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Visual dictionary


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Visual dictionary

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary BSCI 2300 November 30, 2009
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper Air Barrier Paper – an external membrane applied to the sheathing below the veneer which serves as a weather barrier and helps to prevent air infiltration into the home.
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation – Serves to allow water vapor to escape and to allow the hot attic air to escape by providing an intake at the eaves through the soffit vents which allows the warmer air to escape through the roof vents. Attic Ventilation
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation Soffit Vent – Allows air into the attic so that the warmer air can be pushed out through the vents placed higher on the roof
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation Ridge Vent – Allows hot attic air to escape through a gap in the ridge decking
  6. 6. Attic Ventilation Gable Vent – Allows hotter attic air to escape and prevents buildup of heat conducted through the roof of the structure
  7. 7. Attic Ventilation Roof Turbine – allows the air to escape by drawing it out through the roof like a fan
  8. 8. Backhoe – Heavy machinery used for excavation in smaller site clearing projects like tree removal and used to dig footings and some basement excavation. Bucket width: 2 ft. Backhoe
  9. 9. Batter Boards – A temporary frame built just outside the corners of a foundation excavation. They are used to make sure the structure is square and to also carry the lines of a footing from corner to corner. Batter Boards
  10. 10. Brick Arches Radius Arch
  11. 11. Brick Arches Segmented Arch
  12. 12. Brick Arches Arch w / Keystone
  13. 13. Brick Arches Centering- formwork used to support masonry units of an arch while under the construction process until all units are in place.
  14. 14. Brick Bonds Stretcher Bond- is the most simple bond consisting of interlocking stretcher courses.
  15. 15. Brick Bonds Stack Bond- consists of stacked stretchers; weakest of all bonds.
  16. 16. Brick Bonds Rowlocks
  17. 17. Brick Bonds Header
  18. 18. Brick Bonds Soldier
  19. 19. Brick Bonds Sailor Bond
  20. 20. Brick Bonds <ul><li>Stretcher Rowlock (Shiners) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Brick Sizes Utility Brick – 3 5/8” w x 3 5/8” h x 11 5/8” L
  22. 22. Brick Sizes Queen Size 3” w x 2 ¾” h x 7 5/8” L
  23. 23. Bulldozer Bulldozer – heavy machinery used during site prep. It is used to level the dirt off by grading with the front blade and pushing dirt around small areas of the construction site.
  24. 24. Cladding Brick Clad
  25. 25. Cladding EIFS
  26. 26. Cladding <ul><li>Stone clad “Random Rubble” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cladding Wood Board Clad ”Board and Batten”
  28. 28. Cladding Wood Shake – small shingle split from a block of wood, which gives a rough texture and uneven depths Wood Shingle – sawn shingle, typically more smooth and uniform; also larger in size
  29. 29. Code Requirements Windows : minimum opening of 5.7 square feet (5.0 if sill is less than 44” AFF) Opening width 20” minimum & opening height 24” minimum. Actual Measurements – 26” h x 32” w x 36” AFF. Total Area : 5.78 sq. ft. The window meets the code requirements
  30. 30. Code Requirements Code requirements – Riser Height 7 ¾” maximum Tread Depth 10” nosing to nosing Actual measurements – Riser Height of 7 5/8 tread depth 11 5/8” (less 1 ½ “ overhang) gives 10 1/8”. Therefore, the stair is in compliance with the code.
  31. 31. Concrete Joints Control Joint – a designed cut in concrete to weaken the slab at that point in an attempt to prevent cracking elsewhere in the concrete
  32. 32. Concrete Joints Isolation joints - separate concrete from objects or structures, and allow independent movement without any connection that could cause damage to either object.
  33. 33. Concrete Masonry Unit CMU – a block of hardened concrete designed to be laid up like regular masonry brick. The hollow cores allow for the block walls to be filled with concrete for additional strength. CMU is more economical for foundation walls than cast concrete, and when laid by a proper mason, one course of block is equal to 3 courses of standard brick w/ a 3/8” mortar joint. A typical block is 8” x 8” x 16” with a 3/8” mortar joint.
  34. 34. Decorative CMU Split Block
  35. 35. Decorative CMU Ribbed Block
  36. 36. Doors Flush Door
  37. 37. Doors Top Rail Style Panel Lock Rail Transom Bottom Rail Sidelight Transom – A small window directly over a door Sidelight – A tall, narrow widow running alongside a door
  38. 38. Electrical Components Underground Transformer Box – Steps down the electricity from a few thousand volts to the 110v / 220v service needed for the home
  39. 39. Electrical Components Service Head – Brings the electricity into the meter and isolates that particular residence through an in-line fuse which prevents the house wiring from interfering with other structures on the grid Meter – Measures how much electricity is being used
  40. 40. Electrical Components Service Panel – the point where the electricity enters the home. The panel distributes the electricity throughout the home through individual circuits.
  41. 41. Electrical Components Duplex Receptacle – where the power is accessed in the home
  42. 42. Framing Elements Anchor Bolt Sill Plate
  43. 43. Framing Elements Floor Joist Subflooring
  44. 44. Framing Elements <ul><li>Soleplate </li></ul><ul><li>Stud </li></ul><ul><li>Top Plate </li></ul><ul><li>Ceiling Joist </li></ul>
  45. 45. Farming Elements Unfinished Stringer
  46. 46. Framing Elements Rafter Roof decking Sheathing
  47. 47. Front End Loader Front End Loader – used for transporting piles of dirt or other material across a jobsite. The hydraulic arms on the bucket allows the ability to place material at a raised elevation – useful for loading dump trucks and backfilling retaining walls. Unlike a bulldozer, a loader has the ability to scoop dirt out of the ground and move it to another location rather than spreading it around an area
  48. 48. Gypsum Board Gypsum Board – An interior finish board made from a gypsum core sandwiched between two paper faces.
