The importance of wheat for food security in Africa: Challenges and potential


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Presentation by Dr. Mahmood Solh - Director General, ICARDA, at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 8, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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The importance of wheat for food security in Africa: Challenges and potential

  1. 1. Wheat for Food Security in Africa: Challenges and Potential Wheat for Food Security for Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 8-12 October, 2012 Mahmoud El Solh Director General International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
  2. 2. Outline Wheat Production and Consumption in Africa & Prospects for Expansion; Wheat for Food Security in Africa and the Vision of The New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD); Challenges facing wheat production in Sub Saharan Africa to enhancing wheat productivity; Examples on and prospects in wheat improvement in Sub Saharan Africa; Important Role of CRP 3.1 and the AfDB SARD-SC Project and the USAID Seed Project; Conclusion.
  3. 3. Wheat Production in Sub-Saharan Africa and The Prospects for Expansion …..
  4. 4. Wheat Production in Africa Wheat is grown on around 10 million ha in Africa, where it is a major staple food crop for several countries, and an imported food commodity in all of Africa. Consumption (about 50 million tons) is twice the production level and the gap is widening because of increased population, change in human diet and food preferences, Observed yields are generally Low due to several constraints including drought, diseases and insect pests, in addition climate change effects and increased prices of agricultural inputs that are rarely applied adequately. 4
  5. 5. Wheat statistics for Selected SSA Countries (2010-2011) Country Area Production Yield Imports Self-suffi. 000 ha 000 t t/ha 000 t % Eritrea 25 15 0.6 200 7 Ethiopia 1500 2700 1.8 900 75 Kenya* 139 340 2.5 580 37 Tanzania 65 95 1.5 650 13 Mali 5.1 15.1 3.0 105 13 Mauritania 2 4.4 2.2 370 1 Niger 6 9 1.5 61 1.5 Nigeria 95 100 1.1 4100 2 Sudan 170 480 2.8 1800 22 Lesotho 20 16 0.8 75 18 Zambia 33 172 5.2 50 77 Zimbabwe 5 18 3.6 250 7 Total 2065.1 3964.5 9141 5* Data of 2008, except for GDP (2011)
  6. 6. Wheat Production in AfricaThe food commodity crisis in 2008 jeopardized food security inmany wheat-importing countries, leading to a revived awarenessof the serious threat to Impact of increase of prices of major staples on tradefood security and balance in 2008social stability in many of the world areas,particularly Africa 6
  7. 7. Implications of the Food Crisis:Countries moving from self-reliance to self sufficiency
  8. 8. Wheat Production in Africa- Projected Expansion Wheat in Africa is predominantly grown in temperate climate areas (Northern and Southern Africa) and to a more limited extent in tropical areas, generally at high elevation (Eastern Africa). However, due to the huge wheat deficit and the ever-increasing demand for wheat products the boundaries of wheat production has extended to non-traditional hotter and dryer areas in some parts of Africa, e.g. Nigeria (West Africa), southern Algeria, southern Libya and Sudan. Sudan plans to extend wheat production in the high terrace areas in the north and both Eritrea and Ethiopia plan to expand irrigated wheat in mid-altitude and lowlands . Kenya strategic wheat national research plan identified an area of about 300,000 ha in low rainfall areas as the greatest potential region for wheat production increase. Other countries such as Mauritania, Niger and others are also projecting to introduce wheat in the prevailing production systems. 8
  9. 9. Projected Expansion of Central pivot Irrigation(300+) in High Terrace areas in Northern Sudan 9
  10. 10. Wheat for Food Security in Africa and the Vision ofThe New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD)
  11. 11. Wheat for Food Security in Africa and the Vision ofThe New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD)The investment in sustainable development of Wheat Production to enhancefood security in Africa is very much in line with the New Partnership forAfricas Development (NEPAD) vision for Africa holds that, by 2015,Africa should: Attain food security; Improve agricultural productivity to attain a 6 percent annual growth rate; Develop dynamic regional and sub-regional agricultural markets; Integrate farmers into a market economy; Achieve a more equitable distribution of wealth. 11Source:
  12. 12. The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) is a program of the New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) that has been endorsed by African Heads of State and Governments as a vision for the restoration of agricultural growth, food security, and rural development in Africa. A specific goal of CAADP is to attain an average annual growth rate of 6 percent in agriculture. To achieve this goal, CAADP aims to stimulate agriculture-led development that eliminates hunger and reduces poverty and food 12
