Visual Dictionary- Cement1


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Visual Dictionary- Cement1

  1. 1. David Ozment BSCI 2300 11:00 AM MWF Linda Ruth
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper <ul><li>Air barrier paper is a specialized paper that is installed on the outside of a building during construction. It is used to keep the building safe from weather such as rain and other outside influences of nature. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation Attic Ventilation is important because it allows air to flow freely from the outside to the inside. In some houses, it is part of the ventilation system as well. Also helps keep the air from staling. The soffit vent gives ventilation among the rafters. The ridge vent produces a pathway for air through underside of the roof decking. Roof turbine provides air down through the roof decking to the attic space. The vents are soffit vent, ridge vent, gable vent, and roof turbine.
  4. 4. Backhoe <ul><li>A piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. Backhoes are commonly used as a digging device to dig trenches, but are also used to move tools from one part of the dig to another. The bucket in the photo is 4 feet deep, 6 feet wide, and 3 feet tall. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Batter Boards <ul><li>Horizontal boards nailed to corner posts located just outside the corners of a proposed building to assist in the accurate layout of foundation and excavation lines. String is attached to the batter boards to give a straight line for workers to work with. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Brick Arches Elliptical Roman Arch with Keystone
  7. 7. Brick Bonds <ul><li>Running Bonds, Stack Bonds, Soldier Brick, Rowlock Brick, Header Brick, Shiner Brick, and Sailor Brick </li></ul>
  8. 8. Brick Sizes <ul><li>11 5/8” x 2 ¼ “ x 3 5/8”- Norman Brick </li></ul><ul><li>8” x 2 ¼” x 3 5/8” – Standard Brick </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bulldozer <ul><li>A heavy, driver-operated machine for clearing and grading land, usually having continuous treads and a broad hydraulic blade in front. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cladding <ul><li>Wood Shingle is a thin roofing unit of wood, usually cut from green wood and then kiln-dried, either split along the grain or cut to stock lengths, widths, and thicknesses; used as an exterior covering on sloping roofs and on side walls and applied in an overlapping fashion. Wood shakes are similar to wood shingles, except it is a little thicker and used for outside walling. The cladding on this building is most likely wood shakes. Brick Cladding, EIFS Cladding, Stone Cladding, Wood Board Cladding, and Wood Shingles Cladding </li></ul>
  11. 11. Code Requirements <ul><li>Window in room is 5 feet wide, 6 feet tall, the sill is set at 42 inches, and the net opening is 28 inches. The Code states the window should be a minimum of 34 ½ “ wide, the stile set at less than or equal to 44 inches, net opening a minimum of 24 inches. Is a good example of the code cause it meets all the requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of the stairs are: Tread is 13”, Rise is 7”. The Code says the minimum for tread is 11” and maximum rise is 7 ¾ “. Good example of the code cause it meets the minimum and maximum requirements set by the code. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concrete Joints <ul><li>A control joint is A groove which is formed, sawed, or tooled in a concrete or masonry structure to regulate the location and amount of cracking and separation resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure, thereby avoiding the development of high stresses. Isolation joint is a joint, such as an expansion joint, between two adjacent structures which are not in physical contact. </li></ul>No isolation joint photo
  13. 13. Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) <ul><li>A large rectangular brick used in construction. Concrete blocks are made from cast concrete, and aggregate, usually sand and fine gravel for high-density blocks. Common size is 8 in × 8 in × 16 in. The other CMU is 8 in x 10 in x 14 in </li></ul>
  14. 14. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units Split Face CMU Ribbed CMU
  15. 15. Doors <ul><li>Top Rail </li></ul><ul><li>Stile </li></ul><ul><li>Panel </li></ul><ul><li>Lock Rail </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Rail </li></ul>Panel Door Flush Door Transom- A small hinged window above a door or another window Sidelight- a piece(s) of glass set vertically next to a door
  16. 16. Electrical Components <ul><li>Power pole w/ transformer- wooden pool that works as a transferor of power lines to a place. Some have transformers that transfer energy from one circuit to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Service head- a type of terminating fitting that prevents water from entering the interior of the fitting </li></ul><ul><li>Meter- measures the amount of electricity used in the building </li></ul><ul><li>Service Panel- panel where electricity can be shut on and off and transformers are stored </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex receptacle- two receptacles, combined as a single unit, for installation in an outlet box. </li></ul>Power pole w/transformer Service Head Meter Service Panel Duplex receptacle
  17. 17. Framing Elements Anchor Bolt Sill Plate Floor Joist Subflooring Sole Plate Stud Top Plate Ceiling Joist Rafters Roof Decking Sheathing Stringer
  18. 18. Front End Loader <ul><li>An earthmoving machine with a hydraulic scoop in front for lifting and loading earth or rubble. Can also be used to move tools and other equipment. Unlike other machines, the front bucket is used for lifting more than digging or pushing. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Gypsum board is a type of building material that is used in commercial and residential construction. It is a board of material with paper on top to give it a colorful and finished look. </li></ul>Gypsum Board
  20. 20. Heat Pump <ul><li>Heat pump- a device that warms or cools a building by transferring heat from a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Compressors- A pump or other machine that increases the pressure of a gas </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporator- device that changes liquid into a gas for the ventilation system. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Handling Unit- A packaged assembly of air-conditioning components which provides for the treatment of air before it is distributed. </li></ul>Heat Pump/Compressor Evaporator Air Handling Unit
  21. 21. Insulation <ul><li>Insulation is material used to slow the transfer of heat through walls so as to reduce energy costs </li></ul>Loose insulation Rigid Board insulation Blanket insulation Foam insulation
