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207492751 examples-of-unethical-behavior-in-the-workplace


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207492751 examples-of-unethical-behavior-in-the-workplace

  1. 1. Get Homework/Assignment Done Homework Help Research Paper help Online Tutoring click here for freelancing tutoring sites Examples of Unethical Behavior in the Workplace by Victoria Duff, Demand Media Ethics is based on the recognition of certain human rights. An individual has the right not to be deliberately deceived. He has the right not to be forced to go against his conscience. He has the right to expect other parties to live up to their commitments and to behave according to the law. In the workplace, the employer has the right to expect employees to behave according to company policy.
  2. 2. Adsby Google 4RF - SCADA solutions HighCapacity,Long Range & Secure RadiosforSCADA andTelemetry. Deliberate Deception Deliberate deception in the workplace includes taking credit for work done by someone else, calling in sick in order to go to the beach, sabotaging the work of another person and, in sales, misrepresenting the product or service to get the sale. There are other examples of deliberate deception, but these show how damaging deception can be by using a person's trust to undermine his rights and security. In a workplace environment, this results in conflict and retaliation. In a sales function, it can result in lawsuits from deceived customers. Violation of Conscience Your sales manager calls you into his office and threatens to fire you unless you sell 50 large toasters. You know the large toasters are inferior products and have been selling the small toasters to your customers, instead. To keep your job, you must violate your conscience and recommend that your customers buy the large toasters. Your boss is engaging in unethical behavior by forcing you to do something you know is wrong, and also risking the ire and potential loss of valuable customers to meet a product sales goal. He may be engaging in unethical conduct because top management has forced him by threatening his job, too. Coercion is also the basis for workplace sexual harassment and results in lawsuits. Unethical behavior often causes more unethical behavior. RelatedReading:Common Workplace Ethics Violations Failure to Honor Commitments Your boss promises you an extra day off if you rush out an important project by a certain date. You work late hours and finish the project before the deadline. Ready for your day off, you mention it to your boss who responds "No, we have too much work to do." Your boss engaged in unethical behavior that has virtually guaranteed your future distrust and unwillingness to extend yourself to assist in department emergencies. In addition, you are likely to complain to your co- workers, causing them to distrust the promises of the boss and be unwilling to cooperate with his requests. Unlawful Conduct Padding an expense account with non-business expenses, raiding the supply cabinet to take home pens and notebooks and passing around unregistered or counterfeit software are examples of unlawful conduct in the workplace. The person who steals from the company by padding her
  3. 3. expense account or taking supplies for personal use risks losing her job. If a company decides to overlook such theft on the basis of maintaining employee morale by not firing a popular employee, other employees will also steal so they can feel they are getting the same deal as their co-worker. Passing around counterfeit software, if discovered by the manufacturer, can cost the company through lawsuits and fines. Disregard of Company Policy An employer is understandably concerned about avoiding lawsuits and angry customers because those things negatively affect profitability. Most employers clearly state company policies against deception, coercion and illegal activities. They also strive to convey an image of trustworthiness to their customers and employees. Corporate trustworthiness helps retain customers and valued employees, and the loss of either also negatively affects company profitability. To disregard company policy is unethical because it has the potential to harm the company and other employees. References (3)  GraziadioSchool of Management:CreatingandSustaininganEthical Workplace Culture;Charles D. Kerns;2003  The Centerfor AssociationLeadership:Ethicsinthe Workplace;JoshuaJoseph;October2000  StetsonUniversity:Identifying,ResolvingandManagingCommonEthical Dilemmasinthe Workplace;WilliamA.Andrews;2000 Aboutthe Author Victoria Duff specializes in entrepreneurial subjects, drawing on her experience as an acclaimed start-up facilitator, venture catalyst and investor relations manager. Since 1995 she has written many articles for e-zines and was a regular columnist for "Digital Coast Reporter" and "Developments Magazine." She holds a Bachelor of Arts in public administration from the University of California at Berkeley. Photo Credits  Misunderstandingimage byGeorge Wadafrom Common Workplace Ethics Violations by Chris Joseph,Demand Media Perhaps one of the most important actions you can take as a business owner is the establishment of a written code of ethics. This may help prevent the occurrence of many forms of unethical workplace behavior. Unethical behavior ranges from stealing office supplies to defrauding a business out of large sums of money.
  4. 4. Adsby Google GermanSpeakingJobs For GermanSpeakingprofessionals:Findjobvacanciesworldwide! Employer Intimidation The 2005 National Business Ethics Study listed employer intimidation as the most common form of ethical violation in the workplace. According to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, intimidation, also known as bullying, typically involves a pattern of verbal abuse directed at any employee by an employer. The employers attempts to assert his power by humiliating the employee. Safety Violations Ethical violations may occur regarding workplace safety. The 2005 National Business Ethics Study indicated that 16 percent of the surveyed employees observed violations of workplace safety regulations. Not following established safety procedures can jeopardize the health, or even the lives of other employees. Even something as simple as not wearing a hard hat or other safety gear can result in worker injury, which impacts the employer as far as lost productivity and possible payment of a workers compensation claim. RelatedReading:Common Ethical Workplace Dilemmas Time Theft Time theft can be a more subtle form of unethical behavior. According to the International Foundation for Protection Officers, common forms of time theft involve altering time cards or time sheets to cover up late arrivals or early departures, or even standing around the water cooler instead of working. Time theft also includes viewing non-work-related websites, or spending time sending emails to friends. Stealing Ethics violations can also involve stealing items, including office supplies and computer equipment. Employees who have access to company finances can steal cash, or use "creative accounting" as a means to embezzle money. Workers may also steal merchandise from a business. The International Foundation for Protection Officers points out that product displays are a frequent target of employee theft.
  5. 5. Misconduct Misconduct in the workplace can take on many forms. Common varieties include sexual harassment, or discriminatory practices, such as age, race or gender bias. The 2005 National Business Ethics Study indicated that 12 percent of employees reported occurrences of discrimination in the workplace, while 9 percent reported occurrences of sexual harassment. References (3)  Associationof CertifiedFraudExaminers:How ManagementCanPreventFraudinthe Workplace  International FoundationforProtectionOfficers:Employee Theft  CanadianCentre forOccupational HealthandSafety:Bullyinginthe Workplace Aboutthe Author Chris Joseph writes for newspapers and online publications, covering business, technology, health, fitness and sports. He holds a Bachelor of Science in marketing from York College of Pennsylvania. Examples of Setting a Good Example in the Workplace by Monica Patrick, Demand Media People don't receive inspiration from employee manuals or corporate memos. Good examples of expected behavior in the workplace are best shown, not told. Natural leaders raise the bar by demonstrating how to face challenges positively while maintaining the right attitude. Even making mistakes can open the door for important teaching opportunities in the workplace. Adsby Google AccountingExcel Formulas SimplifyFinancial Formulas.DownloadThisFree Excel Tool. Customer Service Diffusing volatile situations and placating irate customers are skills that employees need and look for. Set the best examples by taking tough situations in hand. When a customer calls for assistance, don't fake answers. Be honest with the caller about your product knowledge, but assure him that you will find the answer. Keeping the customer informed about the next step and
  6. 6. following up with necessary phone calls is good leadership. Angry walk-in customers need prompt assistance, too. Set the right example by addressing the customer politely but in low tones. Determine as quickly as possible what the problem and solution are. Problem Solving It's easy to spot problems in efficiency and service, but it takes a true leader to find answers. Make it a habit to present thoughtful solutions or give others the chance to communicate potential solutions. Let's say your team notices that a particular product is routinely out of stock. Rather than complain about the inventory issue, you track sales and see that this particular product has been labeled as seasonal, limiting its availability. RelatedReading:Nonverbal Communication Examples in the Workplace Good Coworker Spending large amounts of time together can fray important work relationships. Set good co- worker examples and encourage kind behavior with positive illustrations. Respond to good- natured teasing with humor. At appropriate times, get to know more your fellow employees interests. When a colleague loses his or her temper, remain calm and leave the area. Refrain from name-calling or participating in diversive conversations. Stop Gossip Gossip will diminish team spirit and may harm your team's performance. Be proactive when dealing with gossip. Set the example by assuming the best, not speculating about the worst. This common illustration occurs frequently in the workplace. A talkative employee overhears a private conversation between management members. The nosy employee begins to share that information and tries to "get the scoop" from you. Even if the chatty employee has part of the facts correct, promoting gossip sets a bad example. Instead, say, "Excuse me," then leave with a polite smile. If the gossiper continues, be a little firmer by saying, "I don't want to talk about this." References (3)  JohnsonandWalesUniversity:Top10 ValuedWorkSkills  National ExecutiveInstitute Associates;"LeadingByExample;"RichardMAyres  ReadersDigestVersion:DevelopGoodCoworkerRelations Aboutthe Author As a former senior sales director with Mary Kay and the co-owner of a renovation company, Monica Patrick has firsthand knowledge of small business operations. Besides start ups, she has extensive skills in recruiting, selling, leadership, makeup artistry and skin care.
