Leadership
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Presentation at VGU - BIS 2012

Presentation at VGU - BIS 2012

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  • What were the personality characteristics and the physical and psychological attributes of people who are viewed as leaders?Because of the problems in measurement of personality traits at the time (1940s), different studies used different measures -> researches failed.We’re going to:Explain the traits that are associated with leadership.Discuss the limitations of trait approaches to leadership.
  • Big FiveOpenness: meaning = Being curious, creative, flexible and open to new ideas.Conscientiousness = Being organized, systematic, dependableExtraversion = Being outgoing, sociableLeaders who like being around people and are able to assert themselves (extraverted), who are disciplined and able to keep commitments they make (conscientious), and who are creative and flexible (open) do have an apparent advantage when it comes to leadership=> This trait normally indicate the way leader emerge.The next trait MAY indicate an effective leader.EQ:People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self awareness, social skills and tend to have the ability to be a leader.According to Daniel Goleman, what differentiates effective leaders from ineffective ones becomes their ability to control their own emotions and understand other people’s emotionsConclusion:we can say that traits can predict leadershipTraits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.traits theory gave rise to the idea that leaders are born not madesuited to selecting leaders than developing them
  • When trait researchers became failed in the 1940s, their attention turned to studying leader behaviors.What did effective leaders actually do?Can we train people to be leaders?
  • Task Oriented (Initiating structure):leaders help employees understand what is expected of them and then manage their activities to accomplish business objectives.People Oriented (Consideration):People-oriented leaders genuinely care about the well-being of their employees, and they demonstrate their concern in their actions and decisionsFor example, when leaders demonstrate people-oriented behaviors, employees tend to be more satisfied and react more positively.However, when leaders are task oriented, productivity tends to be a bit higher.Some leaders may have the right traits or display the right behaviors and still fail. We need to think about the CONTEXT of leadership.This approach may not suit all circumstances; for example, emergencies or turnarounds
  • Under which conditions are certain leadership styles more effective? OR, In situation X, leadership style A may perform better than style B and vice versa.
  • Step 1: Identity leadership style by a questionnaireLPC questionnaire: 16 – 18 questions(Least Preferred Coworker)Scoring: +64 = high LPC leader: tend to be relationship oriented-57 = low LPC: tend to be task orientedStep 2: Define situationLMR: ?Position Power: ?Task Structure: ?Step 3: Matching style and situation to reach a maximum of leadership effectiveness. => Which style is best suited?
  • Leaders have to use different leadership styles depend on the followers’ readiness
  • - After MrChuong talk about the long lasting theories, I will continue with the contemporaray theories / new research about leadership: charismatic & transformational.Can be born to be a leader: Yes; Can be trained to be a leader: Yes -> Individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviorsYes  charisma appears most successful when people sense a crisis, when they are under stress, or when they fear for their lives. Ex: In 1997, when Apple Computer was floundering and lacking direction, the board persuaded charismatic co-founder Steve Jobs to return
  • In a team sport, you need to understand the foundation of teamwork in order to become an effective leader.It’s not quite that simple. In order to reach collaborative nirvana, you first need to learn and embrace what we call the “three pillars” of social skills. These three principles aren’t just about greasing the wheels of relationships; they’re the foundation on which all healthy interaction and collaboration are based.HumilityYou are not the center of the universe. You’re neither omni-scient nor infallible. You’re open to self-improvement.* Lose the ego* Be open to Influence - Be vulnerable !!!! Criticism is almost never personal in a professional software engineering environment—it’s usually just part of the process of making a better product. The trick is to make sure you (and those around you) understand the difference between constructive criticism of someone’s creative output and flat-out assaults against someone’s characterRespectYou genuinely care about others you work with. You treat them as human beings, and appreciate their abilities and accomplishments.* Learn to Both Deal Out and Handle CriticismTrustYou believe others are competent and will do the right thing, and you’re OK with letting them drive when appropriate. “The Servant leader?” – it is, basically.As a leader, you should strive to create an atmosphere of HRT.This may mean removing bureaucratic obstacles that an engineer can’t remove by herself, helping a team achieve consensus, or even buying dinner for the team when they’re working late at the office. The servant leader fills in the cracks to smooth the way for her team as well as advise them when necessary, but still isn’t afraid of getting her hands dirty. The only managing that a servant leader does is to manage both the technical and social health of the team; as tempting as it may be to focus purely on the technical health of the team, the social health of the team is just as important (but often infinitely harder to manage!)