  13. 13. The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP)CAADP’s work falls under 4 pillars, each dealing with key issues:  Pillar 1: Framework for Sustainable Land and Water Management (FSLWM) seeks to extending the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems;  Pillar 2: Framework for Improving Market Access (FIMA) seeks to improve rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access;  Pillar 3: Framework for African Food Security (FAFS) seeks to improve risk management, increase food supply, improve incomes for the poor and reduce hunger and malnutrition; and  Pillar 4: Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP) seeks to improve agricultural research, technology dissemination and adoption through strengthened agricultural knowledge systems to deliver profitable and sustainable technologies that are widely adopted by farmers resulting in sustained agricultural growth. 13
  14. 14. Programs at ICARDARelevance of ICARDA’s Research Programs to CAADP Pillar’s 1 to4 Activities IWLM BIGM Integrated Biodiversity and Integrated Water and Land Gene Management Program Management Program Biodiversity & Crop Improvement: wheat, barley, legume SEPR DSIPS Social, Economic and Diversification and Sustainable Policy Research Intensification of Production Program Systems Program Poverty & Livelihoods, Analysis& Impact Assessment 14
  15. 15. Challenges Facing Increasing Wheat Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa
  16. 16. Wheat Improvement in Africa: Major Abiotic Constraints Drought Heat Acidic SoilsSalinity stressSoil degradation 16
  17. 17. Drought ImpactsTerminal Drought or Intermittent Drought• Poor growth & development• Low yield and poor quality• In extreme cases no yield• Economic losses & chaos in life of people• Desertification Impact of Drought on Wheat Production 7000 6500 6000 Morocco PRODUCTION (1000 Mt) 5500 5000 Algeria 4500 Egypt 4000 3500 Syria 3000 Tunisia 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 YEARS
  18. 18. Wheat Improvement: Major Abiotic Constraints Diseases: – Rusts (Leaf, Stem & Yellow Rust) – Septoria Leaf Blotch – Head Scab – Root Rots Pests: – Aphids (RWA &BYDV) – Hessian fly – Termites Weeds – Wild Oats – Sudan Grass – Phalaris minor 18
  19. 19. Inputs and Socio-Economic ConstraintsSeed availability/quality;Timely availability of Fertilizer;Timely control and availability pesticides for weed and pest control;Mechanization/ access to suitable machinery Availbility of credit to farmersGrain price/ marketing 19
  20. 20. Challenges Associated with Climate Change Rising temperatures: Higher temperatures will reduce crop productivity Increased frequency of droughts Excess rainfall/flooding Milder winter Increase in the areas affected by salinity Changes in crop cycles Newly emerging pests and diseases 20
  21. 21. Examples on and prospects in wheat improvement in Sub Saharan Africa
  22. 22. Infusing Greater Genetic Diversity ICARDA gene bank holds valuable collection of genetic resources of ICARDA mandated crops Genetic resources of wheat landraces and its wild relatives are adapted to the fragile ecosystems of the dry areas Targeted exploitation of wheat relatives would result in valuable material for enhancing productivity in the era of climate change 22
  23. 23. Exploitation of Genetic Diversity • Triticum Targeted exploitation of dicoccoides • Triticum wheat relatives would result carthlicum in valuable material for • T. dicoccum enhancing productivity in • T. araraticum the era of climate change • T. urartu • T. monococcum • Aegilops peregrinacylindros; vavilovii ; biuncialis;ICARDA Status of ex situ Collections columnaris; & triuncialis Crop Gene No. Wild Species & Global Rank Pool Accessions Landraces Wheat 37,930 25,400 No.1 (Aegilops, W. Triticum; T. durum) 23
  24. 24. New genetic diversity for wheat identified through wide crosses yellow rust resistanceT. boeoticum leaf rust resistanceT. urartu earlinessT. dicoccoides probably different from Yr15 high productive tilleringAe. speltoides spike productivity plant productivity plant height drought tolerance Sunn pest resistance Russian wheat aphid resistance Septoria tritici resistance
  25. 25. Contributions of Synthetic wheat Synthetics have exponentially increased genetic diversity in wheat • Yield under drought and irrigated conditions • Multiple disease • Leaf, stem, and yellow rusts • Yellow Leaf Spot (= tan spot) resistance • Nematode resistance • Septoria leaf blotch resistance • Salinity tolerance • Pre-harvest sprouting tolerance • Insect pests tolerance After introducing a novel DD genome (Ae. tauschii), now work starting on using novel AABB genome (T. dicoccoides and T. dicoccum) in new synthetics.