  7. 7. Photo Credits  Seven Keys to Setting an Example to Be a Good Leader by Kristen May,Demand Media When you are asking others in your business to step up as trustworthy, charismatic and effective leaders, one of the best ways to train them is to model the characteristics of a good leader. As they watch you lead them, they will learn from your example how to be good leaders themselves. Adsby Google AccountingExcel Formulas SimplifyFinancial Formulas.DownloadThisFree Excel Tool. Establish a Clear Vision A good leader must know where he is leading his employees. Therefore, you need to establish a clear vision for the direction of the company and for individual projects. Share the vision with others to give them examples of what vision casting looks like. As the company or market changes, adjust your vision as needed and share the new vision to model flexibility. Communicate Maintain clear lines of communication among yourself and the people who work under you. Leaders need to be able to effectively point others in the right direction and the only way you can do that is if you talk with people, share ideas and respond with concrete communication when changes are occurring. RelatedReading:How to Be an Effective Leader in a Corporation Command Attention If your team respects you, you will have their attention whenever you need to say something and they will respond appropriately. One way to command attention is to refrain from unimportant interactions. For example, consider Michael Scott, a character in the television show "The Office." His employees do not pay attention to him because he rarely has something worth saying.
  8. 8. Listen Nobody likes a leader who refuses to listen to the ideas, suggestions and concerns of those he is leading. Set an example in this area by making yourself accessible to people who have things to share with you. Give eye contact to show that you are listening, repeat back or ask clarifying questions to make sure you understand and implement some of the ideas. Provide Direction As the leader, it is often your fault if an endeavor does not succeed. Demonstrate your proficiency and expertise in the area by offering suggestions and direction for people who are having trouble completing their tasks. Give clear and concrete steps and check back periodically to see how things are going and provide more direction if needed. Chip In Just because you're a leader, that doesn't mean you are exempt from chipping in to help when the people who work under you are bogged down. If a competent employee has too much on his plate, help him with it. People will take notice of your servant leadership and be inspired to help each other as well. Be Visible Let others see what you are doing and how hard you are working by maintaining a steady presence. Your example of strong leadership will not be of much use if nobody notices what you do. References (2)  National ExecutiveInstitute Associates:LeadingbyExample:How We LearnAboutLeadership  Harvard BusinessSchool:WhatMakesa Good Leader? Aboutthe Author Kristen May holds a Bachelor of Arts in psychology, specializing in childhood development. She has been writing for several online publishers covering topics such as entertaining, parenting, cooking, health and wellness, marriage and personal finance. Good Examples of Team Development in the Workplace
  9. 9. by Audra Bianca,Demand Media t is a small business manager's job to develop the members of a work team. Good examples of team development have an important element in common -- they help a team to move forward, increasing in cohesiveness and effectiveness. Team members want to perform because they enjoy the benefits of being on a strong team. Adsby Google Team BuildingActivities Solve A Unique Map-BasedPuzzle PerfectForLarge Groups & Programs Pinpointing Problems A work team can be held back by problems such as a negative emotional tone or specific conflicts between team members. Plan development activities so a team can increase its emotional intelligence. This requires getting the commitment of the group to recognize areas of weakness in terms of emotional intelligence and getting individuals to assume responsibility for changing their individual behaviors. When the group is committed to change, it stands a chance of building a positive emotional tone. Setting Norms It is also important for a manager to examine the norms of the team. A work team may have a set of behavioral norms that differ from norms of other teams. For example, a team places a high value on punctuality of attendance at team meetings but overlooks when team members are frequently late turning in their assignments. A manager needs to raise the norms of the team to meet the norms of the organization, usually set by the top leaders. RelatedReading:How to Motivate a Team With Good Leadership Qualities Meeting Regularly Some teams need a chance to communicate often because they deal with working out the bugs in a product. To provide time for problem-solving sessions, meet with a team first thing every Monday or every morning. Present the newest information that the team needs to know, bring up any problems and let the team brainstorm how to solve problems. For example, if the group is not going to meet a goal this month, let the team members divide up parts of a plan to catch up and meet the goal.
  10. 10. Changing the Scenery Sometimes managers plan time for the team out of the office. If you pick a problem that the company or team should address, team members can work on solutions to it in a different meeting place. Planning fun activities for the same day is optional. Team members need time to build relationships with teammates. As a manager, you need to have clear goals for any team development sessions that you plan. References (2)  Harvard BusinessSchool WorkingKnowledge;PrimalLeadership;Daniel Goleman,etal.;April 8, 2002  Harvard BusinessReviewBlog;Team-BuildingExercisesforTough Times;PatOlsen;March 25, 2009 Aboutthe Author Audra Bianca has been writing professionally since 2007, with her work covering a variety of subjects and appearing on various websites. Her favorite audiences to write for are small- business owners and job searchers. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in history and a Master of Public Administration from a Florida public university. Team-Building Exercises for Efficiency in the Workplace by Erin Schreiner,Demand Media In many workplaces, managers attempt to promote harmony and the building of unity by engaging workers in team-building exercises. If your aim is not only to bolster the development of relationships in your workplace, but also to amp up efficiency, select team-building exercises tailored to meet this aim. By giving your employees a break from the day and engaging them in exercises of this type, you can not only promote the development of strong team unity, but also make increasing efficiency a fun process. Adsby Google Critical ThinkingClasses Customizable trainingmaterialstoteachCritical Thinkingcourses.
  11. 11. Telephone A lack of communication can hinder workplace efficiency. If you think your workers simply aren’t communicating as effectively as they should be, a simple game of telephone may help get your point across. Prepare for this game by writing down a humorous message on an index card and making several copies. Start the game by dividing your employees into teams. Have each team form a circle. Give one member of the team a copy of the card with the phrase. Ask employees to spread the message around the circle, taking turns whispering it into the ear of the person to their left. After the message has moved around the circle, allow the final recipient in each team to share the message with the group. In all likelihood, this message will have changed much from its original version. As employees laugh at the bumbled new message, they will likely learn an important lesson in the value of communication. Productivity Races Turn the completion of daily tasks into an engaging game. Set up a relay race of sorts in which workers must complete tasks they do on a daily basis. For example, one section of your race could have workers opening envelopes as quickly as they can, another setting up a phone line and a third assembling a piece of equipment they use daily. Divide your workforce into teams, and allow them to move through this race, completing the tasks as fast as possible. RelatedReading:Team-Building Exercises or Activities Business BINGO Increase efficiency by building employee knowledge in your team-building game. Create a business BINGO game by writing words germane to your business on BINGO cards. On slips of paper, write definitions that match these words. When time comes to play the game, group employees into groups of two to four. Give each group a BINGO card. Draw the slips of paper containing the definitions out of a hat and ask employees to cross of the words that pair with the definitions if they are present on their cards. Reward the first team to create a pattern of five in a row. Procedures Race Help your employees better understand important procedures within your workplace to enable them to more quickly complete job-related tasks. Take your procedure manual and cut it up, creating separate, un-numbered slips of paper containing parts of your procedure. Place these jumbled procedure slips into an envelope. Complete this process several times, creating different jumbled collections. When game time comes, give each group of employees one envelope and ask them to order the procedure parts as quickly as possible. References (2)  BusinessBalls:Free TeamBuildingGames
  12. 12.  BetterWorkplace Now;Meaningful Team-BuildingActivities Aboutthe Author Erin Schreiner is a freelance writer and teacher who holds a bachelor's degree from Bowling Green State University. She has been actively freelancing since 2008. Schreiner previously worked for a London-based freelance firm. Her work appears on eHow, and RedEnvelope. She currently teaches writing to middle school students in Ohio and works on her writing craft regularly. How to Motivate a Team With Good Leadership Qualities by Jonathan Lister, Demand Media Motivating team members is a challenge with constantly changing parameters. As a team leader, the strategies you employ on any given day to maintain productivity and keep workers focused can change depending on the workplace climate, assigned tasks and looming project deadlines. Good leadership qualities encompass a basic toolkit of motivational strategies to maintain team member cooperation while allowing you the flexibility to tackle daily motivational issues. Adsby Google Performance Management Staff performance management360 and Climate Surveys100% Free! Project a Positive Attitude As a team leader, you can help motivate your team members by projecting a positive attitude regarding project completion and the abilities that each member brings to the group. According to TechRepublic, an information technology and business website, team members can sense your confidence level regarding performance expectations. If you waver or project negative feelings towards team member performance, productivity can suffer. Adjusting project completion dates and team member roles within the group can sustain your positive feelings towards the project without injecting any negativity into the operation.
