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Visual Dictionary for BSCI Materials, Methods, and Equipment 1

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Visual dictionary

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary<br />Jeff Brock<br />Materials, Methods, and Equipment I<br />Spring 2010<br />
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper<br />Air Barrier Paper is a type of sheet material used for both a vapor retarder and air barrier. In this picture the Air Barrier Paper is stapled to the sheathing to offer as an Air/Vapor barrier.<br />
  3. 3. Attic Ventilationsoffit vent<br />The Soffit Vent is above my hand. The white strip with holes to vent the attic.<br />It is needed to allow air to flow into the attic or below the roof sheathing.<br />
  4. 4. Attic VentilationRidge Vent<br />The Ridge Vent is the elevated top black surface running on the top of the ridge of the roof. It runs the entire stretch of the roof ridge.<br />It is needed to allow air to flow in and out of a gable roof at the ridge.<br />
  5. 5. Attic VentilationGable vent<br />The gable Vent is at the top of the Gable in the roof.<br />It is needed to exhaust excess heat and humidity from the attic.<br />
  6. 6. Attic VentilationRoof Turbine<br />The roof turbine is the black ball and cylinder looking object at the top of the roof. <br />It is needed to exhaust warm and moist air from your attic. <br />
  7. 7. Backhoe<br />A backhoe is an excavator whose bucket is rigidly attached to a hinged pole on the boom and is drawn backward to the machine when in operation.<br />The backhoe is commonly used for excavating dirt or digging into the ground.<br />Bucket Dimensions:<br />Width-41 inches<br />Height- 68 inches<br />Depth- 60 inches<br />
  8. 8. Batter Boards<br />Batter Boards are a temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie in the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation.<br />
  9. 9. Brick ArchesJack Arch<br />This is a Jack Arch because all joints are uniform. It also contains a skewback, approximately 2 in. per foot of span.<br />
  10. 10. Brick ArchesSegmental Arch<br />This is a segmental Arch. It uses 3 courses of Rowlock bricks.<br />
  11. 11. Brick ArchesArch with Keystone<br />This Arch has a Keystone( the large stone lying in the center of the arch).<br />
  12. 12. Brick ArchesCentering<br />In this picture, the brick lays on top of a curved RED metal lintel like centering device.<br />Centering: Temporary form work for an arch, dome, or vault.<br />
  13. 13. Brick Bonds<br />Running Bond<br />
  14. 14. Brick Bonds<br />American<br />Bond<br />
  15. 15. Brick Bonds<br />Rowlocks<br />
  16. 16. Brick Bonds<br />Headers<br />
  17. 17. Brick Bonds<br />Soldiers<br />
  18. 18. Brick Bonds<br />Stretcher Rowlocks (Shiners)<br />
  19. 19. Brick Bonds<br />Sailors<br />
  20. 20. Brick Sizes<br />Grey Brick- Smaller<br />Red Brick- Larger<br />
  21. 21. Brick Sizes<br />Red Brick:<br />Utility Brick<br />Face Dimensions:<br />3 ½ in- 11 ½ in<br />W-H-L<br />3 ½- 3 ½- 11 ½<br />UTILITY BRICK<br />
  22. 22. Brick Sizes<br />Grey Brick:<br />Modular Brick<br />Face Dimensions:<br />3 ½ in – 7 5/8 in<br />W-H-L<br />3 ½- 3 ½- 7 5/8<br />MODULAR BRICK<br />
  23. 23. Brick Sizes<br />White brick- smaller<br />Red Brick- larger<br />
  24. 24. Brick Sizes<br />Red Brick:<br />Norman Brick<br />Face Dimensions:<br />3 ½ in by 11 ½ <br />W-H-L<br />3 ½ - 2 ¼ - 11 ½ <br />NORMAN BRICK<br />
  25. 25. Brick Sizes<br />White Brick:<br />Modular Brick<br />Face Dimensions:<br />3 ½ in – 7 5/8 in<br />W-H-L<br />3 ½- 3 ½- 7 5/8<br />MODULAR BRICK<br />
  26. 26. Bulldozer<br />A BULLDOZER is a heavy, driver-operated machine for clearing and grading land, usually having continuous treads and a broad hydraulic blade in front.<br />
  27. 27. Cladding<br />Brick<br />
  28. 28. Cladding<br />EIFS<br />
  29. 29. Cladding<br />Stone<br />
  30. 30. Cladding<br />Wood Boards<br />
  31. 31. Cladding<br />Wood Shake<br />A shake is a wooden shingle that is made from split logs.<br />This wooden shake is made from real wood.<br />
