any lessons. It was considerate of the class to send me flowers. Note : with some adjectives for is also possible. It was foolish for/of me to ski without any lessons. lessons ٦
  7. 7. Group 1 :Infinitive/Infinitive phrase functioning as direct object Afford Come Happen Offer remember Agree Consent Hesitate Plan Seem Appear Decide Hope Prepare Struggle Arrange g Demand Intend Pretend Swear Be Deserve Learn Proceed Tend Ca e Care Endeavor dea o Manage a age Prove o e Threaten eate Choose Fail Mean Refuse Volunteer Claim Forget neglect regret wait ٧
  8. 8. …Samples Note : The verb afford is always used with a form of can or be able to. They can afford to buy a house, but they aren’t able to afford a new car, too. Note : The verb choose is followed by an infinitive when it means prefer. I chose to buy that car because it is more fuel-efficient. Note : th verb plan indicates future time when used in the b l i di t f t ti h di the simple present tense. We plan to leave soon. ٨
  9. 9. …More Samples She refused to tell the truth. I chose not to do anything about it. Note : additional information may appear between the main verb and the infinitive or infinitive phrase. I did not come to this country as a student to waste time. time Note : Several words may separate the main verb and the infinitive, as in the sentence above, but the infinitive is never separated. Correct : You need to work carefully. Incorrect : You need to carefully work. ٩
  10. 10. Group 2 : Verb+ object+ Infinitive/Infinitive Phrase Advise Compel Get Oblige Show…how Allow Convince Help Order Appoint Direct Hire Permit Cause Enable Implore Persuade Caution Encourage Instruct Remind Challenge Forbid Invite Request command force motivate require ١٠
  11. 11. …Notes The verb help is followed by nouns or object pronouns and the simple form of the verb without to. (Can you help me find my jacket?) These verbs must be followed first by an object, then by the infinitive. 1. The doctor advised me/Bill to take a long vacation. 2. My f i d M friend encouraged me to take some time off. d t t k ti ff 3. I invited my friend to spend a few days at a ski resort with me. The mentioned verbs can be used with an infinitive alone when the main verb is in the passive voice. Bill and I were advised to take a long vacation. ١١
  12. 12. Group 3 : Verb+ infinitive/infinitive phrase or verb+ object+ infinitive/infinitive phrase Ask Dare need want Beg Expect prefer wish choose like promise Note : in negative and interrogative statements, the verb dare is g g used without to if no object follows the verb. 1. Don’t you dare jump off that building! 2. 2 Do you dare me to jump off that building? ١٢
  13. 13. Notes on group 3 These verbs have two patterns. They may be followed by an object and infinitive, or they may be followed by an infinitive only. The meaning of each pattern is different. Only the verb promise keeps the same meaning in both patterns. patterns 1. I want you to help him. 2. I want to help him. 3. 3 She promised us to be on time. 4. She promised to be on time. The verbs expect, hope, promise, want, and wish may indicate future time even they are in the simple present or past tense. 1. My neighbor needed someone to help him. 2. I didn’t expect him to pay me. ١٣
  14. 14. Infinitive/Infinitive phrase functioning as adjective and adjective complement Adjectives 1. I have a lot of work to do. 2. Dr.Soto gave us five problems to solve. g p 3. The assignment to do for tonight is on page 83. 4. I won’t have time to go anywhere tonight. Adjective complement 1. This problem is difficult to do. 2. I’m glad to see you in class today. 3. 3 We were eager to hear about his trip trip. An infinitive or infinitive phrase functions as an adjective when it modifies the noun before it. As an adjective complement, the infinitive/ infinitive phrase completes the meaning started by the adjective. ١٤
  15. 15. Adjective complement As A complement, the infinitive/infinitive phrase is l t th i fi iti /i fi iti h i usually used after adjectives expressing emotion, such as these: Amazed Delighted Glad Relieved sad Angry A Disappointed Di i t d Happy H Sad S d Anxious Disgusted Horrified Sorry Ashamed Disturbed Pleased Shocked astonished eager proud surprised ١٥
