Human Development-Chapter 8, Emotional and Social Development of Infants


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Human Development-Chapter 8, Emotional and Social Development of Infants

  1. 1. Human Development I Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development of Infants
  2. 2. Learning Objectives and FCS Standards  Learning Objective: Students will identify the difference between emotional and social development, understand what occurs with emotional and social development in the first year and the caregiver’s role, identify the importance of attachment, and define temperament and identify various types of temperament.  FCS Standards: FCS 06-12.4.1, 4.A, 4.B, 0612.5.1, 5.A, 5.B, 5.C
  3. 3. Social and Emotional Development What’s the difference?  Emotional Development: the process of learning to recognize and express feelings and establish a unique personal identity.   Social Development: the process of learning selfexpression and how to interact with others.   Healthy emotional development helps a child become an adult who is self-confident, able to handle stress, and empathetic to the feelings of others. Healthy social development helps a child become an adult who communicates well with others, listens to different points of view before acting, and shows tolerance for other people. These 2 areas of development are connected in that feelings children have about themselves will be reflected in their behavior toward others.
  4. 4. How do emotions develop during the first year of life?  Emotions become more specific with age.  At birth, the range of emotion is limited-pain and discomfort are expressed through crying and contentment is expressed through being quiet.  Between the end of month 1-2, babies start to show delight by smiling.  In the second month, babies also begin to show different feelings through different cries.  Opinions differ on when a baby begins to show angersome say as early as 3-6 months, others feel it’s toward the end of the first year.
  5. 5. What does bonding have to do with emotional development?  Attachment: The bond that forms between a child and care-giver.  A strong sense of attachment between baby and caregiver builds trust and allows the baby to feel secure. By feeling secure, they relate better to others.  Erikson theorized that the first year of life is when infants learn to trust or mistrust the world.  The most critical period of time in the formation of bonding is the first few months of life. Attachment is not fully formed until about age 2.
  6. 6. How is attachment formed?  Physical contact-being held, gentle touching or massage, patting on the back.  Communication-Babies respond to a care-givers voice, facial expressions, and eye contact. As babies mature their non-verbal communication grows to hugs and walking or crawling to the care-giver.  Predictable routines.  Meeting baby’s needs.  Giving baby your undivided attention and spending quality time with them, as much as you can.
  7. 7. What happens when attachment is not formed?  Failure to thrive: a condition in which babies fail to grow and develop properly.  If an infant’s needs aren’t met, they don’t trust their environment and they eventually fail to respond to people and become withdrawn. This can affect their ability to form relationships for the rest of their life.
  8. 8. Understanding Temperament  Temperament: A person’s unique nature, which determines how a baby reacts to others and the world.  Revealed in how children react to various situations.
  9. 9. Types of Temperament  Researchers have identified nine different temperament traits. Each child has each trait to a greater or lesser degree. A baby needs to be looked at in terms of all traits together. 1. Intensity Persistence Sensitivity Perceptiveness Adaptability Regularity Energy First Reaction Mood 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. As we go through all nine traits, rate yourself on the worksheet What Is Your Temperament?
  10. 10. Temperament Traits 1. Intensity-the intensity of a child’s emotional response.  An intense baby may cry loudly, while a less intense baby will cry more softly.
  11. 11. Temperament Traits 2. Persistence-how determined is a child to complete an action. A persistent child may become easily upset if unable to complete a task and are unwilling to give up. A less persistent child can easily be persuaded to begin a new activity.
  12. 12. Temperament Traits 3. Sensitivity-how strongly does a child react to his/her feelings?  Highly sensitive children may be bothered by sights, sounds or smells. They may be a fussy eater or complain of uncomfortable clothing.
  13. 13. Temperament Traits 4. Perceptiveness-how aware are they of the environment around them?  Highly perceptive children get distracted easily and have a harder time following directions.  Children lower in perceptiveness are less likely to notice what’s going on around them.
  14. 14. Temperament Traits 5. Adaptability-how do they adapt to change?  Children who are low in adaptability resist change. A highly adaptable child isn’t bothered by surprises.