  26. 26. What is Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats,and Synthetic Backcross derived Wheat?
  27. 27. Development of Stress Resilient Crop Varieties Great accomplishments have been made by public and private institutions in identifying genetic variation for the key traits associated with stress tolerance leading to development of stress resilient crop varieties. Several success stories reported on combining multiple disease resistance (e.g. stem Ug99 + Yellow rust + Septoria LB); Heat Tolerance and Drought tolerance. 27
  28. 28. Wheat crossed with wild relatives:Synthetic wheat, tolerance to excessive drought % recurrent Parent Variety Yield t/ha parent Cham 6*2/SW2 1.6 147 Cham 6*2/SW2 1.5 138 Cham-6 1.10 100 Attila-7 1.3 - Yield of “synthetic derivatives” compared to parents under drought stress. (Tel Hadya 2008 -- 211 mm)
  29. 29. Irrigated heat-tolerant wheat in Sudan
  30. 30. Resistance to Diseases:Wheat Rust causing serious economic losses & threat both Africa & global food security Heavy yellow Black stem rust rust infestation (Ug 99) wheat in in infestation in 2010 Ethiopia & Kenya
  31. 31. Resistance to Rust in Wheat Resistances to new races of yellow rustReleased varieties resistances to black stem rust in Ethiopia
  32. 32. Combined Stem Rust (Ug99) and Yellow Rust Reaction of some ICARDA Elite Rust Resistant lines – T. Hadya, Syria 2009/2010Source SR Njoro- SR DZ - Eth Seedling BIG Kenya Nov- Summer T-Hadya-2010 ReactionINC-10 2009 2009 PLT Sr (Ug99) IRAN Yellow Rust - NAME No. 2nd Date 2nd Date Nov 2009 SYR -2010 816 KBG-01 (CHECK) TR (pbc **) 5R 3+ 10 MR 908 HASHAB-2 5RMR tR 3 10 MR 913 SANOBAR-3 TR tR 3 20 M 919 REYNA-8 5R 5RMR 4 5 MR 856 USHER-18 10RMR 10R 3+ 15 MR 1001 NABUQ-6 10MRMS 10RMS 3 5 MR 871 MOUNA-1 5R tR 3+ 15 MR 963 SELMA-1 5SMS 10RMR 3 10 MR 964 FOURTEEN-1 10RMR 5MR 3 5 MR 874 FAISAL-1 TR 5R 4 10 MR 887 BATTELL-3 50MRMS 10RMS 3+ 10 MR 889 SANDALL-5 5R tR 3 5 MR 890 DAIRA-12 5R 5R 3 5 MR 891 NOUHA-1 5R 5RMR 3 10 MR 901 NADIA-20 TRMR tR 3+ 20 M 829 DIGELU (CHECK) 5R (pbc **) 5MR ;2 20 S 825 PAVON 76 (CHECK) 5R,5MR 10RMR 3+ 70 S 32 pbc ** = Pseudo-Black Chaff
  33. 33. Yield of Ug99 Resistant Cultivars Relative to National Check under Irrigated Heat Stress Environment (New Halfa- Sudan: CWANA 1st Stem Rust Resistance Spring Bread Wheat Yield Trial-2008/09). Entry NAME/PEDIGREE Yield (kg/ha) Yield % N. Check 14 BOREJ-1113 3642 120 18 ZAIN-2 3427 113 3 AMIR-1 3402 112 20 BAASHA-14 3326 110 4 AMIR-2 3135 103 24 NATIONAL CHECK (DEBIERA) 3037 100 Yield Trial Mean Yield (24 Entries) 2953 CV 13.62 Avg LSD (5%) 798.9 33
  34. 34. Control of Insect Pests: Resistance/Tolerance to Hessian Fly in Wheat Hessian Fly Resistant Variety Resistant linesHessian fly causes economic damage inNorth Africa
  35. 35. Yield of Hessian Fly Resistant Advanced SBW Lines Relative to National Check at Jimma Shim RC (Dryland Environment) in Morocco Advance HF Yield Trial – Morocco 2009/10 YLD %Entry YLD YLD % Local Name / Pedigree Rank Top No. (Kg/Ha) Check Check4207 MISKEET-4 3542 1 158 1544212 MISKEET-16 3362 2 150 1464223 HAALA-21 3259 4 145 1424213 MISKEET-17 3081 5 137 1344214 SETTAT-45 2972 8 132 1294224 MOUNA (Local Check) 2245 21 100 984216 ARREHANE (Top Check) 2297 19 102 1004208 SAADA (Resistant Check) 2079 23 93 914201 AGUILAL (CHECK) 1526 24 68 66 Site Mean Yield 2700 SED 593.6 LSD (at 5%) 1169 35
  36. 36. Increasing wheat productivity through improved agronomic practices and water management Modernization of irrigation systems and improving the efficiency of surface irrigation Modifying cropping patterns and crop rotation water productivity and income Supplemental irrigation (Systems and management) Deficit Irrigation as a water management strategy for the water scarce areas Watershed management Broad bed farrow Conservation Agriculture