***** BONUS *****What else: Fail fast, iterate, learnThere’s a well-known (and clichéd) urban legend in the business world about a manager who makes a mistake and loses an impressive $10 million. He dejectedly goes into the office the next day and starts packing up his desk, and when he gets the inevitable “the CEO wants to see you in his office” call, he trudges into the CEO’s office and quietly slides a piece of paper across the desk to the CEO. “What’s this?” asks the CEO.“My resignation,” says the exec. “I assume you called me in here to fire me.”“Fire you?” responds the CEO, incredulously. “Why would I fire you? I just spent $10 million training you!” 6It’s an extreme story, to be sure, but the CEO in this story understands that firing the exec wouldn’t undo the $10 million loss, and it would compound it by losing a valuable executive who you can be damned sure won’t make that kind of mistake again.
  • PersonalitySuitable traitExtraversion, conscientiousness or opennessCan’t be introvert or neuroticismCompetence in behaviorInitiating structureConsiderationAuthentic: trust and ethical modelContext: based on company position in the market: apply contingency modelsFiedler model: people oriented (task oriented?)Situational theory: based on ability and willingness of followers. The leader should be smart in situational contextCharismatic & transformational (open question: can it be transactional?)
  • Besides those theory concept, he needs more than that. * Company culture is critically important. He needs to breath the same air with the employees * Have a great vision to align people * Leadership track record is a must. However this can be dangerous, as we will see in next real world example
  • Carol has been hugely successful at Autodesk, bring five times more revenue. But she failed miserably at Yahoo – fired over the phoneFiedler’s contingency model, Bartz’s task-oriented style was not effective in improving Yahoo’s performance. Autodesk is a software company with famous products like Autocad, Photoshop, etc It’s totally different from Yahoo, which is an internet and media companyFailed to provide the visionary leadership and focused strategic direction and execution needed to position the company for growth.
  • It’s amazing that a corporation at a size of GE, over more than 50 years only has four CEO generations.And all of them are promoted from within GE. Some of them have spent their entire career with GE.
  • WinningTo be an employee first, then a leaderThe first E Energy, vitalityEnergetic people are optimistic, positive, the ability to work with people exchanges, like to make friends.always full of enthusiasm for the day of work, they will not work in a state of fatigue there.They will happily end of a day’s work.In a certain sense, represents a positive attitude vitality, as long as a positive action, it will continue to progress,constantly!Dynamic means do something in the spirit of desire, like innovation.This is precisely the essential quality of success!The second E, Energize, referring to the ability to inspire othersOne person alone can do things to make much progress, it is very small. Everybody’s cause, must have help from other people, which means to be a team. Inspire your team to take the lead in their vitality, enabling them to be more active, it is very important! Not only inspire others and generous speech, but has a deep understanding of business needs,hold excellent persuasion skills and create an atmosphere of a wake-up call to others. This capability is very important, it further in a person’s success Lane plays a vital role.The third E, determinationIn the life of every person will encounter the problem is a lot of trouble for the same thing.Anyone who share their different perspectives.Smart people are willing to go to the analysis of the issue from all angles, buthave determination, the people know when to stop and even if he did not have all the information,also needs to make a firm decision.For most people decisiveness, it is a mortal wound.The fourth E, executionMany people have talked about the problem of implementation, it looks like a very good understanding of the enforceability of the magnitude, depth,in the end there is little that is not always true!Implementation, implementation, implementation of effective moving forward step by step, so as to ultimately achieve goals.Including our own, and how their goals?Their hands, minds to the task to write in a notebook, how life goals?Used as a standard to test the concept that the majority of people are not very fuzzy?I think this is the way.You can have a positive and uplifting vitality know how to inspire everyone around to make a firm judgment.But you have not straddle end.Executive power is a kind of a special, unique skills.It means that a person must decide how those actions, and continue to move forward, the ultimate target.which also experienced resistance, confusion or outside interference and the implementation of the results is very aware only win!The final P, passionPassion is a word appears eager to make people feel that when I see it, every cell were excited. I hope to give them greater enthusiasm. Many people have heard about this, success can only bigots, I think passion is one of bigotry. Away from the passion and dedication from all negative factors. The passion of a lot of things in life are full of curiosity and for a more in-depth understanding. It obsession born with the passion, the passion insights acquired envy. The goal of their passion in front of a success!
