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Adverbs
An adverb is a word used to
modify a verb, adjective, or
another adverb. An adverb
usually modifies by telling how,
when, where, why, under what
conditions, or to what degree. An
adverb is often formed by adding
1. An adverb can modify a verb.
• The girls ran quickly but happily through the puddle.
(The adverbs quickly and happily modify the verb ran by
telling how.)
• Go to the administration office first, and then come
to class. (The adverb first modifies the verb go, and the
adverb then modifies the verb come. Both modify the
verbs by telling when.)
• They are moving her office upstairs. (The adverb
upstairs modifies the verb moving by telling where.)
2. An adverb can modify an adjective. The adverb usually clarifies the
degree or intensity of the adjective.
• Maria was almost finished when they brought her an exceptionally
delicious dessert. (The adverb almost modifies the adjective finished and
exceptionally modifies delicious by describing the degree or intensity of the
adjectives.)
• He was very happy about being so good at such an extremely
challenging sport. (The adverb very modifies the adjective happy, so
modifies good, and extremely modifies challenging by describing the degree
or intensity of the adjectives.)
• Students are often entertained and sometimes confused, but never
bored in that class. (The adverb often modifies the adjective entertained,
sometimes modifies confused, and never modifies bored by describing the
degree or intensity of the adjectives.)
3. An adverb can modify another adverb. The modifying adverb
usually clarifies the degree or intensity of the adverb.
• Eating her lunch somewhat cautiously, Carolyn tried to
ignore the commotion. (The adverb somewhat modifies the adverb
cautiously by telling to what degree.)
• Stan can discuss the English language very thoroughly. (The
adverb very modifies the adverb thoroughly by telling to what
degree.)
• Even in the other room, Vickilee was never completely
unaware of the crying kittens. (The adverb never modifies the
adverb completely by telling to what degree.)
The 5 Basic Types of Adverbs
Adverbs provide a deeper description of a
verb within any sentence. There are five basic
types of adverbs in the English language,
namely that of Manner, Time, Place,
Frequency, and Degree. Here is a brief
explanation of the meaning each has, along
with example sentences using each type of
Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs of manner communicate how something
happened. They are generally used to modify
verbs. In the sentence, they appear after the verb
or after the object. They should not be placed
between the verb and its object.
Example:
• The boy laughed loudly.
• Elena did a pirouette gracefully.
• Not: Elena did gracefully a pirouette.
Adverbs of Time
Adverbs of time tell about when something happened. They can also tell us for how long or
how frequently something happened. They are generally used to modify verbs.
“When” adverbs usually come at the end of a sentence.
Example:
• Let’s meet then.
• The package arrived yesterday.
• Mike and Dave have swimming lessons weekly.
To determine if an adverb is one of time, ask a “when” question or a “how long/how often”
question.
Example:
• When shall we meet?
• When did the package arrive?
• How often do Mike and Dave have swimming lessons?
Point out to students that that they must be careful when using “yet”. This adverb of time is
only used in questions and negative statements.
Example:
• Have you finished your homework yet?
• I have not finished it yet.
• Not: I have finished it yet.
Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of place tell us where something happened. They
are generally used to modify verbs and appear after the main
verb or after the object in a sentence.
Example:
• I’ll meet you there after class.
• She would go anywhere with him.
• Victor put the book away.
To determine if an adverb is one of place, ask a “where”
question.
• Where will I meet you after class?
• Where would she go with him?
• Where did Victor put the book?
Adverbs of Frequency
Adverbs of frequency explain how often the
verb occurs. They’re often placed directly before
the main verb of a sentence.
Examples of adverbs of frequency: never, always,
rarely, sometimes, normally, seldom, usually,
again
• I rarely eat fast food these days.
• Tom usually takes his dog for a walk before
breakfast.
• They always go to the same restaurant every
Friday.
Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of degree tell us the degree or intensity to which something happened. They can
modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adverbs of degree are generally placed before
the main verb or the adjective or adverb they modify.
Example:
• She was entirely wrong in her judgment.
• He drove very quickly.
• Clarisse thoroughly believes he is innocent.
• She is too stubborn to change her mind.
To determine if an adverb is one of degree, ask a “to what degree” or “how much”
question.
• To what degree was she wrong in her judgment?
• To what degree did he drive?
• How much does Clarisse believe he is innocent?
One exception to adverb placement is “enough” which appears after an adjective or
adverb it modifies.
• Are you warm enough?
• Am I working quickly enough?