  32. 32. Code RequirementsEgress Window<br />Egress Window:<br />Minn. Width- 31 in.<br />Minn. Height- 28 in.<br />Net opening-6.03 sqft<br /> Height above sill<br /> 24in.<br />Code Requirement:<br />Minn . Width-20 in<br />Minn . Height- 24in<br />Net oprning- 5.7 sqft<br />Max height above sill-<br />Less then 44 in.<br />
  33. 33. Code RequirementsStairs<br />Stairs:<br />Tred: 10 in<br />Riser: 7 ½<br />Code Requirements:<br />Tred:10 in minnimum<br />Riser: 7 ¾ in max.<br />
  34. 34. Concrete Joints<br />Control Joint:<br />An intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure.<br />
  35. 35. Concrete Joints<br />Isolation Joint:<br />A joint, such as an expansion joint, between two adjacent structures which are not in physical contact.<br />This isolation joint isolates the driveway from the owner’s front walkway. Using a piece of treated lumber.<br />
  36. 36. Concrete Masonry Unit<br />3 courses of brick<br /> =<br />1 CMU height<br />
  37. 37. Concrete Masonry Unit<br />2 Different sized CMU<br />LARGER= 12inch<br />SMALLER= 4inch<br />
  38. 38. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units<br />Split Block CMU<br />
  39. 39. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units<br />Ribbed Block<br />
  40. 40. Doors<br />Flush Door<br />
  41. 41. Doors<br />Panel Door:<br />Orange arrow: panel<br />Blue arrow: Top Rail<br />Red arrow: lock rail<br />Green arrow: stile<br />Yellow arrow: bottom rail<br />
  42. 42. Doors<br />Transom:<br />A small window directly above the door.<br />
  43. 43. Doors<br />Sidelight:<br />A small narrow window along side a door.<br />
  44. 44. Electrical ComponentsTransformer Box<br />TRANSFORMER BOX:<br />A device used to transfer electric energy from one circuit to another. The transformer box is used to transform the electric current sent from the power plant into a safe current allowable to enter the house.<br />
  45. 45. Electrical ComponentsService Head<br />SERVICE HEAD:<br />The service point from the main circuit line to the structure. <br />These service heads can come in: A Tie-In, Lateral, or actual service line.<br />This service head is an example of a panel box.<br />
  46. 46. Electrical ComponentsMeter<br />METER:<br />The meter is used to calculate the amount of kW/h of electricity that the home uses.<br />The power company comes out an measures this amount and sends it to you in you electricity bill.<br />The National average of kW/h for March of 2010 was 12 cents.<br />
  47. 47. Electrical ComponentsService Panel<br />SERVICE PANEL:<br />A panel located inside the house from which the different circuits run through. The panel is often called a “breaker box”. It absorbs the electricity from the main line and distributes it to other circuits.<br />
  48. 48. Electrical ComponentsDuplex Receptacle<br />DUPLEX RECEPTACLE:<br />The duplex receptacle is often referred to as an “outlet”. It provides an outlet source of electricity for all sorts of electric devices.<br />
  49. 49. Framing Elements<br />1. Anchor Bolt<br />
  50. 50. Framing Elements<br />2. Sill Plate<br />
  51. 51. Framing Elements<br />3. Floor joist<br />This house uses Trusses as floor joists.<br />
  52. 52. Framing Elements<br />4. Subflooring<br />
  53. 53. Framing Elements<br />5. Sole Plate<br />
  54. 54. Framing Elements<br />6. Stud<br />
  55. 55. Framing Elements<br />7. Top Plate<br />
  56. 56. Framing Elements<br />8. Stringer<br />
  57. 57. Framing Elements<br />9. Ceiling Joist<br />
  58. 58. Framing Elements<br />10. Rafter<br />
  59. 59. Framing Elements<br />11. Roof Decking<br />
  60. 60. Framing Elements<br />12. Sheathing<br />
  61. 61. Front End Loader<br />Front End Loader:<br />Is a heavy equipment machine (often used in construction) that is primarily used to "load" material (asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, wood chips, etc.) into an assortment of things. ( i.e. dump trucks)<br />
  62. 62. Gypsum Board<br />Gypsum Board:<br />An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces; also called drywall, plasterboard.<br />In this picture the gypsum board is installed with taped and mudded joints.<br />