  13. 13. Present Clear Goals Presenting team members with clear goals and objectives for project completion helps eliminate confusion that can slow down a team's productivity. The clarity in your objectives also allows team members to buy into your vision for completing a given project. When team members understand and agree with your project goals, they work harder to achieve those objectives. This creates an environment where all team members can achieve high levels of productivity and validate your leadership technique as the catalyst for the upturn. RelatedReading:Team Building Activities for Leadership Maintain Open Communication Remain accessible at all times so team members can ask questions, get your opinion on project steps and provide feedback on the project's current status. Your availability plays a large role in motivating team members because it shows your employees that you're taking an active role in project completion. Being unavailable to take team member questions can send a message that you don't consider the project important or don't value team member feedback. This can hurt productivity and diminish the quality of the finished product. Praise and Correct Employees A leader's ability to praise and provide guidance for employees has a significant influence over morale and motivation. Praising employees in full view of other workers encourages employees to perform up to similar levels of productivity to gain comparable accolades. Conversely, correcting employee behaviors in private preserves worker egos, reduces employee embarrassment and allows you, as a leader, to provide focused guidance without the distractions of other team members. Disciplined workers retain feelings of respect for you as a leader and work harder for you because you take the time to provide them with clear steps to improve performance. References (2)  TechRepublic:10+ Things You Can Do to Motivate Your Team  Aboutthe Author Jonathan Lister has been a freelance writer since 2003. His book publications include "Electric Guitars: An Illustrated History" and "Acoustic Guitars: An Illustrated History," both of which were written for Quantum Publishing in January 2010. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in English from Shippensburg University and a Master of Fine Arts in writing and poetics from Naropa University.
  14. 14. 5 Different Types of Leadership Styles by Rose Johnson ,Demand Media Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. Advantages and disadvantages exist within each leadership style. The culture and goals of an organization determine which leadership style fits the firm best. Some companies offer several leadership styles within the organization, dependent upon the necessary tasks to complete and departmental needs. Adsby Google Free EnglishCourses JoinOur 3+ MillionLearners.LearnBasicConversational Skills. Laissez-Faire A laissez-faire leader lacks direct supervision of employees and fails to provide regular feedback to those under his supervision. Highly experienced and trained employees requiring little supervision fall under the laissez-faire leadership style. However, not all employees possess those characteristics. This leadership style hinders the production of employees needing supervision. The laissez-faire style produces no leadership or supervision efforts from managers, which can lead to poor production, lack of control and increasing costs. Autocratic The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone without the input of others. Managers possess total authority and impose their will on employees. No one challenges the decisions of autocratic leaders. Countries such as Cuba and North Korea operate under the autocratic leadership style. This leadership style benefits employees who require close supervision. Creative employees who thrive in group functions detest this leadership style. RelatedReading:Leadership Styles & Team Building Participative Often called the democratic leadership style, participative leadership values the input of team members and peers, but the responsibility of making the final decision rests with the participative leader. Participative leadership boosts employee morale because employees make contributions to the decision-making process. It causes them to feel as if their opinions matter. When a company needs to make changes within the organization, the participative leadership style helps employees accept changes easily because they play a role in the process. This style meets challenges when companies need to make a decision in a short period.
  15. 15. Transactional Managers using the transactional leadership style receive certain tasks to perform and provide rewards or punishments to team members based on performance results. Managers and team members set predetermined goals together, and employees agree to follow the direction and leadership of the manager to accomplish those goals. The manager possesses power to review results and train or correct employees when team members fail to meet goals. Employees receive rewards, such as bonuses, when they accomplish goals. Transformational The transformational leadership style depends on high levels of communication from management to meet goals. Leaders motivate employees and enhance productivity and efficiency through communication and high visibility. This style of leadership requires the involvement of management to meet goals. Leaders focus on the big picture within an organization and delegate smaller tasks to the team to accomplish goals. References (3)  Legacee:Typesof LeadershipStyles ;Typesof LeadershipStyles;JulioWarnerLoiseau  Money-zine:TransactionalLeadership Resources (1)  "The Wall StreetJournal";LeadershipStyles;AlanMurray Aboutthe Author Rose Johnson started her writing career in 2008. She has written articles for several online publications, specializing in business and personal finance. Johnson holds a Bachelor of Business Administration with a concentration in accounting from Texas Southern University. How to Adapt Leadership Styles by Samantha Hanly,Demand Media Many theories of management and styles of leadership exist. In the end, none of them are right and none of them are wrong. Different people respond better to different styles of leadership. To be a truly skilled leader, become aware of the needs of your staff and adapt your leadership style to nurture the most productivity in your workers. Adsby Google DownloadSoftware
  16. 16. DownloadFree PCManager Software forAndroidDevices,DownloadNow ! Step1 Identify your own intrinsic leadership style. Three main categories of leadership styles are autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Autocratic leaders tend to maintain control and tell workers what to do. Democratic leaders support a sense of teamwork and listen to worker opinions before making a decision. Laissez-faire leaders are very hands-off, almost not leaders at all. Laissez-faire leaders, however, are usually available when their help is requested. Knowing and understanding your own natural leadership style is the first step toward adapting your behavior to the needs of your workers. Step2 Recognize the pros and cons of the three main leadership styles. Autocratic leaders often get things done in less time and their workforce is usually quite productive. Productivity slumps when the manager is not present, however. Democratic leaders often gain the respect of their workers. Workers appreciate feeling valued and will work harder for that manager. This type of leadership style can be ineffective when there is a lot of conflict among the staff. Laissez-faire leadership works when there is a high degree of skill and knowledge among the workforce but is sorely lacking when employees are less skilled. All three leadership styles are appropriate in different situations. RelatedReading:How Managers With Different Leadership Styles Motivate Their Teams Step3 Appreciate the diversity among your staff. Diversity in organizational psychology is often seen as differences among people that define or create the culture of the workplace. Dimensions of diversity include gender, age, sexual orientation, religions, ethnicity, education, work experience, military experience, family status and income level. Leave any preconceptions or prejudices at the door, and observe how your staff members relate to one another and to their jobs. Workers with more skill will most likely respond well to democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles; those with less experience will likely respond more to a more autocratic style. Step4 Experiment with different styles to see what works best with your group of workers. Maintain an "open door" policy so that workers can approach you to discuss work-related issues. As you get to know your workers, you will get a sense of how much direction and how much freedom they need to be productive.
  17. 17. References (2)  PennState:Personal LeadershipSkills  The OhioState University;WorkingwithDiverseCultures;Bill Smithetal. Aboutthe Author Samantha Hanly is an organic vegetable gardener, greenhouse gardener and home canner. She grows a substantial portion of her family's food every year. After receiving her bachelor's degree, Hanly embarked on a career teaching dramatic arts, arts and crafts, and languages. She became a professional writer in 2000, writing curricula for use in classrooms and libraries. How Managers With Different Leadership Styles Motivate Their Teams by George N. RootIII,Demand Media There are several different styles of leadership in the corporate world. Each uses its own particular way to motivate employees. There are general leadership styles in which managers reach out and motivate their employees to produce at a high level, and managers incorporate their own personal style when administering their brand of leadership. Adsby Google PDF ConverterDownload EasilyConvertPDFFiles.ConvertDoc,Jpg,Txt,Gif & More. Free App Autocratic Leadership An autocratic manager is one who rarely seeks input from her employees in order to make decisions. This kind of management style can be advantageous in a fast-paced work environment where people need to quickly make the decisions for daily work tasks. Autocratic managers tend to motivate employees by establishing confidence in the manager's ability to make accurate and productive decisions. Employees become comfortable with the manager's knowledge of the industry and the company processes and derive motivation from the manager's ability to keep the department focused on achieving company goals.
  18. 18. Democratic Leadership Democratic leaders let employees get involved in the decision-making process and often do not make major decisions without the consensus of the staff. The motivational tactic used by a democratic leader is inclusion: The employees are part of the decision-making process that keeps the department running smoothly. Employees take an emotional interest in the success of the department because they have helped to craft departmental policies and processes. RelatedReading:Transformational Leadership Vs. Transactional Leadership Definition Quiet Leadership Quiet leaders sit back and allow the staff to make the decisions that affect day-to-day operations. This kind of managerial approach is most effective with proactive and highly trained work groups. Quiet leaders motivate their teams by being a resource for information when needed but allowing the employees to dictate their own success. If an employee's production starts to drop off, the quiet leader will offer a developmental program to help get the employee back on track. Transformational Leadership A transformational leader is a charismatic manager who believes he has a vision for the future of the company that will bring success to the entire staff. He motivates by trying to get employees enthusiastically on board with his ideas for the future and then continually uses the vision of a brighter future as the incentive for employees to be more productive. The transformational leader creates a comprehensive plan for success that he delivers to employees and explains how each employee will have a role in the company's success. References (3)  ChangingMinds:LeadershipStyles  OhioState UniversityDepartmentof Agriculural,EnvironmentalandDevelopmental Economics; UsingLeadershipStylestoMotivate Employees;Bernie Erven  Mind Tools:LeadershipStyles - Usingthe RightOne for the Situation Resources (1)  BusinessBalls:Employee Motivation Aboutthe Author George N. Root III began writing professionally in 1985. His publishing credits include a weekly column in the "Lockport Union Sun and Journal" along with the "Spectrum," the "Niagara Falls Gazette," "Tonawanda News," "Watertown Daily News" and the "Buffalo News." Root has a Bachelor of Arts in English from the State University of New York, Buffalo.