Conjunctive
Adverbs
Conjunctive adverbs are parts of
speech that are used to connect one
clause to another. They are also used
to show sequence, contrast, cause and
effect, and other relationships.
Like other adverbs, conjunctive
adverbs may be moved around in the
sentence or clause in which they
appear.
. This is just one of the things you’ll need to remember; additional
rules for using conjunctive adverbs follow:
• Always use a period or semicolon before the conjunctive
adverb when separating two independent clauses. Conjunctive
adverbs are not strong enough to join independent clauses without
supporting punctuation.
• Use a comma if a conjunction such as and, but, or, or so
appears between the conjunctive adverb and the first clause.
• Use a comma behind conjunctive adverbs when they appear
at the beginning of a sentence’s second clause. The only exception
to this rule is that no comma is necessary if the adverb is a single
syllable.
• If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it
should be enclosed in commas most of the time. This is not an
absolute rule and does not normally apply to short clauses.
The conjunctive adverbs in the following examples are in
bold for easy identification.
1. Jeremy kept talking in class; therefore, he got in
trouble.
2. She went into the store; however, she didn’t find
anything she wanted to buy.
3. I like you a lot; in fact, I think we should be best
friends.
4. Your dog got into my yard; in addition, he dug up my
petunias.
5. You’re my friend; nonetheless, I feel like you’re
taking advantage of me.
6. My car payments are high; on the other hand, I
really enjoy driving such a nice vehicle
Positions of Adverbs
I. Three positions of adverbs
1. Front 2. Mid 3. End
II. Adverbs used in one, two or all three positions
1. Adverbs used mostly in mid position
2. Adverbs used mostly in front or mid position
3. Adverbs used mostly in mid or end position
4. Adverbs used mostly in end or front position
5. Adverbs used in any of the three positions
6. Adverbs used mostly in front position
-Normal Position
Adverb Subject Verb
Gradually, he changed his mind.
1. Front
a) Subject Adverb Main verb
They *** always speak English
b) Subject “be” Adverb ***
We are almost *** ready.
c) Subject Auxiliary Adverb Main verb
I have never sad that.
She will probably join us.
This can hardly be true.
2. Mid
Notes:
- With main verbs, the adverb comes before the verb:
• They always speak English.
- With “be”, it comes after the verb:
• We are almost ready.
- With auxiliaries and modals, it is placed after the auxiliary/modal (between
the auxiliary/modal and the main verb):
• I have never said that.
• She will probably join us.
• This can hardly be true.
If there are two auxiliaries or a modal and an auxiliary, the adverb is placed
after the first verb:
• The experiment has always been done like this.
• They may never have used this method.
Subject Verb Adverb
He spoke about his plans at the meeting.
She has been attending the English class regularly.
3. End
Note:
Below you will find some basic guidelines and examples of
usage. You should, however, be aware that there may be
several options, depending on what the speaker wants to
put emphasis on. Neither the rules nor the examples
pretend to be exhaustive. Remember that the positions
listed here may not be suitable in all contexts. In some
cases, the position of
the adverb may also modify its meaning. Nevertheless,
there is no need to despair: through intensive reading of
English texts and listening to native speakers you will
develop a feeling for these words and their place in the
sentence.
Frequency always, ever, hardly ever, never, often, rarely, seldom
Degree almost, hardly, nearly, quite, scarcely
Time just
•He has never attended an international conference.
•I quite understand what you mean.
He is probably back.
1. Adverbs used mostly in mid position
Frequency/time sometimes, usually; eventually, finally
•I sometimes work till late at night.
•Sometimes, I work till late at night.
2. Adverbs used mostly in front or mid position
Frequency
constantly, continuously, regularly
Degree completely, entirely, greatly
Time already, lately, recently
•The temperature was constantly rising.
•The temperature was rising constantly.
•I completely agree with you.
•I agree with you completely.
3. Adverbs used mostly in mid or end position
Place above, here, there, at home, upstairs
Time/frequency in January, last year; as a rule, from time to time, once
Adverbs used mostly in end or front position
Notes:
- With adverbs of place, time and frequency, the end position is more
common; the front position is used to give importance or draw
attention to the adverb:
You will find a more detailed description below.
Below you will find a more detailed description.
I offered him help once, but he refused it.
Once I offered him help, but he refused it.
I started to learn English last year.
Last year, I started to learn English.
- With maybe and perhaps, the front position is more common.
Perhaps, you should ask him for help.