  22. 22. Lintel <ul><li>A horizontal structural member over an opening which carries the weight of the wall above it; usually of steel, stone, or wood. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Mortar <ul><li>Weeping mortar joint- was neither was tooled or troweled . Was created by letting the mortar spill out over the bricks as they were set. Is ¾ inches wide and was used at a construction firm. Is most likely N mortar </li></ul><ul><li>Concave Joint- was tooled. The joint is ½ inch thick and was used at a IHOP. Is most likely O mortar </li></ul>
  24. 24. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) <ul><li>Building material composed of rectangular-shaped wood strands arranged in layers at right angles to one another, laid up into mats that form a panel and bonded with waterproof adhesives. Cross orientation makes the panels strong and stiff in both directions, and they contain no laps, gaps, or voids. Applications include subflooring, single-layer flooring, wall and roof sheathing, structural insulated panels, and webs for wood I-joists </li></ul>
  25. 25. Plumbing <ul><li>Lavatories usually use 2 centimeter diameter pipes to drain the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Water closest use 3 centimeter diameter pipes. </li></ul><ul><li>Plumbing vent- provide for relief of sewer gases, admission of oxygen for aerobic sewage digestion, and maintenance of the trap water seals which prevent sewer gases from entering the building. </li></ul>Drop-in Sink Tub installed before anything else Plumbing vent Lavatory Water Closet
  26. 26. Plywood <ul><li>Plywood is made of three or more thin layers of wood bonded together with an adhesive. Each layer of wood, or ply is usually oriented with its grain running at right angles to the adjacent layer in order to reduce the shrinkage and improve the strength of the finished piece. Most plywood is pressed into large, flat sheets used in building construction. Other plywood pieces may be formed into simple or compound curves for use in furniture, boats, and aircraft. Plywood production requires a good log, called a peeler, which is generally straighter and larger in diameter than one required for processing into dimensioned lumber by a sawmill. The log is peeled into sheets of veneer which are then cut to the desired dimensions, dried, patched, glued together and then baked in a press at 280 °F and 2800 psi to form the plywood panel. The panel can then be patched, resized, sanded or otherwise refinished, depending on the market for which it is intended. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Radiant Barrier <ul><li>Radiant paper is a type of barrier that inhibits heat transfer by thermal radiation </li></ul>
  28. 28. Rebar <ul><li>Rebar is a common steel bar, and is commonly used in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures. It is usually formed from carbon steel, and is given ridges for better mechanical anchoring into the concrete. This rebar is 5/8 “ in diameter, making it a #5 bar. The deformations on the bar is for more surface for the concrete to grab onto. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Steep Roof Drainage <ul><li>Gutter- a narrow channel which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure </li></ul><ul><li>Downspout- A vertical pipe for carrying rainwater down from a roof gutter </li></ul><ul><li>Splash block- A small masonry block with a concave surface placed on the ground below a downspout at a sloping angle to carry roof drainage water away from a building and to prevent erosion of the soil. </li></ul>Gutter Splash block Downspout
  30. 30. Steep Roof Material <ul><li>Underlayment- The material, usually No. 15 felt, used to cover a roof deck before shingles are applied. </li></ul><ul><li>Shingle- a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements. These elements are normally flat rectangular shapes that are laid in rows without the side edges overlapping, a single layer is used to ensure a water-resistant result. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum foil is usually used to create metal panel roofs. </li></ul>Metal Panel Roof Metal Shingle Roof Underlayment
  31. 31. Steep Roof Shapes <ul><li>Gable roof, gambrel roof, hip roof, and mansard roof </li></ul>
  32. 32. Steep Roof Terms <ul><li>Ridge- The horizontal line at the junction of the upper edges of two sloping roof surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Valley- The trough or gutter formed by the intersection of two inclined planes of a roof </li></ul><ul><li>Eave- The border of a roof overhanging a wall </li></ul><ul><li>Rake- A board or molding along the sloping edge of a gable; covers the edges of the siding </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia- Any band or belt with a plain vertical face, such as a fascia-board at eaves-level </li></ul><ul><li>Soffit- The exposed undersurface of any overhead component of a building, such as an arch, balcony, beam, cornice, lintel, or vault. </li></ul>Ridge Valley Eave Rake Fascia Soffit
  33. 33. Stone Coursed Rubble Random Ashlar Random Rubble No Coursed Ashlar photo
  34. 34. Vapor Retarder <ul><li>Vapor retarder is a layer of material or laminate used to reduce, appreciably, the flow of water vapor into a roofing system. Is usually placed on the bottom of insulation. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Waterproofing <ul><li>Waterproofing is the act of making something water proof. Creates a barrier that keeps water from getting past the wall to the space beyond. The type of waterproof here is liquid applied. Liquid-applied membranes that cure in place are relatively easy to detail around penetrations and other transitions, since in liquid state, the membrane can easily form itself to any shape. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Weep hole <ul><li>Weep holes are small openings left in the outer wall of masonry construction as an outlet for water inside a building to move outside the wall and evaporate. Modern weep holes employ weep hole screens in order to prevent the ingress of snakes, insects, & other small animals into the masonry cavity. The weep hole screens are typically constructed of flexible nylon or plastics. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Welded Wire Fabric <ul><li>A series of longitudinal and transverse wires arranged at right angles to each other and welded together at all points of intersection; used as reinforcement in reinforced concrete . The measurement of the grid is 6” x 6” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Windows <ul><li>Double Hung Window- A window having two sashes that slide up and down. Is this type because it opens at the bottom panel and the top panel. (will not open at moment cause the locks are rigid and stuck) </li></ul>No other window photos