  49. 49. Compressor – compresses the refrigerant gas which gives off heat, thus cooling the air as it blows across the cooler coils at the air handler Heat Pump <ul><li>One main disadvantage of the heat pump system is that it is noisy. One must take into account where to place the outside compressors to avoid noise intrusion into the home. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Heat Pump Air Handler – Forces the air through the system with the use of a blower fan. Also, cooler air is blown across a heating element inside the air handler to warm it up before distributing it through the ductwork <ul><li>One advantage of heat pump systems is that it is the most efficient way to heat and cool a home </li></ul>
  51. 51. Insulation Batt Insulation is a quick and easy way to insulate walls and ceilings between studs and ceiling joists using strips or rolls if fiberglass insulation.
  52. 52. Insulation Loose Fill insulation is fiberglass or paper insulation blown into place; used in attics to fill all voids between ceiling joists.
  53. 53. Insulation Foamed Insulation is a mixture of different chemicals that react with each other; it is spray applied and is the best form of insulation to seal off penetrations completely.
  54. 54. Insulation Rigid Board Insulation is insulation that is extruded into 4x8 sheets used as exterior sheathing and basement wall insulation.
  55. 55. Lintel Steel Lintel – A beam that carries the load of the wall across a door or window
  56. 56. Mortar Concave joint – This brick is tooled with 3/8” joints and has type ‘N’ mortar. “Oil Change”
  57. 57. Mortar Extruded joint – this house has a 3/8” neither tooled or troweled mortar joints, with type N mortar.
  58. 58. Oriented Strand Board OSB – a nonveneered panel made up of strands of wood particles which are compressed and glued together in several layers, with each layer oriented opposite the direction of the previous layer for strength
  59. 59. Plumbing Lavatory – uses 1 ½” drain pipe for sink
  60. 60. Plumbing Water Closet – uses 3” pipe to drain
  61. 61. Plumbing <ul><li>Installed shower tub with unfinished green rock and batt insulation. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Plumbing Vent Through Roof – allows air to enter the plumbing system eliminating a vacuum which lets the water drain from the pipes.
  63. 63. Plumbing Drop in kitchen sink
  64. 64. Plywood Plywood – manufactured by gluing thin veneers of wood together, rotating each layer 90 degrees so that the grain in the wood does not run the same in each layer. This provides greater strength and equalizes moisture movement Veneer – a thin layer or facing
  65. 65. Radiant Barrier <ul><li>Radiant barriers are typically installed on top of rafters or under rafters and is used to block radiant heat from entering the house by reflecting it from the roof through metallic finishes. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Rebar #4 rebar (1/2” thickness) is going to be used here probably to join a block or brick fireplace to the foundation of the house.
  67. 67. Steep Roof Drainage Gutter Downspout Gutter – a channel which collects rainwater at the eave of a roof Downspout – A vertical pipe for conducting the rainwater from the gutter to a lower level discharge point
  68. 68. Steep Roof Drainage Splashblock – a precast concrete or plastic block used to dissipate the water at the downspout’s discharge point
  69. 69. Steep Roof Materials Underlayment – A thin layer of waterproof material laid between the roof deck and roofing. It allows to get the house in the dry so progress will not be held up due to inclement weather and protects the building before the roofing is applied
  70. 70. Steep Roof Materials Clay Tile Roof
  71. 71. Steep Roof Material Shingle – A water resistant material nailed in an overlapping pattern with other like materials to make the roof watertight. Wood Shingle Roof
  72. 72. Steep Roof Materials Metal Panel Roof Galvanized Steel
  73. 73. Steep Roof Shapes Gable Roof
  74. 74. Steep Roof Shapes Gambrel Roof
  75. 75. Steep Roof Shapes Hip Roof
  76. 76. Steep Roof Shapes Mansard Roof
  77. 77. Steep Roof Terms Ridge – the level intersection of roof planes “top of Roof” Valley – the sloping intersection of roof planes which water drains down Eave – the level, low edge of the roof
  78. 78. Steep Roof Terms Rake – The Sloping edge of a steep roof
  79. 79. Steep Roof Terms Fascia – the exposed vertical face of the eave Soffit – the undersurface of a roof overhang, installed to enclose the rafter tails
  80. 80. Steep Roof Terms No Fascia – house with exposed rafter tails
  81. 81. Stone Random Rubble Pattern
  82. 82. Stone Coursed Rubble Pattern
  83. 83. Stone Random Ashlar Pattern
  84. 84. Stone <ul><li>Coursed ashlar </li></ul>
  85. 85. Vapor Retarder Vapor Retarder – put in place to reduce the passage of air and water vapor through the building assembly to prevent condensation. It is usually placed to the inside of the building.
  86. 86. Waterproofing Waterproofing – installed to prevent the passage of water through the CMU into a basement or crawlspace. This is an example of liquid applied
  87. 87. Weep Hole Weep hole – a small opening in the brick veneer to allow accumulated water from the building to escape
  88. 88. Welded Wire Fabric WWF – 6” x 6” grid
  89. 89. Windows Double Hung Window Vinyl Clad Both the top & bottom sash open
  90. 90. Windows Casement Window Solid Vinyl window The window cranks out from a side hinge
  91. 91. Windows Single Hung Wooden Window Only the bottom sash is operable