  15. 15. Temperament Traits 6. Regularity-does the child’s behavior follow regular patterns?  Children who are highly regular get tired and hungry at the same time each day.
  16. 16. Temperament Traits 7. Energy-what is their energy level?  High energy children are physically active and may have trouble sitting for long periods of time.
  17. 17. Temperament Traits 8. First reaction-how do they face new situations?  High=open to new activities, willing to try new foods.  Low=watch others before joining, less comfortable in unfamiliar situations.
  18. 18. Temperament Traits 9. Mood-is the child typically cheerful or cranky?  High=cranky, points out problems  Low=cheerful, positive
  19. 19. Crying and Comforting  Newborns vary in how much they cry.   Some babies are referred to as “easy”-easy to comfort and don’t cry as much Some are referred to as “hard”-harder to comfort and cry more often.  Babies cry for a reason. When caring for a baby, check to see if it’s a physical problem-hungry, needing a diaper change, too hot or cold, needing to burp.  If none of these are the cause, baby may want your company-to be cuddled and comforted. These are real needs too!
  20. 20. Ways to comfort a baby.  Cuddling-being rocked and held.  Move baby to a different position.  Talk softly or sing to baby.  Offer something that interests them.  Stroke or gently rub baby’s back.  After some time, babies learn ways to comfort themselves.
  21. 21. Colic  Colic: a condition in babies that results in an extended period of time crying. Baby is also inconsolable.  Usually happens between 6pm and midnight.  Often worst when baby is about 6 weeks old.  These period continue to decrease until they finally end.  Doctors aren’t sure what causes colic-it may stem from certain foods.
  22. 22. Reflux  Reflux: A condition in which partially digested food rises into the throat.  Can cause colic-like symptoms.  When in doubt if it’s colic or reflux, ask a pediatrician.
  23. 23. Thumb Sucking and Pacifiers  Sucking is a basic urge for babies. Remember, a reflex.   Some babies suck on their thumbs or fingers. The behavior usually stops on its own and generally does not cause problems, unless it changes the shape of the mouth.  Other babies find comfort in sucking on a pacifier. As long as the pacifier is appropriate for their age, is the correct size, and does not replace food, it’s considered safe. They should also not be tied around baby’s neck and should be kept clean.
  24. 24. The Emotional Climate of the Home  Babies sense the emotional state of their caregiver.  It’s important to keep your emotions in control when parenting your baby.  Very negative environments can actually hinder baby’s development.  Single parents may need extra support, as they take on the responsibility of parenting on their own. Finding ways to release frustration and anger when away from their children is important.
  25. 25. Social Development  Social Development follows a pattern just like emotional and physical development.  Social developmental milestones pg. 268-269
  26. 26. Signs of Social Development  Stranger anxiety: a fear of unfamiliar people, usually expressed by crying. Develops around 8 months old.  How can caregivers help a child deal with stranger anxiety?
  27. 27. Scenario…  Carla and Eric’s 10 month old daughter, Lily, is displaying typical signs of stranger anxiety. Lily’s daily babysitter is moving out of town in a month.  What steps should Carla and Eric take now to ensure a smooth transition for Lily and her new caretaker? (write them on the board)  Which steps would be most effective?
  28. 28. How is behavior learned?  Infants learn how to behave through their relationships with others.  They learn that some actions get a positive response from the caregiver-smiling, laugher, hugs, praise and some actions receive negative responsesscolding and frowning.  Babies develop better social behaviors if they get more positive responses than negative.  It’s also important to be clear and consistent when communicating with baby.
  29. 29. Babies learn through play.  Play is how babies learn about the environment around them. Socially, it helps them learn how to interact with others.  What are some ways caregivers can play with infants?
  30. 30. Exploring through play.  Babies learn and explore through cause and effect: understanding that one event (the effect) is caused by another event.    CRY=NEEDS MET (comfort and food) DROP A TOY=TOY WILL FALL Even though exploration is an innate behavior, encouragement and positive responses from caregivers motivates babies to explore and learn even more.