  37. 37. Potential of Water Use Efficiency:Supplemental Irrigation (SI), Rainfed and Fully Irrigated (FI) Areas WUE: Water Use Efficiency
  38. 38. Egypt: increasing wheat and water productivityMechanization of raised bedirrigation system: increased wheatproduction by 20% with 25% watersaving in Sharkia province. Practised on different irrigated crops (rice, wheat and summer vegetables) Allows diversification in the rice-wheat cropping systems Improves water uptake mechanisms by crops Allows saving of water resources and reducing nutrients and labour inputs Increases productivity and income significantly in comparison with traditional planting techniques Irrigated benchmark site in Nile Delta, Egypt
  39. 39. Example: Fertilizer Use in Sub-Saharan Africa Compared to other Regions Fertilizer Use in Sub-Saharan Africa Compared to other Regions Region 2000/01 2002/03 Kg of Fertilizer Nutrient per Ha of Arable Land Total fertilizer use in Sub-Saharan Africa 9 9 SSA decreased by South Asia 109 100 East and South East Asia 149 135 11% from 1998 to Latin America 99 73 2008 Source: Eric W. Crawford; T. S. Jayne and Valerie A. Kelly, 2005 4.0 African farmers pay Cereals yields by region 3.5 East and Southeast Asia 2-6 times the world 3.0 average price for Latin America South Asia 2.5 fertilizers due to 2.0 poor infrastructure 1.5 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.0 0.5 0.0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Curtsey of Dr. B. Prasanna - CIMMYT Fertilizer use (kg/ha)1 39
  40. 40. Challenges Facing Increasing Wheat Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa
  41. 41. WHEAT Bioversity, CIMMYT, ICARDAICRISAT, IFPRI, ILRI, IRRI and IWMI 86 National Agricultural Research Institutes 13 Regional and International Organizations 71 Universities and Advanced Research Institutes 15 Private Sector Organizations 14 Non-Governmental Organizations and Farmers Cooperatives 20 Host Countries
  42. 42. Ten-point action agenda for WHEAT “Strategic Initiatives”1. Technology targeting for greatest impact2. Sustainable wheat-based systems3. Nutrient- and water-use efficiency4. Productive wheat varieties5. Durable disease and pest resistance6. Enhanced heat and drought tolerance7. Breaking the yield barrier8. More and better seed9. Seeds of discovery – tackling the black box of genetic resources10. Strengthening capacities
  43. 43. MULTINATIONAL – CGIAR PROJECT: “SUPPORT TO AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN AFRICA (SARD-SC)”Funding agency: African Development Bank (AfDB)Implementing Agencies:•AfricaRica (for rice)•ICARDA (for wheat)•IITA (for cassava and maize)IITA is the executing agencyDuration: 5 years 2012-2016Budget: Wheat sub-component: 14.5 million US$ plus 1 million for IFPRI
  44. 44. SARD-SC: THE WHEAT (SUB)PROJECTTARGET : 12 LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia and ZimbabweAGROECOLOGIES: 3Tropical highlands of eastern Africa: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, TanzaniaSub-Saharan lowlands: Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, SudanTemperate/Mediterranean type areas: Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  45. 45. SARD-SC: The Wheat (Sub)project: Enhancing wheat productivity and production for increased food security, economic growth and poverty alleviation in Africa Objectives:  Increase on-farm wheat productivity and production on a sustainable basis;  Optimize the management of scarce natural resources;  Enhance the capacity of the NARES to conduct needed research for development .MULTINATIONAL – CGIAR PROJECT: “SUPPORT TO AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN AFRICA (SARD-SC)”