  • In 2008, facing a serious shortage of leadership-ready employees at the store management level, Walmart decided to recruit from the U.S. military: 150 junior military officers. The result: Walmart claims that it’s been able to bring in world-class leaders who were ready to take over once they had learned the retail business that Walmart could easily teach them. Other organizations that have heavily recruited from the military in recent years include GE, Home Depot, Lowe’s, State Farm Insurance, Merck, and Bank of America A long tradition of books and seminars advises leaders to think like military leaders ranging from Sun Tzu to Norman Schwarzkopf. And military veterans do have a variety of valuable skills learned through experience. Military leaders are also used to having to make due in less than optimal conditions, negotiate across cultures, and operate under extreme stress. However, they do have to relearn some lessons from the service. Like Google, there is nothing like the chain of command military leaders are used to. Still, most forecasts suggest there will be an ample supply of battle-tested military leaders ready to report for corporate duty in the near future, and many companies are eager to have them.
  • In 2008, facing a serious shortage of leadership-ready employees at the store management level, Walmart decided to recruit from the U.S. military: 150 junior military officers. The result: Walmart claims that it’s been able to bring in world-class leaders who were ready to take over once they had learned the retail business that Walmart could easily teach them. Other organizations that have heavily recruited from the military in recent years include GE, Home Depot, Lowe’s, State Farm Insurance, Merck, and Bank of America A long tradition of books and seminars advises leaders to think like military leaders ranging from Sun Tzu to Norman Schwarzkopf. And military veterans do have a variety of valuable skills learned through experience. Military leaders are also used to having to make due in less than optimal conditions, negotiate across cultures, and operate under extreme stress. However, they do have to relearn some lessons from the service. Like Google, there is nothing like the chain of command military leaders are used to. Still, most forecasts suggest there will be an ample supply of battle-tested military leaders ready to report for corporate duty in the near future, and many companies are eager to have them.

Leadership Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Leadership Team members: • Mai Nam Chuong • Pham Tan Liem • Nguyen Huu Quang Instructor: Prof. Tomas Benz
  • 2. 2 Agenda Theories • Leadership vs. management • Characteristics of leader • Behavior of leader • Leadership by context • Contemporary theories Challenges • Ethics • Trust • Culture • Remote leadership Practices • Find a suitable leader • Train a leader
  • 3. 3 Theories Theories • Leadership vs. management • Characteristics of leader • Behavior of leader • Leadership by context • Contemporary theories Challenges • Ethics • Trust • Culture • Remote leadership Practices • Find a suitable leader • Train a leader
  • 4. 4 Leadership • The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision • Formal influence due to organization structure • Informal influence outside the formal structure Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 5. 5 Leadership vs. Management • Leader: • Challenge status • Create visions • Inspire members • Manager: • Formulate plans • Oversee day-to-day operation Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 6. 6 Trait theories • Who is a leader? • Identify a set of traits (personal attributes) that distinguished leaders from non-leaders. • Predict a leader Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 7. 7 Trait theories (2) • Big Five • Openness • Conscientiousness • Extraversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism • Emotional Intelligence Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 8. 8 Behavioral theories • What do leaders do? • Can we train people to be leader? Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 9. 9 Behavioral categories • Task oriented: Focus on the completion of particular tasks as a measure of success • People oriented: Focus on employee’s feeling and treat employees with respects Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 10. 10 Contingency theories • Situational influences • Under which conditions are certain leadership styles more effective? Contingency • • • • Fiedler Model Situational leadership Path-Goal theory Leader Participant theory Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 11. 