  16. 16. Infinitive/Infinitive phrase functioning as adverb 1. We came here to work. 2. I’m leaving now to get to class on time. g g 3. To keep warm at night, you should buy an electric blanket. 4. To be honest, I hate the cold weather. 5. To tell the truth, I miss the beautiful , weather in my country. 6. To be frank, snow has never excited me. ١٦
  17. 17. …Notes An infinitive or infinitive phrase functions as an adverb when it modifies a verb or an entire sentence. As an adverb modifying a verb, the infinitive or infinitive phrase expresses purpose. It answers the question “why ? purpose why ?” 1. Why is he going to Spain ? He’s going there to study. 2. Why did she quit her job? She quit it to get a better one. When Wh an infinitive or infinitive phrase is used as an adverbial to modify i fi iti i fi iti h i d d bi l t dif a verb, it is usually a substitution for a prepositional phrase beginning with in order. 1. 1 He s He’s going to Spain to study (He s going to Spain in order to study.) study. (He’s study ) 2. She stopped to talk to me. (She stopped in order to talk to me.) ١٧
  18. 18. Reduction with infinitive phrases: adverb clauses to infinitive phrases Infinitive phrases are commonly used in place of adverb clauses beginning with so that, if, and because. 1. We arrived at the ticket office early so that we could be sure to get the tickets (to be sure …) tickets. ) 2. Basketball fans must often stand in line for long hours if they want to get good seats. 3. I took my camera to the g y game because I wanted to take pictures of my favorites players. An adverb clause cannot be changed to an infinitive phrase if the subjects of the dependent and independent clauses are different, different as in this sentence: You have to sign this paper so that the lawyer can take care of the problem. ١٨
  19. 19. Reduction with infinitive phrases: Noun clauses to infinitive phrases Infinitive phrases are often used to replace noun clauses beginning with words who, what, where, which, how, how often, how much, and how long. hi h h h ft h h dh l 1. Sue asked me which store she should shop in for inexpensive but good clothes. (to shop) 2. She was thinking about how much she ought to spend on a new coat. (to spend) 3. I finally decided where I would take him. (to take) ١٩
  20. 20. Reduction with infinitive phrases: Adjective clauses to infinitive phrases An infinitive or infinitive phrase is often used in place of an adjective clause. 1. I have a lot o d ty c ot es that I must wash. (to) a e ot of dirty clothes t at ust as 2. Mike is the person whom you can trust. (to) 3. Can you lend me a good book which I can read on the plane? (to) The infinitive or infinitive phrase is also used after the first, the second, the last, and the only to replace an adjective clause. 1. The first student who finished the exam was Rina. (to) 2. The only p y person who didn’t finish was Marc. ( not to) ) 3. Of course, the last person who left the room was the teacher. (to) ٢٠
  21. 21. Infinitive/Infinitive phrase with enough Adjective + enough + infinitive/Infinitive phrase The map we had wasn’t excellent, but it was good enough to get us to our destination. Adverb + enough + infinitive/Infinitive phrase We were driving slowly enough to enjoy the beautiful scenery. At times, the kids played the radio loudly enough to burst our eardrums. Enough + noun + infinitive/infinitive phrase 1. Id don’t h have enough money to take a long trip to U.K. h k l i UK 2. She didn’t have enough time to stay away for more than four days. Enough comes after an adjective or adverb and before a noun. For+ noun/pronoun may appear before the infinitive or infinitive phrase. Sajjad drove slowly enough for all of us to see the beautiful scenery. ٢١
  22. 22. Infinitive/Infinitive phrase with too Too+ adjective+ infinitive/infinitive phrase 1. When we returned from our trip Sunday night, we were too tired to attend classes on Monday morning. 2. When Wh I got home, my apartment was t cold t sleep i th t t too ld to l in. Too+ adverb+ infinitive/infinitive phrase 1. I woke up too late to eat breakfast with her the next morning. morning 2. She left too early for me to say good bye. Too has the meaning of a negative result. In this sentence, the speaker didn’t catch the 5:30 train. I arrived at the train station too late to catch the 5:30 train. For+ noun/pronoun can be used before the infinitive construction. Im I’m too tired for you to come over tonight tonight. ٢٢