  19. 19. Pros & Cons of Team Leadership Styles by Kevin Johnston,DemandMedia Strong team leaders can motivate and guide your business teams so they complete tasks and make decisions effectively. Whether the team chooses its leader or you appoint one, no single leadership approach guarantees success. A team that does well with a strong leader may fail under the guidance of someone with a less effective leadership style. By understanding team leadership styles, you can work with your team leaders to help them overcome any problems. Adsby Google Brand newkanbanboard Effective taskmanagementforyouandyour team Authoritarian An authoritarian leader can push projects through to completion. If she is an expert and has a clear understanding of how to proceed, the team will follow based on her knowledge and skill. However, if team members have more expertise than the leader, the authoritarian approach may not work. In addition, if your business is not run on an authoritarian model, introducing this style in a team situation may cause resentment and resistance. Task-Oriented A task-oriented leader assigns roles, tasks and responsibilities to team members and expects deadlines to be met. He lets everyone know just what they should do and when it should be done. One disadvantage of this approach is that team members may believe their well-being and abilities are being overlooked in the name of efficiency. RelatedReading:Reversing the Extroverted Leadership Democratic A democratic leader encourages team members to participate and even control the direction of the team. This leader serves more as a mentor and mediator than a stern taskmaster. This approach can make everyone feel important on the team and encourage diverse input leading to surprising solutions. The downside is that team members may not have the ability or the will to govern themselves and may require a firmer hand than the democratic leader provides.
  20. 20. Charismatic The charismatic leader inspires and motivates by the sheer force of his personality. His enthusiasm is catching, and team members may gladly follow such a leader to achieve objectives they couldn't imagine reaching without him. If the charismatic leader is absent for any reason, however, the team may fall apart and lose direction. Also, charisma has a way of wearing thin, and team members who want to lead may resent a charismatic leader's dominance. Affiliative The affiliative leader wants everyone to feel good about what they're doing and be happy with their roles. This person definitely focuses on emotions over work needs. The result may be that members are happy to participate in teamwork, but they can become ineffective as they begin to compete for recognition, rewards and satisfaction. References (4)  Big Dog & Little Dog’sPerformance Juxtaposition:LeadershipStyles  MindTools:LeadershipStyles - Choosingthe RightStyle forthe Situation  Fast Company:6 LeadershipStylesandWhenYouShouldUse Them  Educational BusinessArticles:The Six LeadershipStylesforEffectiveTeamPerformance Aboutthe Author Kevin Johnston writes for Ameriprise Financial, the Rutgers University MBA Program and Evan Carmichael. He has written about business, marketing, finance, sales and investing for publications such as "The New York Daily News," "Business Age" and "Nation's Business." He is an instructional designer with credits for companies such as ADP, Standard and Poor's and Bank of America. Appropriate Leadership Styles for Each Stage of Team Building by Leigh Richards,Demand Media As teams develop they go through certain predictable stages. At each of these stages, the leadership skills exhibited by the team leader can make the difference between a team that is eventually fully functional and productive, and a team that fails to perform and may ultimately disband with its work left unfinished. Adsby Google
  21. 21. Free Software Download DownloadFree PCManager Software.EasyFile Transfer,DownloadNow ! Forming As teams first come together they go through a forming stage where, as the term suggests, team members get to know each other and begin to learn how to effectively work together. Team leaders at this stage should be focused on clarifying the roles and expectations of team members and the goal for team performance. Storming Every team goes through a predictable stage of storming or conflict. Team leaders should be prepared for this. The storming stage requires specific leadership skills, including identifying the stronger and weaker team members and drawing upon the skills of the strong members while working to engage and draw out the weaker or quieter members. Leaders must respond quickly to any signs of overt conflict and be alert to signs of covert conflict. Taking these discussions offline is acceptable along with letting team members know that conflict is a natural part of the team-building process. RelatedReading:The Disadvantages of Emotional Leadership Norming Team leaders will be glad to know that the storming phase will eventually come to an end if managed effectively and gives way to the norming stage. Now team members begin to pull together toward the common goal. During this phase, effective team leaders will continue to monitor behavior and work to draw upon the skills of individual members, giving both positive and constructive feedback and modeling positive behaviors. Performing Ultimately, effective teams will start to perform. Members are familiar with working together and individual team members' strengths and weaknesses have been identified. The group has learned to rely on the stronger members and the team leader to move forward together to achieve positive results. Unfortunately, this phase doesn't last forever (unless the team has finished its work and is disbanded). Most teams go through changes in membership, leadership or mission and will subsequently move through each phase again. References (3)  MIT: Usingthe Stagesof TeamDevelopment  Cliffsnotes:Stagesof TeamDevelopment
  22. 22.  The Happy Manager: TeamworkTheory Resources (1)  "Employee ManagementforSmall Business";LinGrensing-Pophal;2010 Aboutthe Author Leigh Richards has been a writer since 1980. Her work has been published in "Entrepreneur," "Complete Woman" and "Toastmaster," among many other trade and professional publications. She has a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of Wisconsin and a Master of Arts in organizational management from the University of Phoenix. The Disadvantages of Emotional Leadership by Sharon Penn,Demand Media There are several emotional leadership styles, all with their advantages and disadvantages. Leadership styles such as autocratic, democratic, coaching and laissez-faire leadership can be used by managers and team leaders. The key to effective leadership is to use the appropriate emotional leadership style in the right situation and with the right people. To implement emotional leadership correctly, the leader should be aware of the potential disadvantages of each leadership style. Adsby Google Your A Coach...NowWhat? Go BeyondCertificationSkillsLearnthe Artof Persuasion Disadvantages of Autocratic Leadership Some situations call for a top-down, autocratic management approach to emotional leadership. Directing styles of leadership work well when the leader is under a tight deadline or in a situation where there are numerous employees completing the tasks. An autocratic leadership style can be used when employees are not capable of completing the job on their own. In this case, managers make all the decisions and direct subordinates about what needs to be done and how to do it. However, there are disadvantages to the autocratic leadership approach. Because the employees are not engaged in the decision-making process, they may be apathetic toward the tasks and slow down the pace of their work. They are also more dependent on the leader, a situation that can lead to hostility or passive resistance from the group.
  23. 23. Disadvantages of Democratic or Participatory Leadership In the democratic or participatory style of emotional leadership, the manager allows the team members to contribute to the decision-making process. Employees are given the opportunity to sharpen their skills and often are motivated to complete the task in a timely manner. However, the team leader using the democratic leadership style must understand that final decisions rest with him so every detail does not become an opportunity for endless group discussion. While this approach can enable workers to have some measure of control, the inclusion of many voices can make the decision-making process slower and therefore slow down the completion of the tasks at hand. RelatedReading:5 Different Types of Leadership Styles Disadvantages of Coaching Leadership The coaching leadership style focuses on improving team members’ strengths, often with an eye toward setting them on a career track to become managers and team leaders in the future. A coaching leader delegates tasks and communicates confidence in the ability of team members to complete the tasks. However, when this style of emotional leadership is used with employees who need a great deal of guidance or when coaching leadership is executed poorly, team members may feel that they are being “micromanaged.” Disadvantages of Laissez-Fare Leadership With the laissez-faire emotional leadership style, team members are left pretty much on their own to complete the tasks. While this form of leadership can be effective when the group is highly experienced and motivated, employing the laissez-fare leadership style with less accomplished employees can lead to lower productivity and poor quality workmanship. Another drawback to allowing team members to work on their own is that it becomes difficult to credit the appropriate person for a job well done and, conversely, to figure out who is responsible when things go wrong. References (3)  Mindtools:LeadershipStyles  Dun & Bradstreet:Three Effective ManagementStyles  RensselaerPolytechnicInstitute Aboutthe Author Sharon Penn is a writer based in South Florida. A professional writer since 1981, she has created numerous materials for a Princeton advertising agency. Her articles have appeared in "Golf Journal" and on industry blogs. Penn has traveled extensively, is an avid golfer and is eager to share her interests with her readers. She holds a Master of Science in Education.