  63. 63. Heat PumpCompressor/ Evaporator<br />Heat Pump:<br />A device that utilizes a refrigeration cycle either to heat or to cool a building by passing air or water over either the condensing coils or the evaporator coils, respectively.<br />Advantage: popular choice due to their simple ‘plug and play’ installation and competitive pricing<br />Disadvantage: Air source heat pumps perform better in mild temperate. In climates with extended periods of freezing temperatures, they force users to use electric or gas heaters<br />
  64. 64. Heat PumpAir Handling Unit<br />Air Handling Unit:<br />The heat pump’s air handling unit is used to direct air to the central air line.<br />
  65. 65. Insulation<br />Batt/Blanket Insulation<br />Purpose: Batt/Blanket Insulation is used to insulate below floors, above ceilings, and within walls. Generally, batt insulation is the least expensive wall insulation material but requires careful installation for effective performance. <br />
  66. 66. Insulation<br />Loose Fill Insulation<br />Purpose: Loose Fill Insulation includes loose fibers or fiber pellets that are blown into building cavities or attics using special equipment. It generally costs more than batt insulation. However, it usually fills nooks and crannies easier, reduces air leakage better, and provides better sound insulation than natt-type insulation. <br />
  67. 67. Insulation<br />Foamed Insulation<br />Purpose:<br /> foam insulation is a two-part liquid containing a polymer (such as polyurethane or modified urethane) and a foaming agent. The liquid is sprayed through a nozzle into wall, ceiling, and floor cavities. As it is applied it expands into a solid cellular plastic with millions of tiny air-filled cells that fill every nook and cranny<br />
  68. 68. Insulation<br />Rigid Board Insulation<br />Purpose:<br />Rigid board insulation is commonly made from fiberglass, polystyrene, or polyurethane and comes in a variety of thicknesses with a high insulating value (approximately R-4 to R-8 per inch). This type of insulation is used for reproofing work on flat roofs, on basement walls and as perimeter insulation at concrete slab edges, and in cathedral ceilings. <br />
  69. 69. Lintel<br />Lintel:<br />STEEL LINTEL<br />A LINTEL is a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.<br />
  70. 70. Mortar<br />Raked Joint<br />Tooled Joint<br />5/8 in. Joint<br />Used on a Masonic Lodge.<br />Mortar Type: N<br />Medium-strength Mortar<br />
  71. 71. Mortar<br />Flush Joint<br />Trowled Joint<br />5/8 in. Joint<br />Mortar Type: N<br />Medium- Strength Mortar<br />
  72. 72. Oriented Strand Board(OSB)<br />OSB:<br />Building material composed of rectangular-shaped wood strands arranged in layers at right angles to one another, laid up into mats that form a panel and bonded with waterproof adhesives. Cross orientation makes the panels strong and stiff in both directions, and they contain no laps, gaps, or voids<br />
  73. 73. Plumbing<br />Lavatory:<br />Size of Drain:<br />1 ½ in.<br />
  74. 74. Plumbing<br />Tub/ Shower In: <br />During Framing<br />
  75. 75. Plumbing<br />Water Closet<br />Size of Drain:<br />3 in.<br />
  76. 76. Plumbing<br />Plumbing Vent:<br />A plumbing vent allows for building drains to flow freely as well as let sewer gases be vented safely outdoors.<br />
  77. 77. Plumbing<br />Laundry Room Sink<br />Drop In Sink<br />
  78. 78. Plywood<br />Plywood: A cross banded assembly of layers of veneer or veneer in combination with a lumber core or plies joined with an adhesive; the grain of the adjoining veneer or plies is approximately at right angles; an odd number of plies is generally used. Two primary types of plywood are recognized, “veneer plywood” (layers of veneers only) and “lumber core” plywood (lumber core with veneers or plies bonded to it).<br />Veneer: coating consisting of a thin layer of superior wood glued to a base of inferior wood<br />
  79. 79. Radiant Barrier<br />Radiant Barrier:<br />Radiant Barriers inhibit heat transfer by thermal radiation.<br />
  80. 80. Rebar<br />Rebar:<br />½ in in diameter.<br />#4 bar<br />The deformations on the surface of the rebar allow the rebar to make a gripping surface in the concrete. Without these deformations, you may be able to wiggle the rebar out of the concrete.<br />
  81. 81. Steep Roof Drainage<br />Gutter:a channel along the eaves or on the roof; collects and carries away rainwater<br />