Manner briefly, carefully, easily, quickly, slowly
Time/frequency now, soon, immediately, suddenly; occasionally
A.Adverbs used in any of the three positions
Manner:
In this chapter we briefly examine the latest developments in …
Briefly, I think we should join this project. (in brief)
Let me describe briefly how we arrived at this conclusion.
He explained the situation briefly.
Not: He explained briefly the situation.
If the verb has an object, the adverb comes after the object.
Only when the object is long, the adverb may precede it:
We considered briefly our next steps in that unexpected situation.
Time:
The situation suddenly changed.
The situation changed suddenly.
Suddenly, the situation changed.
The mid position is the most common. The end position draws attention to the adverb. The front
position is the least common; it is used to raise interest in what is coming next.
comment/opinion admittedly, evidently, hopefully, naturally,
surprisingly
sentence linkers however, consequently, as a result, nevertheless
Adverbs used mostly in front position
Comment/opinion:
Surprisingly, the experiment did not fail.
Sometimes these adverbs may also come in mid position:
He was evidently nervous.
Sentence linkers:
This is a simple and safe procedure. However, you should not
underestimate the risk.
Note the use of commas before and after the adverb in some
cases.
Manner Place Time
He worked very hard last semester.
I didn´t
participate
in that
conference
last year.
He explained
that problem
thoroughly at the seminar last week.
Normal Position
Degrees of Adverbs
Positive Degree
The primary form of an adjective an adjective or adverb;
denotes a quality without qualification, comparison or relation
to increase or diminution.
II.Superlative Degree
The superlative form of an adjective or adverb adding –st or –
est to a word.
III.Comparative Degree
The comparative form of an adjective or adverb; adding –er or –
ier to a word.
Positive Comparative Superlative
angrily more angrily most angrily
brightly more brightly most brightly
dimly more dimly most dimly
freely more freely most freely
gladly more gladly most gladly
heavily more heavily most heavily
loudly more loudly most loudly
quietly more quietly most quietly
sweetly more sweetly most sweetly
terribly more terribly most terribly
Adverbs which end in --ly or have three or more syllables each form the
comparative with more and the superlative with most.
The comparative form is used to compare two things.
Examples:
We must not reach there later than 7 o’clock.
You speak more loudly than a loudspeaker.
Sirius shines more brightly than all the other stars.
The superlative form is used to compare three or more things.
Examples:
He arrived the earliest, so he had to wait for the others.
Why do you have to speak the most loudly of all at the meeting?
Of all the girls, your sister sang the most sweetly
Positive Comparative Superlative
badly worse (than) worst (the)
far farther farthest
far further furthest
little less least
much/many more most
well better best
It is not correct to use–er and more together, or –est
and most together.
Some adverbs form the comparative and the superlative
irregularly.
Tips about the correct usage of
Adverbs
Rule 1.
Many adverbs end in -ly, but many do not. Generally, if a word can have -ly added to
its adjective form, place it there to form an adverb.
Examples:
She thinks quick/quickly.
How does she think? Quickly.
She is a quick/quickly thinker.
Quick is an adjective describing thinker, so no -ly is attached.
She thinks fast/fastly.
Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has -ly attached to
it.
We performed bad/badly.
Badly describes how we performed, so -ly is added
Rule 2.
Adverbs that answer the question how sometimes cause grammatical problems. It can be
a challenge to determine if -ly should be attached. Avoid the trap of -ly with linking verbs
such as taste, smell, look, feel, which pertain to the senses. Adverbs are often misplaced in
such sentences, which require adjectives instead.
Examples:
Roses smell sweet/sweetly.
Do the roses actively smell with noses? No; in this case, smell is a linking verb—which
requires an adjective to modify roses—so no –ly.
The woman looked angry/angrily to us.
Did the woman look with her eyes, or are we describing her appearance? We are
describing her appearance (she appeared angry), so no -ly.
The woman looked angry/angrily at the paint splotches.
Here the woman actively looked (used her eyes), so the -ly is added.
She feels bad/badly about the news.
She is not feeling with fingers, so no -ly.
Rule 3.
The word good is an adjective, whose adverb equivalent is well.
Examples:
You did a good job.
Good describes the job.
You did the job well.
Well answers how.
You smell good today.
Good describes your fragrance, not how you smell with your nose, so using
the adjective is correct.
You smell well for someone with a cold.
You actively smell with your nose here, so use the adverb.
Rule 4.
The word well can be an adjective, too.
When referring to health, we often use
well rather than good.
Examples:
You do not look well today.
