Auditory Perception• Timeline – 0wk: Emotional contagion • Cry when other infants cry
Visual Perception• Timeline – 2wk: Hard to perceive others emotions • Vision still poor, Only look at facial boundaries/edges – 3mo: Can discern happy, sad, and angry faces – 3mo: Distressed by still faces (emotionless) – 9mo: Social referencing • If mom likes X, so will the infant • If mom dislikes X, the infant will avoid it
In Developing Nations• Patterns – 0mo: Mother and infant never apart – 6mo: Care delegated to older girls • Infants are among many people • Infants are held/carried almost constantly • Fathers are often remote/absent in the first year
In the West• Patterns – Nuclear family – Sleep in a separate room from birth – Mother and infant are alone for most of the day – The infant may be left in a crib/seat for significant periods – Fathers relatively more involved
Theories of Social Development• Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development• Attachment theory
Theories of Social Development• Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development – “Trust vs. Mistrust” is the developmental challenge in infancy – Infants are born entirely dependent on others – They need someone they can reliably trust for food, warmth, protection, and love – Basic trust in the social world generalizes from these early experiences of trust or mistrust
Theories of Social Development• Attachment Theory – Children need a primary caregiver with sensitive responsiveness for social and emotional development to proceed normally – The infant uses this attachment figure as a secure base to explore from and return to – The caregiver’s responses create internal working models that guide the child’s perceptions, emotions, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships
Attachment Theory• Key Contributors – Konrad Lorenz – Harry Harlow – John Bowlby – Mary Ainsworth – Mary Main – Allan Schore
Lorenz• Imprinting – Time-sensitive attachment behavior – Lorenz demonstrated geese imprint on the first moving stimulus they see within a “critical period” (13-16 hours after hatching) – Goslings could even imprint on Lorenz himself!
Harlow• The Wire Mother Experiments – Demonstrated attachment is not based on food, as was previously thought • Gave young rhesus monkeys a choice between two different “mothers,” one made of soft terrycloth who provided no food and the other made of wire who provided food in a bottle – Monkeys spent almost all time with the cloth mother – When scared, monkeys would return to the cloth mother – When the cloth mother was removed, the monkeys’ health deteriorated
Bowlby• Deprivation Studies – Observed that hospitalized children separated from their parents went on to develop significant problems – Orphans completely deprived of maternal attachment would become anaclitically depressed and eventually die due to lack of interest in food – Saw attachment as an innate survival mechanism
Ainsworth• The “Strange Situation” – An experiment to assess the attachment style between mother and child – Believed that a mother’s sensitive response to her child (attunement) determines the attachment style: • Secure attachment • Insecure-avoidant attachment • Anxious-ambivalent attachment • Disorganized attachment
Main• Adult Attachment Inventory – Used to assess attachment patterns in adults – Finding: Childhood attachment styles persist into adulthood!
Schore• Neuroscience – Sees attachment as a co-regulating system • The mother regulates the child • The child regulates the mother – Proper brain development depends on attachment • “The Effects of Poor Attachment on Brain Development”