  24. 24. Resonant Vs. Dissonant Leadership Styles by Neil Kokemuller,Demand Media Resonant and dissonant leadership are discussed in the 2002 book "Primal Leadership," by Daniel Goleman. Goleman connected concepts from his previous book, "Emotional Intelligence," to leadership and indicated that resonant leaders tend to manage with more emotional intelligence, while dissonant leaders are less influencing in times of stress. Adsby Google DownloadSoftware DownloadFree PCManager Software forAndroidDevices,DownloadNow ! Resonant Basics Resonant leaders have a higher degree of emotional intelligence and a greater ability to connect personally with followers. They show empathy for employees struggling with life challenges. They are more likely to create harmony in a group and motivate workers to follow direction, even in tense company situations. Employees typically believe that a resonant leader cares as much about them as people as he does about their work performance. Styles Goleman identified which common leadership styles are associated with resonant and dissonant leaders. Visionaries, coaches, affiliators and democratic leaders were noted as types of resonant leaders. Visionaries are often known as charismatic or transformational leaders. They use personal qualities to inspire employees toward a common goal. Coaches use a close, mentoring approach with employees. Affiliators want group harmony above all else. This is beneficial in developing a team environment, though it may lead to inefficiency and poor discipline at the extreme. Democratic leaders use various forms of participative leadership and actively seek employee input or feedback. RelatedReading:How Managers With Different Leadership Styles Motivate Their Teams Dissonant Basics Dissonant leaders tend to operate more on the authoritative side of leadership. They maintain a greater social and emotional distance from employees. This can aid in times when orders must be delivered and executed urgently. However, dissonant leaders can cause emotional frustration,
  25. 25. stress, burnout and disengagement among employees. While a dissonant leader often intends to remain objective and logical in decision-making, his approach is commonly viewed by employees as cold and distant. Styles The two styles Goleman linked to dissonant leadership were pacesetting and commanding. A pacesetter focuses heavily on getting employees to constantly ramp up efficiency and performance in meeting deadlines. While this approach may work in crunch time, it can wear on employees as a constant leadership style. A commander simply operates with a highly authoritative style. He expects employees to complete tasks quickly and without questioning. This conflicts with contemporary leadership approaches emphasizing empowerment and employee involvement. References (3)  Daniel Goleman:ResonantLeaders  Universityof Colorado:Primal Leadership  Manager's Minute Newsletter:Resonance VersusDissonance inManagement Aboutthe Author Neil Kokemuller has been an active writer and content media website developer since 2007. He wrote regular feature articles for LiveCharts for three years and has been a college marketing professor since 2004. He has four years of additional professional experience in marketing, retail and small business, and he holds a Master of Business Administration from Iowa State University. How to Adapt Leadership Styles by Samantha Hanly,Demand Media Many theories of management and styles of leadership exist. In the end, none of them are right and none of them are wrong. Different people respond better to different styles of leadership. To be a truly skilled leader, become aware of the needs of your staff and adapt your leadership style to nurture the most productivity in your workers. Adsby Google DownloadSoftware DownloadFree PCManager Software forAndroidDevices, DownloadNow !
  26. 26. Step1 Identify your own intrinsic leadership style. Three main categories of leadership styles are autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Autocratic leaders tend to maintain control and tell workers what to do. Democratic leaders support a sense of teamwork and listen to worker opinions before making a decision. Laissez-faire leaders are very hands-off, almost not leaders at all. Laissez-faire leaders, however, are usually available when their help is requested. Knowing and understanding your own natural leadership style is the first step toward adapting your behavior to the needs of your workers. Step2 Recognize the pros and cons of the three main leadership styles. Autocratic leaders often get things done in less time and their workforce is usually quite productive. Productivity slumps when the manager is not present, however. Democratic leaders often gain the respect of their workers. Workers appreciate feeling valued and will work harder for that manager. This type of leadership style can be ineffective when there is a lot of conflict among the staff. Laissez-faire leadership works when there is a high degree of skill and knowledge among the workforce but is sorely lacking when employees are less skilled. All three leadership styles are appropriate in different situations. RelatedReading:How Managers With Different Leadership Styles Motivate Their Teams Step3 Appreciate the diversity among your staff. Diversity in organizational psychology is often seen as differences among people that define or create the culture of the workplace. Dimensions of diversity include gender, age, sexual orientation, religions, ethnicity, education, work experience, military experience, family status and income level. Leave any preconceptions or prejudices at the door, and observe how your staff members relate to one another and to their jobs. Workers with more skill will most likely respond well to democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles; those with less experience will likely respond more to a more autocratic style. Step4 Experiment with different styles to see what works best with your group of workers. Maintain an "open door" policy so that workers can approach you to discuss work-related issues. As you get to know your workers, you will get a sense of how much direction and how much freedom they need to be productive. References (2)  PennState:Personal LeadershipSkills  The OhioState University;WorkingwithDiverseCultures;Bill Smithetal.
  27. 27. Aboutthe Author Samantha Hanly is an organic vegetable gardener, greenhouse gardener and home canner. She grows a substantial portion of her family's food every year. After receiving her bachelor's degree, Hanly embarked on a career teaching dramatic arts, arts and crafts, and languages. She became a professional writer in 2000, writing curricula for use in classrooms and libraries. Leadership Theory vs. Leadership Style by Tanya Robertson,Demand Media Leadership theory is a discipline that focuses on finding out what makes successful leaders excel in what they do. The primary distinction between leadership theory and leadership style is that leadership style falls under the overall umbrella of leadership theory. In other words, leadership style is one of many examples covered with leadership theory. Leadership style focuses specifically on the traits and behaviors of leaders. Adsby Google Learningto Succeed? Excel at Work - andBe Happy!The funbookthat teachesyouhow. Leadership Theory Since businesses are always striving to find great leaders that can lead them to success, much effort has been put forth into finding out how they operate. More specifically, businesses are trying to identify the characteristics and behaviors associated with the best leaders. As a result, many leadership theories have been developed over the years that attempt to explain what makes a leader great. Businesses figure if they can identify the traits that make a successful leader, they can not only identify potential leaders more readily, but also can hone in on those specific skills for improvement. Examples of Leadership Theory In the beginning, leadership theories focused primarily on specific characteristics and behaviors of leaders. However, as time went on, theories began to focus more on a leader's followers and the contextual nature of leadership. For example, the early theories, such as the great man theory and the trait theory, focused specifically on innate qualities leaders are born with. Within the next phase -- which includes behaviorist theory, situational leadership theory, and contingency theory -- focus shifted more toward what leaders do versus what traits they have. The final stage
  28. 28. includes transactional theory and transformational theory, where the relationship between the leader and his followers is explored. RelatedReading:How to Choose a Contingency Style Leadership Leadership Style Leadership style is modeled after a leader's behaviors, which is encompassed under behaviorist theory. Within this category, different patterns of leadership behavior are observed and then categorized as leadership styles. Practicing managers tend to be the most interested in researching this particular theory because with it leaders have the ability to alter their style based on the beliefs, values, preferences and culture of the organization they work for. Examples of Leadership Style Leadership styles can be broken down in several different ways depending on what information is being looked at. For example, an organization interested in how decisions are made may define leaders as either being autocratic or democratic. Another organization may have more interest in how leaders handle situations and choose to define them as being charismatic, participative, situational, transactional, transformational, quiet or servant-like. One more way to differentiate leadership styles is according to whether leaders are task-oriented or people- oriented. Task-oriented leaders are said to have a considerate style and people-oriented leaders an initiating-structure style. References (5)  Universityof ExeterCentre forLeadershipStudies:A Review of LeadershipTheoryand CompetencyFrameworks  ChangingMinds:LeadershipStyles  Central Michigan,College of Humanities&Social & Behavioral Sciences:LeadershipStyle -- InitiatingStructure andConsideration  Infed:Classical Leadership  LeadershipStyle Approach Aboutthe Author Tanya Robertson has been writing professionally since 1999 and editing since 2004. She has contributed to Trix 4 Travel and established a writing services company, International Composition. Robertson holds a Bachelor of Science in legal studies and a Master of Business in accounting from Davenport University.
