What is Grammar?
A set of rules and principles to speak and write a language in a
The word Grammar derives from Greek word (Grammatike) which means
“Art of letters”
Grammar Is also called the backbone of the language.
Why to use Grammar
To make the conversation positive and impressive.
How to use Grammar
By making correct use of tenses and speeches of English.
word that names a
Kinds of nouns
Names general items like
Name a specific (one-of-a-kind or unique) thing
Will always begin with a capital letter
Singular noun names a only one thing where as plural
noun names more than thing. E.g
House - houses
Chair - Chairs
Conversion of singular to plural
When the singular noun ends in: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o
Form the plural by adding “-es".
Sandwich - sandwiches
brush - brushes
bus - buses
box - boxes
potato - potatoes
singular noun ends in "y", we change
“y” for “ies”
Butterfly - Butterflies
do not change the "y" for "ies" when the singular noun
ends in "y" preceded by a vowel.
day - days
toy - toys
which do not form the plural in this way
Woman - Women
Child - Children
Sheep - Sheep
Child - children
Man - men
Ox - oxen
Deer - deer
Series - series
Sheep - sheep
Species - species
Mouse - mice
Person - people
Cactus - Cacti
word that expresses some action or occurrence
Paul rides a bicycle
John types an essay
Action verbs express some physical or mental action
Paul rides a bicycle
Linking verbs make a statement by linking the subject with
word that describes or explains it.
I am riding a bicycle
Being, Been, Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Shall be, Will be
A Word which replaces noun or nouns and designates person,
place or a thing.
John is student
He is student
Rule: A pronoun must agree with the noun it refer to (singular/plural)
The train was late, it had been delayed.
The trains were late, they had been delayed.
Types of Pronouns
• Personal Pronoun (I, me, mine)
• Demonstrative Pronoun (This, That , These, Those)
• Interrogative pronoun (Who, which, what)
Personal pronoun refers to person who is doing the action or
to whom the action affects
e.g. I, me, He, Him, She, Her, We, Us, They, Them.
Which points to a specific thing
This, That, These, Those
They also indicate whether the thing is close or far
"That" (singular) and "Those" (plural) refer to an object or person far AWAY.
Who owns that house? (distant - physical)
Is this John's house? (near - physical)
Used in order to ask a question
What, Which, Who, Whose, Whom
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun / adjective shows the
property of a noun
Which, What kind, How many
The lazy dog sat on the rug, the word lazy is an adjective which gives
more information about the noun dog.
Which contains an adjective?
old man, on Tuesday, she said, and you, afternoon
Bill Clinton, the fire spread, got married, very busy, piece of pie
Which does not contain an adjective?
cold water, until now, rainy day, great idea, gold star
wait here, my friend, is hot, lucky day, that guy
How many adjectives are in the sentence?
The old dog was tired and dirty?
0 1 2 3 4
I ate a piece of cake with my coffee?
0 1 2 3 4
Modifies and describes a verb, an adjective or any other adverb
How -Tom sings well.
When - I can't meet you today.
Where - They will be here soon.
How much - He usually gets good grades.
Which contains an adverb?
rich man, study hard, one time, easy job, hard life
How many adverbs are in
I really woke up too early this morning?
0 1 2 3 4
really, too, early
Adjective and Adverb
An Adjectives shows the relation with a Noun
A Slow Car
An Adverb shows the relation with a verb
He drives slowly
1. He ___ reads a book. (quick)
2. Mandy is a ___ girl. (pretty)
3. The class is ___ loud today. (terrible)
4. Max is a ___ singer. (good)
5. You can ___ open this tin. (easy)
6. It's a ___ day today. (terrible)
7. She sings the song ___. (good)
8. He is a ___ driver. (careful)
9. He ____ drives the car . (careful)
10. The dog barks ___ . (loud)
Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb)
This music is too loud. We can’t talk.
She played badly and she lost the game.
We waited patiently for the letter but it never came.
Please don’t be angry with him.
She asks intelligent questions.
The children are playing together very nicely today.
She’s a very warm person and everyone likes her.
She surprised me when she opened the door suddenly.
You speak English very well.
It’s dangerous to swim in the sea here.
All those words which show the relationship between a
noun/pronoun and another word in
The proposition never stands alone.
The preposition can be one word or group of words.
Some common prepositions
At, By, On, To, For, Of, Through, Up, Off, Onto, Up to,
In, Within, Across, Into, Along, Behind , Below
1. I'm tired __ waiting for you.
2. He hasn't smoked ___ ages.
3. Nina is good __ running.
4. I'm looking ___ my keys. Has anyone found them?
5. They dream __ moving to South Africa.
6. This song was written __ Madonna
7. You can look the word __ in a dictionary.
8. I can't come to the party. Don't wait ___ me.
9. She had problems __ reading the instructions.
10. The police car chased the robbers _______ the streets.
Which is not correct?
in February, on 5:00 o'clock, at my house, on May 2
at California, under the rug, at noon , on Friday
in a minute, in October, in the table, in 1949, in my ear
A word that joins words or group of words
And - They ate and drank.
Or - He will be here on Monday or Tuesday
Neither/nor Neither - John knew the answer nor Tom.
Either/Or - Either Neil or peter can give speech
But - She is small but strong.
So - I was tired so I went to sleep
(After, Before, Unless, Although, if, Until, as, Since, When, Because, Then)
Which conjunction fits best in the sentence:
1. I am hungry ___ I don't want to eat.
but , so, after, before , or
2. Do you want pizza ___ a hamburger?
Than, so, while, as, or
3. He ate ___ he was hungry.
If, so, or, although, because
How many conjunctions are in the sentence:
After Ben and Sid come, we can leave.
0 1 2 3 4
1. People cause accidents when they drink and drive.
2. You should know that smoking is bad for your health.
3. Linda’s father always watches TV when he comes home.
4. Do you know when he started playing chess?
5. Tim knew that he will work in his holidays.
6. I can’t understand why she hasn’t phoned yet.
7. They were very proud because they won.
8. He broke his arm when he fell down the tree.
9. She wanted to open the door but she couldn’t find the key.
10. He didn’t know what time they left the party.
words which express the emotions
(Ouch, Oh no, Hey, Shh, Yeah, well)