  46. 46. The SARD-SC ProjectBeneficiaries:Individual farmers and consumers, farmers’ groupsincluding youth and women, policy makers, private sectoroperators, marketers/traders, transporters, small-scaleagricultural machinery manufacturers, and institutions(NARES, CGIAR, NGOs) from low income Bank’s RMCs:MULTINATIONAL – CGIAR PROJECT: “SUPPORT TO AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN AFRICA (SARD-SC)”
  47. 47. SARD-SC : THE WHEAT (SUB)PROJECTAPPROACH & METHODOLOGYThree R4D platforms for technology testing, validationdissemination and training will be established in 3 majorproducing countries (major sites) Highland East African areas- rainfed (Ethiopia)-platform1 Lowland East African areas-irrigated (Sudan)-platform2 Lowland West African areas (Nigeria)-platform-3 MULTINATIONAL – CGIAR PROJECT: “SUPPORT TO AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN AFRICA (SARD-SC)”
  48. 48. SARD-SC: The Wheat (Sub)project:COMPONENTS: Component 1: Generation of wheat-based systems adapted agricultural knowledge and technologies. Component 2: Dissemination and sustainable adoption of wheat-based systems adapted agricultural knowledge and technologies -Component 3: Strengthening the capacities of subproject stakeholders -Component 4: Efficient project organization and management MULTINATIONAL – CGIAR PROJECT: “SUPPORT TO AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN AFRICA (SARD-SC)”
  49. 49. Research on Seed Delivery Systems Capacity Development in the Seed Production Sector Favorable areas Policy and regulatory Formal Sector reforms and Public harmonizationNational Private Liberalization/commercial F ISeed Sector ization of seed sector A MDevelopment RFramework P M A Less favorable areas R C E T Informal Sector Mobilizing farmers and/or R S communities S VBSEs* NGOs Encouraging local seed production and marketing * VBSEs: Village-based seed enterprises
  50. 50. Seed Production & Delivery Seed is the mean for delivering agricultural-based technologies to farmers and therefore plays a critical role in research-for-development continuum ICARDA is one of the CG centers with a functional Seed Unit addressing seed system constraints to ensure impacts of research are fulfilled at farmer and community levels The primary objective of the Seed Unit is to strengthen National Seed Systems, both the formal and informal sectors by:i. Supporting public seed sector to become more effective and competitive,ii. Stimulating private seed sector participation through policy influence,iii. Designing alternative seed delivery systems for dry or marginal areas and resource poor farmers,iv. Assisting in emergency seed relief and rehabilitation following conflicts and/or natural disasters 50
  51. 51. ICARDa’s Activities in Seed Production in SSA USAID Emergency seed multiplication and distribution to counter wheat rust threat in Ethiopia Fast Track Bread Wheat Variety Release and Rapid Seed Multiplication in Ethiopia Africa Rising – USAID project on Rapid Deployment of High Yielding and Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties for Food Security in Ethiopia SARD-SC AfDB Project On Wheat (12 Sub-Saharan Africa countries) 51
  52. 52. ..
  53. 53. USAID Seed Production Project: Field Inspection
  54. 54. USAID Seed Project: Farmers Day
  55. 55. Conclusion: What can make the difference for Wheat to contribute significantly to food security in Africa ? Enabling policy environment and political support Investment in S & T and research in wheat improvement and crop management Investment in agricultural development Sustainable intensification of wheat production systems Better water management & high fertilizers Effective seed production & delivery system both formal and informal Extension and effective technology transfer mechanisms Capacity development and institutional support Innovative partnership & networking
  56. 56. Thank You