  29. 29. How to Choose a Contingency Style Leadership by Walter Johnson,Demand Media Contingency leadership styles are based on the matching of the leader or manager to the circumstances of his office. Leadership here is about using the resources of the position to complete tasks. However, contingency theory structures the nature of leadership around the office and the relationship of the office to subordinates. This approach to leadership stresses that different styles are called for in different institutional structures. Adsby Google DownloadSoftware DownloadFree PCManager Software forAndroidDevices,DownloadNow ! Legitimacy Sometimes called “leadership acceptance,” this variable measures the extent to which a leader's office is considered legitimate. It reflects the ability of a leader to motivate subordinates. A leadership office with low legitimacy requires a firm hand, while one with a high level requires mere management and administration. The issue here is how the office is seen. If you are in a position where little acceptance exists of your leadership role, then you must focus on rebuilding these bridges. A “people person” is required for this role. Task Structure “Task structure” is about the nature of the work involved. In most cases, this variable emphasizes the complexity and difficulty of the work. The basic rule is that the higher the skills required to do the job, the less hands-on leadership is required. The complexity of the tasks to be done dictates the nature of the leadership style that will work best. A job in which high levels of skill are needed normally require little oversight. The only exception to this is if the technicians on the job are manifestly incompetent. A leader, for example, going into a position where a long- standing tradition of work methods exists is not really a leader. Unless a serious problem arises, interrupting this flow of work is not a good idea. In this case, the leader is really an administrator. If the technicians are competent, then no real purpose for leadership exists. There is only oversight. RelatedReading:Leadership Style Examples
  30. 30. Resources and Power Many positions of leadership have no real levers of power. The leader in this case must rely on his personal skills to motivate workers or subordinates. Without institutional power, personal power is required. Therefore, if a managerial office has few resources, then the best recourse to do is to hire a people-oriented and charismatic person to fill that role. Charisma will compensate for the lack of coercive instruments. Decisions Choosing a style of leadership, under this approach, stresses the variables that define the office, the nature of the work and the relationship between the two. The basic rule is that if a significant distrust or a lack of power exists, people skills must compensate for it. A lack of legitimacy is based on distrust, and therefore, any leader in this unenviable position must build that trust through one-on-one contact and creating relationships. The more stable the subordinate offices and positions, the less need for a people-oriented leader. Choosing a contingency style depends on those variables. References (2)   Aboutthe Author Walter Johnson has more than 20 years experience as a professional writer. After serving in the United Stated Marine Corps for several years, he received his doctorate in history from the University of Nebraska. Focused on economic topics, Johnson reads Russian and has published in journals such as “The Salisbury Review,” "The Constantian" and “The Social Justice Review." Leadership Style Examples by Kate McFarlin,Demand Media Whether you are new to managing employees or are looking to improve your leadership skills, understanding how the main styles work and what they accomplish is vital. Styles of leadership are dependent on basic personality traits. If you are going to adopt a different style of leadership, make sure that your personality is well-matched for that particular style. Adsby Google Grow Your Business
  31. 31. ConnectwithEO,the world'sonlypeercommunityof entrepreneurs. The Hands-Off Leader The hands-off leader is the quintessential boss behind the door. You rarely see him, and he only makes his presence known in two situations -- when things are very good and when things are very bad. This type of leadership style is well-suited to those who are laid back and can rely on highly trained and effective managers to oversee operations. One concern is that employees do not typically feel connected to this type of leader, which can have drawbacks, especially in a small company. The Participant The participant is highly involved in all aspects of the company, and she is the polar opposite of the hands-off style. Personality wise, the participant should have high energy and be motivated and outgoing. Participants may find it difficult to delegate authority and tasks to others and should be aware of this so that they do not take on too many responsibilities. This is not a good leadership style for those who are prone to excessive worry. RelatedReading:What Is the Difference Between Leadership Style & Leadership Traits? The Authority Figure The authority figure is the boss that most people don't want to have. He isn’t afraid of stepping on toes or firing an employee if he isn’t doing his job. The upside is that the authority figure is a powerful motivator, and productivity levels are usually quite high under this style of leadership. The downside is that employee morale may be low if the authority is misused or if employees feel they are being treated unfairly. Personality types ideal for this style of leadership include those who have no problem delegating authority and prefer to be on the sidelines monitoring what is going on. Democratic Leaders Democratic leaders lead by vote, and they are typically well liked. Many small business leaders, especially in family-oriented organizations, adopt this style. This type of leadership style relies on the opinions of others, and the leader typically does not step on any toes. Managers may be heavily relied upon to provide their opinion and viewpoint when working with this type of leader. Personality types that mesh well with this style include motivators and those who enjoy working with others and who are outgoing. The downside to this leadership style is that "leading by committee" doesn't always work, and there may be an issue with too many cooks in the kitchen when it comes to daily operations.
  32. 32. References (2) ;Bill Sharlow  Legacee:Typesof LeadershipStyles;MurrayJohannsen Aboutthe Author Kate McFarlin is a licensed insurance agent with extensive experience in covering topics related to marketing, small business, personal finance and home improvement. She began her career as a Web designer and also specializes in audio/video mixing and design. Risk Vs. Consequence in Leadership Styles by Stacy Zeiger,Demand Media The leadership style of a manager or head of an organization plays a strong role in determining the culture of an organization. Each of the main leadership styles that a leader may adopt has its own risks and consequences. Choosing the best leadership style for yourself and your organization requires looking at the nature of the organization and determining how each style would fit into your organization’s daily practices. Adsby Google Learningto Succeed? Excel at Work - andBe Happy!The funbookthat teachesyouhow. Autocratic Leadership Autocratic leadership involves leaders making all of the decisions for a company without soliciting input from co-workers or other sources. With this leadership style, leaders risk losing employee respect and becoming too controlling in the workplace. However, for leaders with a clear vision of where they want the business to go, an autocratic leadership style ensures that the business stays focused on that vision and all employees are working toward that vision. An autocratic leadership style has the potential to limit a business because ideas only come from one source and may lack creativity or fail to see a larger picture. Democratic Leadership Under a democratic leadership style, employees in the organization or members of a team have input into every decision made. This may be done by designating representatives from different
  33. 33. departments of a business to speak on behalf of their department or allowing all employees to cast a vote and regularly submit ideas and opinions to leaders. With this style of leadership, leaders have the potential to find new, creative solutions to problems and make well-informed business decisions that fare well for all aspects of the company. However, a democratic leadership style may lead to too many solutions to a problem or a desire to please everyone in the organization, rather than keeping the focus on what is best for the business overall. RelatedReading:How Managers With Different Leadership Styles Motivate Their Teams Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leadership involves using emotions to motivate employees and improve productivity. Leaders must be upbeat and provide motivational speeches and phrases for employees, sort of like a cheerleader. This type of leadership style involves making sure all employees are on board and that they keep their eyes on the end result, no matter how difficult the process is. For a leader who is not typically extroverted, being a charismatic leader can be draining. Along with that, employees come to depend upon that charismatic leader, so if the leader has an off day or must step down from a project, employees will often lose their motivation quickly. Laissez-Faire Leadership For leaders who want to sit back and allow employees to make the majority of decisions, the laissez-faire style of leadership is the best option. Under this style of leadership, leaders work as delegators, assigning important tasks and decisions to other employees within the organization. This style relieves the leader of a lot of responsibility and allows him to focus on more important tasks. By providing input and advice when requested, the leader also allows employees to grow in their skills and abilities. However, this approach to leadership may also lead to projects not being completed on time or to the company’s standard if they are delegated to individuals who are less motivated or not as in sync with the company’s mission and values. References (3)  Mind Tools:LeadershipStyles  Big Dog & Little Dog'sPerformance Juxtaposition:LeadershipStyles  Aboutthe Author Stacy Zeiger began writing in 2000 for "Suburban News Publication" in Ohio and has expanded to teaching writing as an eighth grade English teacher. Zeiger completed creative writing course work at Miami University and holds a B.A. in English and a M.Ed. in secondary education from Ohio State.
  34. 34. Task-Oriented Leadership Disadvantages by Tia Benjamin,Demand Media Although most leaders employ a blend of several leadership styles depending on the situation, many people have a preferred style -- generally one that has worked well in the past. Small- business managers often start out as a one-man shop, growing the business from an initial idea to a profit-making venture. In that situation, a task-oriented focus probably drives the manager's success. But once other staff members become responsible for performing many of the duties, the small-business manager must relax the reins, because relying too heavily on task-oriented leadership does come with some significant disadvantages. Adsby Google Learningto Succeed? Excel at Work - andBe Happy!The funbookthat teachesyouhow. Decreased Motivation Although task-oriented leaders excel at getting the job done, they are not renowned for their people skills. The primary focus of a task-oriented leader is the work itself. Providing support, mentoring and praise to employees is viewed as a distraction that takes time away from what the leader sees as critical activities -- those that are directly related to the job at hand. Workers can become demotivated if they feel powerless to control any aspect of their jobs. Because the task- oriented leader likes to control the situation, his staff may become unhappy and have lowered job satisfaction. Compounding the problem is the fact that a task-oriented manager is uninterested in workers' feelings or emotions and sees no value in providing his employees with autonomy. Increased Turnover Employees leave bad bosses, not the job or your organization, according to a 2006 study from Florida State University. While the task-oriented leadership style doesn't make someone a bad leader, per se, it does make the boss less likely to dole out praise and recognition or give credit to employees for a job well done. The FSU study found that a boss's failure to give due credit was one of the top factors that made employees want to leave -- and these kinds of issues had an even greater impact on turnover than pay dissatisfaction. Because task managers place ongoing pressure on employees to continually achieve task after task, staff may experience increased stress and burnout due to the constant, often thankless demands for high productivity. RelatedReading:Task-Oriented Qualities of a Leader