  82. 82. Steep RoofDrainage<br />Downspout:<br />A downspout is a vertical pipe for carrying rainwater from a rain gutter gutter to ground level.<br />
  83. 83. Steep Roof Drainage<br />Splash Block:<br />A pad placed under the lower end of a downspout and diverts the water from the downspout away from the house.<br />
  84. 84. Steep Roof Materials<br />Underlayment: Felt Paper<br />Felt Paper:Tar paper, installed under roof shingles. Usually 15 lb. Or 30 lb.Filler (wood): A heavily pigmented preparation used for fining and leveling off the pores in open-pored woods.<br />
  85. 85. Steep Roof Materials<br />Clay Tile Roof<br />
  86. 86. Steep Roof Materials<br />Shingle Roof:<br />A thin oblong piece of material, such as wood or slate, that is laid in overlapping rows to cover the roof or sides of a house or other building<br />Wooden Shingles<br />CLOSE UP ON FOLLOWING SLIDE!<br />
  87. 87. Steep Roof Materials<br />Close up of Shingle Roof.<br />WOODEN SHINGLES<br />
  88. 88. Steep Roof Materials<br />Metal Panel Roof<br />Usually fabricated of sheet metal such as aluminum. <br />
  89. 89. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Gabel<br />
  90. 90. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Gambrel<br />
  91. 91. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Hip <br />
  92. 92. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Mansard<br />
  93. 93. Steep RoofTerms<br />Orange Arrow: Ridge<br />The top edge of a roof where two sloping sides meet.<br />Blue Arrow: Valley<br />The "V" created where two sloping roofs meet.<br />Red arrow: Eave<br />An eave is the edge of a roof. Eaves usually project beyond the side of the building generally to provide weather protection.<br />
  94. 94. Steep Roof Terms<br />Rake: Orange Arrow<br />A board or molding placed along the sloping sides of a frame gable to cover the ends of the siding<br />Soffit: Blue Arrow<br />A soffit is the horizontal underside of a roof overhang, an archway, a staircase, a ceiling, or a similar architectural component.<br />
  95. 95. Steep Roof Terms<br />Fascia:<br />The exposed vertical face of an eave.<br />
  96. 96. Steep Roof Terms<br />Building Without Fascia<br />Definition of a fascia on previous slide<br />As you can see in this photo, this side has a rake to cover the siding, but no soffit, and no fascia.<br />My face looks so dumb because it was pouring. F.Y.I.<br />Rake<br />No <br />fascia<br />
  97. 97. Stone<br />Random Rubble<br />
  98. 98. Stone<br />Coursed Rubble<br />
  99. 99. Stone<br />Random Ashlar<br />
  100. 100. Stone<br />Coursed Ashlar<br />
  101. 101. Vapor Retarder<br />Vapor Retarder:<br />Helps control the amount of moisture passing through the insulation and collecting inside exterior walls, ceilings and floors<br />Most commonly put on the back of the insulation. <br />
  102. 102. Waterproofing<br />Waterproofing:<br />Coating a material to make it repel water.<br />The concrete is waterproofed to make sure that the concrete does not absorb water while it is below grade.<br />Liquid Applied waterproofing<br />
  103. 103. Weep Hole<br />Weep Holes:<br />small openings left in the outer wall of masonry construction as an outlet for water inside a building to move outside the wall and evaporate.<br />
  104. 104. Welded Wire Fabric<br />Welded Wire Fabric:<br />A series of longitudinal and transverse wires of various gauges, arranged at right angles to each other and welded at all points of intersection; used for concrete slab reinforcement.<br />Grid Measurements:<br />6 in .by 6 in.<br />
  105. 105. Windows<br />Double Hung Window:<br />This is a double hung window because both the top and bottom panels move freely up and down the rails to allow top and bottom to both be open.<br />
  106. 106. Windows<br />Casement Window:<br />This is an out swinging casement window because it is hinged along the side of the window. It swings outward using a crank to turn as it opens the window.<br />
  107. 107. Windows<br />Awning Window:<br />This an out swinging awning window because it is hinged along the top of the window. This allows the window to be pushed open from the bottom and hang outwardly open.<br />