I don't feel well, either.
Rule 5.
There are also three degrees of adverbs. In formal usage,
do not drop the -ly from an adverb when using the
comparative form.
Incorrect: She spoke quicker than he did.
Correct: She spoke more quickly than he did.
Incorrect: Talk quieter.
Correct: Talk more quietly.

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Adverbs

  • 2. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb. An adverb usually modifies by telling how, when, where, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. An adverb is often formed by adding
  • 3. 1. An adverb can modify a verb. • The girls ran quickly but happily through the puddle. (The adverbs quickly and happily modify the verb ran by telling how.) • Go to the administration office first, and then come to class. (The adverb first modifies the verb go, and the adverb then modifies the verb come. Both modify the verbs by telling when.) • They are moving her office upstairs. (The adverb upstairs modifies the verb moving by telling where.)
  • 4. 2. An adverb can modify an adjective. The adverb usually clarifies the degree or intensity of the adjective. • Maria was almost finished when they brought her an exceptionally delicious dessert. (The adverb almost modifies the adjective finished and exceptionally modifies delicious by describing the degree or intensity of the adjectives.) • He was very happy about being so good at such an extremely challenging sport. (The adverb very modifies the adjective happy, so modifies good, and extremely modifies challenging by describing the degree or intensity of the adjectives.) • Students are often entertained and sometimes confused, but never bored in that class. (The adverb often modifies the adjective entertained, sometimes modifies confused, and never modifies bored by describing the degree or intensity of the adjectives.)
  • 5. 3. An adverb can modify another adverb. The modifying adverb usually clarifies the degree or intensity of the adverb. • Eating her lunch somewhat cautiously, Carolyn tried to ignore the commotion. (The adverb somewhat modifies the adverb cautiously by telling to what degree.) • Stan can discuss the English language very thoroughly. (The adverb very modifies the adverb thoroughly by telling to what degree.) • Even in the other room, Vickilee was never completely unaware of the crying kittens. (The adverb never modifies the adverb completely by telling to what degree.)
  • 6. The 5 Basic Types of Adverbs Adverbs provide a deeper description of a verb within any sentence. There are five basic types of adverbs in the English language, namely that of Manner, Time, Place, Frequency, and Degree. Here is a brief explanation of the meaning each has, along with example sentences using each type of
  • 7. Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of manner communicate how something happened. They are generally used to modify verbs. In the sentence, they appear after the verb or after the object. They should not be placed between the verb and its object. Example: • The boy laughed loudly. • Elena did a pirouette gracefully. • Not: Elena did gracefully a pirouette.
  • 8. Adverbs of Time Adverbs of time tell about when something happened. They can also tell us for how long or how frequently something happened. They are generally used to modify verbs. “When” adverbs usually come at the end of a sentence. Example: • Let’s meet then. • The package arrived yesterday. • Mike and Dave have swimming lessons weekly. To determine if an adverb is one of time, ask a “when” question or a “how long/how often” question. Example: • When shall we meet? • When did the package arrive? • How often do Mike and Dave have swimming lessons? Point out to students that that they must be careful when using “yet”. This adverb of time is only used in questions and negative statements. Example: • Have you finished your homework yet? • I have not finished it yet. • Not: I have finished it yet.
  • 9. Adverbs of Place Adverbs of place tell us where something happened. They are generally used to modify verbs and appear after the main verb or after the object in a sentence. Example: • I’ll meet you there after class. • She would go anywhere with him. • Victor put the book away. To determine if an adverb is one of place, ask a “where” question. • Where will I meet you after class? • Where would she go with him? • Where did Victor put the book?
  • 10. Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of frequency explain how often the verb occurs. They’re often placed directly before the main verb of a sentence. Examples of adverbs of frequency: never, always, rarely, sometimes, normally, seldom, usually, again • I rarely eat fast food these days. • Tom usually takes his dog for a walk before breakfast. • They always go to the same restaurant every Friday.
  • 11. Adverbs of Degree Adverbs of degree tell us the degree or intensity to which something happened. They can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adverbs of degree are generally placed before the main verb or the adjective or adverb they modify. Example: • She was entirely wrong in her judgment. • He drove very quickly. • Clarisse thoroughly believes he is innocent. • She is too stubborn to change her mind. To determine if an adverb is one of degree, ask a “to what degree” or “how much” question. • To what degree was she wrong in her judgment? • To what degree did he drive? • How much does Clarisse believe he is innocent? One exception to adverb placement is “enough” which appears after an adjective or adverb it modifies. • Are you warm enough? • Am I working quickly enough?