  35. 35. Ignores Alternate Ideas Task-oriented leaders employ a decisive and direct management style. They are skilled at telling people exactly what to do and how to do it. While this is a useful attribute when quick decision- making is needed, the disadvantage of this approach is that the task-oriented leader only has time to consider one opinion -- his own. Task-oriented managers are so focused on getting the job done, they fail to solicit input from employees. This can mean the leader misses opportunities for improvement from the people who know the task best -- the employees who actually perform the work. Context The perceived disadvantages of task-oriented leadership are often dependent on situational factors and group dynamics. Although a manager in a highly automated, production environment may be successful using the task-oriented approach, a work group of professionals or academics is likely to favor participation and want their ideas to be taken into consideration -- particularly when group members are experts in their respective fields and the leader is not. Similarly, although task-oriented leadership can be invaluable when providing a quick and effective response to an emergency, it is much less suited to average, everyday situations. References (6)  Universityof Calgary:LeadershipStyles  FloridaState University:GroupProcesses  ShippensburgUniversity:MotivatingOthers&Leadership  ColumbiaUniversity:LeadershipandManagement  Universityof St.Francis:Fiedler'sContingencyTheoryof Leadership  FloridaState University:Who'sAfraidof the BigBad Boss?Plentyof Us, New FSUStudyShows Aboutthe Author For more than a decade, Tia Benjamin has been writing organizational policies, procedures and management training programs. A C-level executive, she has more than 15 years experience in human resources and management. Benjamin obtained a Bachelor of Science in social psychology from the University of Kent, England, as well as a Master of Business Administration from San Diego State University. The Disadvantages of Charismatic Leadership by Shelley Frost,Demand Media
  36. 36. Charisma is often a powerful trait in motivating staff and gaining the support of both employees and the public. While a charismatic leader is able to exert his influence to produce positive results for the company, potential drawbacks exist when using the charismatic leadership style. Understand those disadvantages to use charismatic leadership in a positive way. Adsby Google Free EnglishCourses JoinOur 3+ MillionLearners.LearnBasicConversational Skills. Reliance on Leader The charismatic leader wins over the employees of the company with his motivational leadership style. While employees may find inspiration in this type of leadership, they may also rely too heavily on the person in charge. The employees begin associating the success of the company solely with the leader. They may fail to see that all employees are a valuable part of making the company a success. This saddles the leader with a huge responsibility for both keeping the company running and motivating the staff. Perception While many charismatic leaders are able to win over the employees, those who take on the role for self-serving reasons may fail to get all employees to buy into their intentions. Charisma alone is not enough to make a quality leader for a company. The leader must have the best intentions of the company at heart and have other leadership qualities to back up the charisma. Employees are often able to pick up on the fact that a charismatic leader only cares about his own success or lacks the knowledge to actually run the company. RelatedReading:Goals of a Charismatic Leader Lack of Clarity A charismatic leader sometimes gets so caught up in his control that he is unable to clearly see potential dangers with the company. The confidence he has in his abilities makes him feel that the company's success will continue indefinitely. If he doesn't have any other management personnel on the same level with the same information, he may potentially miss a threat to the company's financial welfare. Lack of Successors and Visionaries A charismatic leader often retains the majority of the control in the office because he believes in himself so much. He may have difficulty turning over control to others because he enjoys having the control or doesn't feel anyone else is able to handle the duties like he can. This type of
  37. 37. situation potentially leaves the company without any knowledgeable successors should the charismatic leader leave the company. Without giving others the authority and freedom to take some of the control, the company's vision for the future is limited to the ideas of the leader. This type of environment may also squash some of the creative problem solving from other employees in the company, particularly if any ideas presented are pushed aside by the leader. References (2)  AmericanPsychological Association:CharismaDoesn'tGuarantee LeadershipSuccess  Mind Tools:LeadershipStyles Aboutthe Author Shelley Frost started writing professionally in 2007. She specializes in parenting and education topics. Frost gained her experience in various positions in the education field, including classroom teaching and tutoring. She holds a BA in elementary education with a reading endorsement. Goals of a Charismatic Leader by Jared Lewis, Demand Media Charismatic leaders often lead by sheer force of their personality. Charismatic leaders are characterized by such things as a high energy level, the ability to get things done and the ability to attract other people to follow them. Business leaders who have the charisma can harness that energy to their advantage. The goals of a charismatic leader vary based on the organization, but will generally share some commonalities from one industry to the next. Adsby Google Free Software Download DownloadFree PCManager Software.EasyFile Transfer,DownloadNow ! Project Completion One of the primary goals of a charismatic leader is to rally the rest of the team around the primary goal of completing the tasks at hand. Charismatic leaders combine their practical task- oriented skills with their ability to inspire the workforce so their employees will accomplish organizational goals. In this sense, the charismatic leader serves as a sort of cheerleader who uses his influence and his own energy to push employees towards the completion of a project or goal.
  38. 38. Transformation A truly charismatic leader will also transform those whom he works with on a daily basis. Leaders who have a great deal of charisma often attract other people to themselves like a magnet. In the same way that a piece of metal can be magnetized, the charismatic leader inspires others who strive to emulate his leadership, personality or work habits. Companies and other organizations can capitalize on this by using charismatic leaders to transform the rest of the organization into one that is dynamic and that consistently creates other leaders. RelatedReading:The Relationships Between Charismatic Leadership & Subordinate Performance Moral Leadership The charismatic leader is, in some sense, a moral leader as well. However, this does not mean that he imposes his own morality upon those that follow him. In the business context, the charismatic leader appeals to the higher traits or values of the employee to the point that it inspires the employee to always strive for excellence. The charismatic leader represents and reiterates the goals and aspirations that are already latent within the worker or those who they are leading. Unity Charismatic leaders usually become charismatic leaders by influencing more than one person at a time. As the leader inspires and motivates employees or other followers, he is generally able to create a sense of unity through a shared common purpose. The employees who follow the charismatic leader will feel as if they are part of a larger purpose and will be unified on how to accomplish that purpose, if the charismatic leader has done his job. References (3)  AirUniversity:Transformational Leadership  Transformational Leadership:The Transformational LeadershipReport  Universityof Florida:Transformational Leadership Aboutthe Author Jared Lewis is a professor of history, philosophy and the humanities. He has taught various courses in these fields since 2001. A former licensed financial adviser, he now works as a writer and has published numerous articles on education and business. He holds a bachelor's degree in history, a master's degree in theology and has completed doctoral work in American history.
  39. 39. Characteristics of a Charismatic Leader by Chirantan Basu,Demand Media Charismatic business leaders have style, personality and confidence, according to the "Harvard Business Review" website. They also have a certain elusive quality, which allows them to attract followers and inspire people to new heights. Charismatic leaders are also known as transformational leaders because they are often involved in significant change initiatives. Adsby Google Free ProphecyForYou Get God's PlanFor You in2014. Receive YourFree WrittenProphecy! Maturity True charisma is a measure of a person's maturity and character. Charismatic leaders recognize that leadership is not about showmanship, but the application of wisdom built over years of business experience. For example, a small business learns from the difficult first few months and years and gets stronger, which allows it to survive economic downturns. Communication Charismatic leaders have exceptional communication skills. Small-business owners need these skills to motivate employees through the difficult periods and to help them stay centered through the good times. Charismatic leaders are equally adept in one-on-one and group settings and are able to communicate technical details in simple easy-to-understand language. They are also able to transfer their inspiration and communication skills to their groups. The group members believe in one another and in the power of teamwork. Leadership can appear from unexpected places, which propels a company forward, even when a charismatic leader departs. RelatedReading:Characteristics of a Born Leader Humility Charisma can coexist with humility. Charismatic leaders know how to listen to the concerns of their employees. They can convince employees of the value of their contributions to their companies' long-term strategic interests. This inspires employee loyalty, which is essential for surviving the rough patches.
  40. 40. Substance Charisma without substance is usually a recipe for failure. Flash works for a while, but eventually people want something substantive. The words of a charismatic leader must match his actions. His thoughts must linger in people's minds for a lasting impact. Although charisma can open doors, substance allows leaders to close sales. A charismatic entrepreneur might get a hearing from a large customer on his charm and persuasive skills, but if his company's products are not cost-competitive and of high quality, he will have trouble getting repeat business. Considerations Charisma is an important, but not essential, element of success. Compassion, civility and integrity are just as important qualities. Charisma becomes a liability when it disintegrates into hero worship. Charismatic leaders cannot bring a dying company back to life. Therefore, companies should not look to charismatic CEOs for salvation. References (4)  Harvard BusinessReview:OnCharisma  Harvard BusinessSchool WorkingKnowledge:How LeadersBuildWinningStreaks  Harvard BusinessReview:BecomingaCharismaticLeader  Harvard BusinessSchool WorkingKnowledge:The Irrational QuestforCharismaticCEOs Aboutthe Author Based in Ottawa, Canada, Chirantan Basu has been writing since 1995. His work has appeared in various publications and he has performed financial editing at a Wall Street firm. Basu holds a Bachelor of Engineering from Memorial University of Newfoundland, a Master of Business Administration from the University of Ottawa and holds the Canadian Investment Manager designation from the Canadian Securities Institute. Characteristics of a Born Leader by Billie Nordmeyer,Demand Media As John C. Maxwell writes in "Leadership Gold: Lessons I've Learned From a Lifetime of Leading," Peter Drucker and other leadership theorists acknowledge the existence of born leaders. Such theorists sometimes describe born leaders as effective leaders whose capacity for leadership is inborn. Therefore, such theorists describe the characteristics of born leaders with the same terms used to describe any effective leader. For example, born leaders possess the requisite qualities to set company goals, unite a staff and motivate them to achieve those objectives. These leaders also anticipate change and devise appropriate reactions.
