1. Air Barrier Paper
• A sheet material used to keep both vapor
away and act as an air barrier. It is applied to
the raw sheathing of a building
2. Attic Ventilation
• Ridge Vent- allows air flow in and out of the
attic and prevents moisture build-up
3. Attic Venelation
• Soffit Vent- used to help the flow of air in and
out of the attic as well as the prevention of
4. Attic Ventilation Cont.
• Gable Vent- attic vents are used to keep attics
cool and free of moisture. This is done by
moving large amount of air through the space,
and this vent aids in the process.
5. Attic Ventilation Cont.
• Roof Turbine- used to help the flow of air in
and out of attic to prevent moisture build-up
• A piece of equipment used in the excavation
of earth. It consists of a digging bucket on the
end of a hydraulic arm. This backhoe had a
bucket width of 4’.
7. Batter Boards
• Batter Boards are wooden boards that are
placed as guides for the initial surveying,
excavation, and grading. These give a rough
outline of the building.
8. Brick Arches
• Roman Arch
9. Brick Arches
• Segmental Arch
10. Brick Arch w/Keystone
• Temporary frame work for an arch, dome, or
12. Brick Bonds #1 and #2
• #1- Running Bond- Brick Bond in which entire course consist
• #2- Flemish Bond- Brick Bond
consist of 1 header and 1 stretcher
alternating on each course.
16. Brick Sizes
• Brick Size #1
This is a standard
size brick which
3 ½” x2 ¾” x8”
• Brick Size #2
KING SIZE BRICK:
This brick is 3 5/8” x3 5/8” x 8”
which larger than a standard size.
• A machine equipped with tracks and a large
blade used for the movement, or removal of
earth during construction work.
19. Cladding Cont.
• Stone Clad Structure (coursed ashlar)
20. Cladding Cont.
• Wood Board Clad
• Wood Shingle Clad Structure
Wood shingles: Lightweight shingles used in
siding or roofing made from wood that are
sawed on all sides.
Wood shake: Lightweight shingles used in
siding or roofing made from wood that are
split instead of sawn on all sides.
21. Code Requirements
• This window meets the code requirement having atleast 5.7
sq. ft. of open area for egress. Minimum clear opening height
of 24quot;, Minimum clear opening width of 20quot;. Bottom of clear
opening not more than 44quot; above finished floor. 36quot; x 28quot;=7
Height AFF: 28”
Area: 7sq ft.
22. Code Requirements
• Stairs Studied:
Tread must be minimum
of 7”, and riser max is 7
¾”, and nose must be NOSE
between 3/4 “ and 1 ¼”
when solid riser and tread
depth is under 11”.
The riser on these stairs
were 6 inches the tread
was 10 inches, the nose
was 1”, therefore these RISER
stairs meet code
23. Concrete Joints
• Control Joint-a tooled joint to control where it
should crack as a result of shrinkage.
24. Concrete Joints
• Isolation Joint-Tooled joint that totally
separates one concrete element from another.
• This Isolation joint separates two slabs
25. Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)
• Man made concrete units that are usually rectangular in
shape. The blocks usually have hollow cores, and are stacked
upon one another. As the blocks are stacked they are held
together by mortar. The typical nominal dimension are 8quot;x 8quot;x
16quot; and is equal to 3 courses of Brick.
29. Doors Cont.
• Exterior Panel Doors S
30. Doors Cont.
• Transom- a transverse beam or bar in a frame, or to the crosspiece
separating a door or the like from a window or fanlight above it.
• Sidelight- windows on either side of a door
31. Electrical Components
• Power Pole w/Transformer -
Power Pole- used to keep wires above
ground at a safe height
Transformer- converts electricity from high
to low voltage
• Underground Transformer-
Transformer constructed underground for
particular underground needs
32. Electrical Components Cont.
• Service Head- electrical Meter
entrance used to reduced
the aesthetic effects on a
• Meter-device used to
measure the amount of
electricity used by a
residence, business, or
33. Electrical Components Cont.
• Service Panel- a service panel provides 100, 200, or more
amps of power to a home
• Duplex Receptacle- usually have break-away tabs to separate
the top and bottom halves so that the two outlets can be
placed on separate circuits
Duplex Receptacle Service Panel
34. Framing Elements
• #1 Anchor Bolt- Bolt sunk into the slab or footing during
construction in order to tie the walls of the building to
the slab or footing. Anchor bolts are generally located on
35. Framing Elements Cont.
• #2 Sill Plate- The sill plate lies on top of a
concrete or masonry foundation in wood
36. Framing Elements Cont.
• #3 Floor Joist- Floor joist are placed below the subflooring in
all types of framing.
• #4 Subflooring- Subflooring is placed on top of the floor joists
in all types of framing.
37. Framing Elements Cont.
• #5 Sole Plate- A 2 x 4 which is anchored to the slab or sub
floor in order to secure the stud walls to the floor.
• #6 Stud- Vertical member of a wall. Spaced closely together in
order to give the wall strength.
38. Framing Elements Cont.
• #7 Top Plate- Top plates are placed on top of framed walls,
double top plates throughout a house help the sturdiness of
the walls greatly especially when framing is still going on.