  • 13. Conjunctive adverbs are parts of speech that are used to connect one clause to another. They are also used to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect, and other relationships. Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may be moved around in the sentence or clause in which they appear.
  • 14. . This is just one of the things you’ll need to remember; additional rules for using conjunctive adverbs follow: • Always use a period or semicolon before the conjunctive adverb when separating two independent clauses. Conjunctive adverbs are not strong enough to join independent clauses without supporting punctuation. • Use a comma if a conjunction such as and, but, or, or so appears between the conjunctive adverb and the first clause. • Use a comma behind conjunctive adverbs when they appear at the beginning of a sentence’s second clause. The only exception to this rule is that no comma is necessary if the adverb is a single syllable. • If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it should be enclosed in commas most of the time. This is not an absolute rule and does not normally apply to short clauses.
  • 15. The conjunctive adverbs in the following examples are in bold for easy identification. 1. Jeremy kept talking in class; therefore, he got in trouble. 2. She went into the store; however, she didn’t find anything she wanted to buy. 3. I like you a lot; in fact, I think we should be best friends. 4. Your dog got into my yard; in addition, he dug up my petunias. 5. You’re my friend; nonetheless, I feel like you’re taking advantage of me. 6. My car payments are high; on the other hand, I really enjoy driving such a nice vehicle
  • 16. Positions of Adverbs I. Three positions of adverbs 1. Front 2. Mid 3. End II. Adverbs used in one, two or all three positions 1. Adverbs used mostly in mid position 2. Adverbs used mostly in front or mid position 3. Adverbs used mostly in mid or end position 4. Adverbs used mostly in end or front position 5. Adverbs used in any of the three positions 6. Adverbs used mostly in front position -Normal Position
  • 17. Adverb Subject Verb Gradually, he changed his mind. 1. Front
  • 18. a) Subject Adverb Main verb They *** always speak English b) Subject “be” Adverb *** We are almost *** ready. c) Subject Auxiliary Adverb Main verb I have never sad that. She will probably join us. This can hardly be true. 2. Mid
  • 19. Notes: - With main verbs, the adverb comes before the verb: • They always speak English. - With “be”, it comes after the verb: • We are almost ready. - With auxiliaries and modals, it is placed after the auxiliary/modal (between the auxiliary/modal and the main verb): • I have never said that. • She will probably join us. • This can hardly be true. If there are two auxiliaries or a modal and an auxiliary, the adverb is placed after the first verb: • The experiment has always been done like this. • They may never have used this method.
  • 20. Subject Verb Adverb He spoke about his plans at the meeting. She has been attending the English class regularly. 3. End
  • 21. Note: Below you will find some basic guidelines and examples of usage. You should, however, be aware that there may be several options, depending on what the speaker wants to put emphasis on. Neither the rules nor the examples pretend to be exhaustive. Remember that the positions listed here may not be suitable in all contexts. In some cases, the position of the adverb may also modify its meaning. Nevertheless, there is no need to despair: through intensive reading of English texts and listening to native speakers you will develop a feeling for these words and their place in the sentence.
  • 22. Frequency always, ever, hardly ever, never, often, rarely, seldom Degree almost, hardly, nearly, quite, scarcely Time just •He has never attended an international conference. •I quite understand what you mean. He is probably back. 1. Adverbs used mostly in mid position
  • 23. Frequency/time sometimes, usually; eventually, finally •I sometimes work till late at night. •Sometimes, I work till late at night. 2. Adverbs used mostly in front or mid position
  • 24. Frequency constantly, continuously, regularly Degree completely, entirely, greatly Time already, lately, recently •The temperature was constantly rising. •The temperature was rising constantly. •I completely agree with you. •I agree with you completely. 3. Adverbs used mostly in mid or end position
  • 25. Place above, here, there, at home, upstairs Time/frequency in January, last year; as a rule, from time to time, once Adverbs used mostly in end or front position
  • 26. Notes: - With adverbs of place, time and frequency, the end position is more common; the front position is used to give importance or draw attention to the adverb: You will find a more detailed description below. Below you will find a more detailed description. I offered him help once, but he refused it. Once I offered him help, but he refused it. I started to learn English last year. Last year, I started to learn English. - With maybe and perhaps, the front position is more common. Perhaps, you should ask him for help.