11 Contingency theories (2) • Fiedler Model • Identify leadership style • Define situation • Match style and situation Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 12. 12 Contingency theories (3) • Situational Leadership • Is employee able to work? • Does employee willing to work? Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 13. 13 Contingency theories (4) • Other theories • Path-Goal theory • Leader-Participation theory Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 14. 14 Contemporary theories • Charismatic leaders • Refer to someone with certain gifts or abilities • Gain followers through personality rather than through power • Have a vision • Willing to take risk to achieve that vision • Sensitive to followers needs • Exhibit extraordinary behaviors  Are charismatic leaders born or made?  Does effective charismatic leadership depend on the situation? Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 15. 15 Transformational vs. transactional leadership Transactional leaders • Path-goal theory • Task focused Transformational leaders • Inspired followers • People focused Leadership Trait Behavior Context Contemporary theories
  • 16. 16 Challenges of leadership Theories • Leadership vs. management • Characteristics of leader • Behavior of leader • Leadership by context • Contemporary theories Challenges • Ethics • Trust • Culture • Remote leadership Practices • Find a suitable leader • Train a leader
  • 17. 17 Challenges of leadership What are critical issues a leader will cope with? ETHICS TRUST CULTURE REMOTE LEADERSHIP
  • 18. 18 Ethics The problem is: A leader, who has lots of rights, is easy to abuse power! Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 19. 19 Ethics (2) Ethical leaders Unethical leader • Know what’s right & wrong • Encourage ethical behaviors • Use their power to serve the others • Enhance power over followers • Use power to serve themselves Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 20. 20 Trust The problem is: Loses followers’ trust  negative effects: • Employees do not believe the leader any more • Leader cannot encourage employee • Employees will refuse to do task assigned by leader Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 21. 21 Trust (2) The solution  authentic leaders: • Know who you are • Know what you value • Share information • Encourage open communication • Stick to your ideals Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 22. 22 Culture The problem is: Different cultures need different leader characteristics! Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 23. 23 Culture (2)  To become effective leaders: • Sensitivity to cultural differences • Adapt style when work with people from different cultures Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 24. 24 Remote leadership The problem is: Due to the lack of interacting face-to-face, it’s hard to: • Read nonverbal cues • Express opinions • Build trust & relationship • Manage conflict Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership What does this emoticon mean?
  • 25. 25 Remote leadership (2) The good solution is: • Develop & maintain TRUST • Inspiration through keyboard words • Accurately read emotion in other’s messages Ethics Trust Culture Remote leadership
  • 26. 26 Practices Theories • Leadership vs. management • Characteristics of leader • Behavior of leader • Leadership by context • Contemporary theories Challenges • Ethics • Trust • Culture • Remote leadership Practices • Find a suitable leader • Train a leader
  • 27. A talented programmer got a new assignment - lead a team of 15 others 27
  • 28. A senior programmer got a new assignment - lead a team of 15 others • Can he survive? • He will need a significant “upgrade” • Leadership • Communication, delegation • Paradigm shift: “me” to “them” • Some people never get it! 28
  • 29. 29 Foundation of teamwork – HRT Principles The art of “playing well with others” Source: Brian W., Ben C., Team Geek – A Software Developer’s Guide to Working Well with Others
  • 30. 30 Microsoft case Steve Ballmer, Microsoft CEO, 2000 – 2013 Leading Microsoft into the future
  • 31. 31 Microsoft case (2) “Maybe I'm an emblem of an old era, and I have to move on ... As much as I love everything about what I'm doing, the best way for Microsoft to enter a new era is a new leader who will accelerate change.” Source: http://www.businessinsider.com/steve-ballmer-heres-the-real-reason-im-leaving-microsoft-2013-11