  41. 41. Adsby Google ConflictResolution Learn methodsonhowto manage workplace conflict.Free guidebook! Goal Setting A manager performs many tasks to accomplish functional goals, from negotiating new contracts to resolving conflicts. In contrast, a born leader identifies patterns that affect business, such as increased environmental regulations or changes in customer demands for environmentally safe products. The born leader uses this information to define shared goals – independent of department or function -- that produce organizational change. These goals set the direction of an organization and guide the employees’ functional efforts that support the company's mission. For example, the leader might envision "giving all people in the world an environmentally friendly way to share information" or "building the best – and completely degradable -- tablet computer in the world." In turn, rather than producing plans as does a functional manager, a born leader creates strategies, such as “Be the first to market with innovative, environmentally safe products" and “Grow through acquisition of environmental movement leaders.” Motivating Managers establish targets, create processes and implement controls to identify and correct for unplanned-for change. However, uncontrolled change is inevitable in a work environment. It is the job of born leaders to motivate employees to move beyond their resistance to change. Such leaders encourage workers to overcome externally imposed barriers to achieve the organization's mission. Born leaders don't rely on policies and controls to regulate behavior. Instead, natural leaders inspire individuals to choose behaviors recognized for their contribution to the achievement of the company's mission. Born leaders use feedback and role modeling, not as a control mechanism, but to inspire others. For example, functional teams might build a plant to produce 500 environmentally friendly tablet computers a day. The born leader motivates employees to adopt out-of-the box thinking during the design and construction of the plant and the product. This leader also provides the incentives, such as bonuses or an office with a door, that encourage his staff to work diligently and enthusiastically. RelatedReading:Seven Keys to Setting an Example to Be a Good Leader Uniting John Gardner writes in his book “On Leadership” that leaders build a sense of community that diminishes conflict between groups. In turn, managers rely on organizational charts, policies and procedures to control groups for which they are responsible. A born leader aligns all employees – regardless of department – in the direction of a common goal. For example, the leader establishes mutual expectations, such as the design, production, sale and delivery of environmentally
  42. 42. friendly tablet computers. Adopting a mutual goal, people self-govern, asking if their actions support the company's vision rather than if their actions comply with policies and procedures. Whereas individual or group cost, schedule or functional goals may compete with the goals of others, a mutual goal – build a better tablet computer -- unites individuals and groups. Renewal An organization might fall victim to its environment and fail to remain competitive because managers react to change rather than initiate it. Automotive and computer manufacturers and companies in other industries have experienced this fate. In contrast, born leaders interact with customers, vendors, government agencies and other interested parties – both internal and external to the organization -- to anticipate environmental changes and implement internal changes in a timely manner. For example, a born leader might anticipate the downward pressure Chinese tablet computer manufacturers place on a company’s pricing power. In response, the leader will initiate actions such as identifying sources of less expensive manufacturing materials References (5)  Harvard BusinessReviewonLeadership;HarvardBusinessReview Press  PKAL;What Works - A Resource:The Tasks of Leadership  LeadershipGold:LessonsI've LearnedfromaLifetime of Leading;JohnC.Maxwell  Human Resource Management;A.Chandramohan  QuickviewLeadershipSeries:Are LeadersBornorMade Aboutthe Author Billie Nordmeyer works as a consultant advising small businesses and Fortune 500 companies on performance improvement initiatives, as well as SAP software selection and implementation. During her career, she has published business and technology-based articles and texts. Nordmeyer holds a Bachelor of Science in accounting, a Master of Arts in international management and a Master of Business Administration in finance. Top Qualities of a Leader by Alyson Paige,Demand Media Company leaders set the tone and pace for the organizations they head. Positive leadership characteristics have a direct relationship with a company’s performance, says Stephen D. Simpson, CFA, in “Top Qualities of an Effective CEO.” When clients, staff and shareholders assess a leader, they consider concrete characteristics as well as intangible qualities. A leader’s vision drives daily operations and sets the pace for future goals. A leader displays integrity and knows how to inspire confidence in his company, and in the market, by the way he conducts business.
  43. 43. Adsby Google AccountingExcel Formulas SimplifyFinancial Formulas.DownloadThisFree Excel Tool. Vision Vision requires someone – a leader – to tell a compelling story not yet lived. A leader has the talent and drive to inspire employees with the company vision for the future – with the company’s potential. The story projects the company’s future based on a leader’s insight into the current market, on his vision of where the market is going and how his product or service fits into the market's movements. Character A company’s leader must inspire trust and communicate confidence. In every market condition -- times of challenge and of success -- a trustworthy leader keeps his employees’ eyes on the target. His integrity and commitment provide an ethical template for employees to follow. The staff reflects their leader’s example of confident productivity, says Barbara White in “Seven Qualities of a Good Leader.” When the company succeeds, its leader acknowledges the shared success. A leader exhibits consistent ethics in his personal and professional life. He earns and deserves respect among peers, employees and clients. RelatedReading:How to Be a Great Leader in an Organization Communication Employees who understand the company’s goals, who comprehend how to perform their duties and know the purpose of their tasks, function more efficiently and with higher morale. A leader provides essential direction by communicating with all levels of the company. He keeps executive and senior staff on the same operational page, giving these key people what they need to guide their teams and the employees they supervise. Team Assessment Corporate leaders identify key attributes in personnel that enable them to fill their roles well. As a CEO, for example, builds a team directly beneath him, he chooses vice-presidents who are armed with knowledge and committed to the company's success. These vice-presidents are qualified to identify and hire good managers who in turn hire skilled workers. The qualified leader selects subordinates who can sustain a capable work force that achieves company goals.
  44. 44. References (2)  SFGate:Top Qualitiesof anEffective CEO;StephenD.Simpson;September2011  Greenstein,Rogoff,Olsen&Co.;SevenQualitiesof aGood Leader;Barbara White Resources (1)  Big Dog andLittle Dog’sPerformance Juxtaposition:Conceptsof Leadership Aboutthe Author Alyson Paige has a master's degree in canon law and began writing professionally in 1998. Her articles specialize in culture, business and home and garden, among many other topics The Five Top Qualities Needed for an Effective Leader to Facilitate Change in an Organization by George N. RootIII,Demand Media Introducing change into an organization can be challenging. In some cases people can be hesitant to accept change and will argue to retain the status quo. A good leader can help to make change possible even in adverse situations. It helps to understand the five top qualities needed for an effective leader to facilitate change in an organization to help make the transition as smooth as possible. Adsby Google How To Start EnglishSpeaking JoinOur 3+ MillionLearners.LearnBasicConversational Skills. Persuasive It helps that an effective leader be persuasive to help facilitate change. A good leader can take the information given, put it into a format that makes the change look acceptable and then convince the employee population that the upcoming change is good for the company. Being a persuasive and charismatic leader can help to make change easier for all employees.
  45. 45. Thorough For change to benefit the organization, all of the possible outcomes must be explored. A good leader takes the time to ask as many questions as possible, and run the change ideas through every potential worst and best case scenario. One of the questions that a leader will experience during change is whether the results of the change were taken into consideration. By exploring every possible angle, the leader can give the results of the test studies. RelatedReading:Task-Oriented Qualities of a Leader Confidence With change comes questions. Employees may question the abilities of the manager, and there may be questions about how the change will affect the future of the company. A good leader can soothe many of those problems by remaining confident throughout the change process. When the leader stands by the change idea and offers nothing but positive words about it, that confidence helps to rally employees around the change as well. Communication Change can cause many employees to become concerned. A leader that shuts himself up in his office while change is being implemented is sending the wrong message to the entire organization. Communication before, during and after the change process is critical to making sure that change causes as little disruption as possible. Unwavering To go along with confidence, a good leader needs to stick to the guidelines of change and see it through as planned. Some change may require letting employees go, or making changes to job functions that some employees do not like. But if the leader has the confidence that the changes are for the good of the company, then he must remain unwavering in his execution of those changes. References (3)  AsianDevelopmentBank:Fastand Effective Change Management  SEDL: LeadershipCharacteristicsthatFacilitate School Change  LeaderValues:Requirementsof aSelf-ManagedTeamLeader Resources (1)  1000 Advices:Effective Leadership
  46. 46. Aboutthe Author George N. Root III began writing professionally in 1985. His publishing credits include a weekly column in the "Lockport Union Sun and Journal" along with the "Spectrum," the "Niagara Falls Gazette," "Tonawanda News," "Watertown Daily News" and the "Buffalo News." Root has a Bachelor of Arts in English from the State University of New York, Buffalo. organization-5.html What Are the Essential Differences Between Being an Effective Manager & an Effective Leader? by Rose Johnson ,Demand Media Managers and leaders are terms often used interchangeably in business, but can mean different things within an organization. The exact roles of managers and leaders depend on an organization's structure. Companies depend on effective managers and leaders to develop and maintain a successful organization. A company’s executive team must understand the difference between managers and leaders to know how to effectively use them within an organization. Adsby Google Performance Management Toolsto Manage Performance &GoalsRead WhitepapertoLearnMore! Effective Manager A primary difference between managers and leaders is that managers depend primarily on their skill, and leaders depend primarily on their characteristics. Effective managers possess three essential skills – technical, human and conceptual skills. Managers must understand the technical aspects surrounding the duties of their employees. Effective managers need advanced human interactive skills to oversee subordinates. In some cases, they may need to motivate employees and implement exercises that encourage teamwork. Conceptual skills allow managers to effectively communicate their concepts and ideas to other managers and their employees.