  • 27. Manner briefly, carefully, easily, quickly, slowly Time/frequency now, soon, immediately, suddenly; occasionally A.Adverbs used in any of the three positions
  • 28. Manner: In this chapter we briefly examine the latest developments in … Briefly, I think we should join this project. (in brief) Let me describe briefly how we arrived at this conclusion. He explained the situation briefly. Not: He explained briefly the situation. If the verb has an object, the adverb comes after the object. Only when the object is long, the adverb may precede it: We considered briefly our next steps in that unexpected situation. Time: The situation suddenly changed. The situation changed suddenly. Suddenly, the situation changed. The mid position is the most common. The end position draws attention to the adverb. The front position is the least common; it is used to raise interest in what is coming next.
  • 29. comment/opinion admittedly, evidently, hopefully, naturally, surprisingly sentence linkers however, consequently, as a result, nevertheless Adverbs used mostly in front position
  • 30. Comment/opinion: Surprisingly, the experiment did not fail. Sometimes these adverbs may also come in mid position: He was evidently nervous. Sentence linkers: This is a simple and safe procedure. However, you should not underestimate the risk. Note the use of commas before and after the adverb in some cases.
  • 31. Manner Place Time He worked very hard last semester. I didn´t participate in that conference last year. He explained that problem thoroughly at the seminar last week. Normal Position
  • 33. Positive Degree The primary form of an adjective an adjective or adverb; denotes a quality without qualification, comparison or relation to increase or diminution. II.Superlative Degree The superlative form of an adjective or adverb adding –st or – est to a word. III.Comparative Degree The comparative form of an adjective or adverb; adding –er or – ier to a word.
  • 34. Positive Comparative Superlative angrily more angrily most angrily brightly more brightly most brightly dimly more dimly most dimly freely more freely most freely gladly more gladly most gladly heavily more heavily most heavily loudly more loudly most loudly quietly more quietly most quietly sweetly more sweetly most sweetly terribly more terribly most terribly Adverbs which end in --ly or have three or more syllables each form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.
  • 35. The comparative form is used to compare two things. Examples: We must not reach there later than 7 o’clock. You speak more loudly than a loudspeaker. Sirius shines more brightly than all the other stars. The superlative form is used to compare three or more things. Examples: He arrived the earliest, so he had to wait for the others. Why do you have to speak the most loudly of all at the meeting? Of all the girls, your sister sang the most sweetly
  • 36. Positive Comparative Superlative badly worse (than) worst (the) far farther farthest far further furthest little less least much/many more most well better best It is not correct to use–er and more together, or –est and most together. Some adverbs form the comparative and the superlative irregularly.
  • 37. Tips about the correct usage of Adverbs
  • 38. Rule 1. Many adverbs end in -ly, but many do not. Generally, if a word can have -ly added to its adjective form, place it there to form an adverb. Examples: She thinks quick/quickly. How does she think? Quickly. She is a quick/quickly thinker. Quick is an adjective describing thinker, so no -ly is attached. She thinks fast/fastly. Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has -ly attached to it. We performed bad/badly. Badly describes how we performed, so -ly is added
  • 39. Rule 2. Adverbs that answer the question how sometimes cause grammatical problems. It can be a challenge to determine if -ly should be attached. Avoid the trap of -ly with linking verbs such as taste, smell, look, feel, which pertain to the senses. Adverbs are often misplaced in such sentences, which require adjectives instead. Examples: Roses smell sweet/sweetly. Do the roses actively smell with noses? No; in this case, smell is a linking verb—which requires an adjective to modify roses—so no –ly. The woman looked angry/angrily to us. Did the woman look with her eyes, or are we describing her appearance? We are describing her appearance (she appeared angry), so no -ly. The woman looked angry/angrily at the paint splotches. Here the woman actively looked (used her eyes), so the -ly is added. She feels bad/badly about the news. She is not feeling with fingers, so no -ly.
  • 40. Rule 3. The word good is an adjective, whose adverb equivalent is well. Examples: You did a good job. Good describes the job. You did the job well. Well answers how. You smell good today. Good describes your fragrance, not how you smell with your nose, so using the adjective is correct. You smell well for someone with a cold. You actively smell with your nose here, so use the adverb.
  • 41. Rule 4. The word well can be an adjective, too. When referring to health, we often use well rather than good. Examples: You do not look well today. I don't feel well, either.
  • 42. Rule 5. There are also three degrees of adverbs. In formal usage, do not drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparative form. Incorrect: She spoke quicker than he did. Correct: She spoke more quickly than he did. Incorrect: Talk quieter. Correct: Talk more quietly.