  • 32. 32 Microsoft case (3) Trait • • • • Extraversion Openness Conscientiousness Emotional intelligence Behavior • Initiating structure • Consideration • Authentic: ethics and trustworthy Context • People oriented • Situational awareness • Charismatic and Transformational
  • 33. 33 Microsoft case (4) • Understand company culture • Visionary • Leadership track records
  • 34. 34 Yahoo CEO 2009-2011: Carol Bartz • Proven track record at Autodesk: revenues $300 million -> $1.5 billion • Fired as CEO of Yahoo after 2.5 years • Task-oriented • Unclear vision and strategic direction
  • 35. 35 Generations of Yahoo CEOs Source: http://www.ndtv.com/photos/gadgets/yahoo-ceo-the-cursed-job-13431 http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bc?s=YHOO
  • 36. 36 Generation of General Electric CEOs Source: https://www.ge.com/about-us/leadership/past-leaders http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bc?s=GE
  • 37. 37 GE leadership framework: 4E – 1P Energy Energize Passion Edge Integrity Source: Jack Welch and Suzy Welch, Winning Leadership Execution Intelligent Maturity Employee
  • 38. 38 Summary Trait Behavior Leadership Context 4E – 1P
  • 39. Q&A If you have any questions, please ask us! 39
  • 40. EXERCISES More practices to do
  • 41. 41 What are the characteristics of leaders • Form 3 groups of 3-5 members. • Brainstorm (at least 5 points): • What are the characteristics of a leader? • What do you think about a leader? • What do you expect in this topic?
  • 42. 42 Ethical dilemma: Undercover leaders Summary: • Television show: Leader working undercover in his/her company to find out how the organization really works • Some criticize the show for its faux realism: CEOs know the camera so every word & facial expression is for the camera • Recently, Australian government created a program that places CEOs undercover in their own workplaces
  • 43. 43 Ethical dilemma: Undercover leaders Questions: 1. Do you think it is ethical for a leader to go undercover in his or her organization? Why or why not? 2. Do you think leaders who work undercover are really changed as a result of their experiences? 3. Would you support a government program that gave companies incentives to send leaders undercover?
  • 44. 44 Case Incident 1: Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle
  • 45. 45 Case Incident 1: Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle Summary: In 2008, facing a serious shortage of leadership-ready employees at the store management level, Walmart decided to recruit from the U.S. military: 150 junior military officers. The result: • Walmart claims that it’s been able to bring in world-class leaders who were ready to take over once they had learned the retail business that Walmart could easily teach them.
  • 46. 46 Case Incident 1: Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle • Military veterans do have a variety of valuable skills learned through experience • Make decision in less than optimal conditions • Negotiate across cultures • Operate under extreme stress. • However, they do have to relearn some lessons from the service (ex: at Google, there is nothing like the chain of command military leaders are used to) • Still, most forecasts suggest there will be an ample supply of battle-tested military leaders ready to report for corporate duty in the near future, and many companies are eager to have them.
  • 47. 47 Case Incident 1: Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle Questions: 1. Do you think leaders in military contexts exhibit the same qualities as organizational leaders? Why or why not? 2. In what ways not mentioned in the case would military leadership lessons not apply in the private sector? What might military leaders have to re-learn to work in business? 3. Are specific types of work or situations more likely to benefit from the presence of “battle-tested” leaders? List a few examples.
  • 48. 48 Case Incident 2: Leadership Factories
  • 49. 49 Case Incident 2: Leadership Factories Questions: 1. Management consulting firms did very well on a per-employee basis, partly because they are mostly made up of managers (as opposed to blue-collar or entry-level workers). How big a factor do you think composition of the workforce is in likelihood of producing a CEO? 2. Do you think so-called leadership factories are also better places for non-leaders to work? Why or why not? 3. Assume you had job offers from two companies that differed only in how often they produced CEOs. Would this difference affect your decision? 4. Do these data support the value of leader selection and leader development? Why or why not?