• #8 Ceiling Joist- Ceiling joists are framed on top of the
top plates and not only provide structural strength, they
also provide a base for gypsum board to be applied.
39. Framing Elements Cont.
• #9 Rafter- Rafters run up and down the slope of a
• #10 Roof Decking-Roof decking is the structural
surface to which roofing materials are attached.
40. Framing Elements Cont.
• #11 Sheathing- the outside curtain of a
building, that the veneer will be attached.
• #12 Stringer- bottom part of a set of stirs
41. Front End Loader
• A front end loader is used for the movement of earth from
one location to another. However, it is different from a
backhoe because it is not designed for deep digging, and it is
different from a bulldozer because it is used to pick up dirt
and move it to another location rather than pushing it.
42. Gypsum Board
• An interior wall covering that is made up of gypsum and
paper. Gypsum is a white mineral made of hydrous calcium
sulfate that is also used to make plaster.
43. Heat Pump
• Advantage: Fairly inexpensive initial cost
• Disadvantage: Very inefficient when comparing the ratio
of useful heat to energy input
44. Heat Pump
• Air Handling Unit- The air handling unit
takes the air and runs it over the condenser
coils which heats up the air.
• Batt or Blanket Insulation-helps reduce unwanted heat loss or
gain in a building.
• Loose Fill Insulation-helps reduce unwanted heat loss or gain
in a building.
46. Insulation Cont.
• Foamed Insulation-helps reduce unwanted
heat loss or gain in a building.
• Rigid Board Insulation-helps reduce
unwanted heat loss or gain in a building.
• Lintel- A beam that carries a load across an
opening such as windows or doors.
• Mortar Joint #1
• Concave, 3/8”
N type mortar
• Mortar Joint #2
• Tooled, 3/8”, offic
S type mortar
49. Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
• Oriented Strand Board(OSB)- A non-veneered panel
product, it is composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented
in specific direction and bonded together under pressure. The
sheet in this picture is a 4'x8' sheet.
• Lavatory- a fixed bowl/basin with
running water and drainage for
washing. Basically, it’s a bathroom sink
and it uses a 1 1/2quot; drain.
• Water closet (uses 3” drain)
51. Plumbing Cont.
• Manufactured shower or tub
• Roof Vent (VTR)- The plumbing vent allows for ventilation of
sewage gases and introduces oxygen for sewage digestion.
52. Plumbing Cont.
• Drop-in Kitchen sink
• A wood panel product that is made of thin sheets of wood
veneer, called plys which are stacked together in adjacent
facing layers. The plys are bonded under heat and pressure
with strong adhesives, making plywood a type of composite
• Veneer- a thin layer, sheet,
54. Radiant Barrier
• a reflective foil placed adjacent ton an
airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a
deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
The rebar is #7 meaning it is 7/8”. The deformations in the rebar make it more secure in
the concrete; It allows the concrete to “grip” the rebar.
56. Steep Roof Drainage
• Gutter: Narrow channel that
collects the run off from a steep roof.
Vertical pipe that
carries rain water
down from a
57. Steep Roof Drainage Cont
• Splash block: A pad that is placed at the
bottom end of a down spout, that diverts
water away from the building.
58. Steep Roof Materials
• Underlayment- often called roofing felt is placed on top of the
roof decking. Underlayment is installed so that each sheet
overlaps the other for added moisture protection.
59. Steep Roof Materials Cont.
• Clay tile roof
• Shingle- a small unit of water-resistant material nailed in
overlapping fashion with many other such units to render a
wall or sloping roof watertight. Picture of metal shingles
60. Steep Roof Materials Cont.
• Metal panel roof- this particular roof is
constructed out of aluminized steel.
63. Steep Roof Terms
• Ridge- The uppermost, horizontal external
angle formed by the intersection of two
sloping roof planes
• Valley- The internal angle formed by the
intersection of two sloping roof planes
• Eave- The horizontal, lower edge of a
• Soffit- The finished underside of the eaves
64. Steep Roof Terms Cont.
• Rake- The inclined edge of a sloped
roof over a wall
• Fascia- A flat, horizontal board
enclosing the overhang under the
• Building without Fascia
• Random Rubble
• Coursed Rubble
• Random Ashlar
• Coursed Ashlar
67. Vapor Retarder
Any material, typically a plastic of foil sheet, that resists passage of moisture through
a wall, ceiling, or floor of a building. It helps prevent exterior moisture from
penetrating into and condensing unheated attics, basements, crawlspaces, and wall
cavities. It is most commonly placed on the warm in winter side of insulation.
Loosely laid waterproofing- keeps water from leaking into areas of house. If water
enters the house it can cause molding.
69. Weep Hole
Small openings that allow drainage of water that accummulates between the brick
wall and the back up wall.
70. Welded Wire Fabric
The WWF grid measured 6”x6”
This window is a casement
window is attached at one side by
hinges. Usually located on the
window frame is a lever attached
to an arm that can be turned to
open and close the window.
72. Windows continued
Sliding Window: both pains
slide along the tracks located
on the top and bottom of
the window. It's a sliding
window because the
window slides along the
73. Windows continued
Double Hung Window: a window
in which both sashes slide up and
down on the rail.