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Science-based solutions for thriving, resilient
livelihoods in the dry areas
Mediterranean Innovation Partnership Network ...
2
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
 Why the dry areas (non-tropical)
matter?
 Challenges and opportunities for
research and science
...
3
WHY THE DRY AREAS MATTER?
4
CHALLENGES FACED IN DRY AREAS
 Climate change
 Poverty and equity issues
 Land degradation and desertification
 Wate...
5
DRY AREAS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
6
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP YIELDS
World Bank Development Report,
2010.
7
LAND DEGRADATION
8
Impact of Climate Change on Food Production (Case of Wheat)
Middle East
and North
AfricaIraq, Libya, Syrian
Arab Republic, West
Bank and Gaza Strip,
Yemen
Europe and
Central Asia
Bos...
10
OPPORTUNITIES FOR SHAPING DEVELOPMENT IN DRY AREAS
Science research opportunities
ICARDA’s solid network of partnership...
11
NEW ICARDA STRATEGY 2017-2026
Science-based solutions for thriving and resilient
drylands.
Thriving and resilient livel...
SDGsCGIAR
SLOs
OURRESEARCH
5
SRATEGIC
RESEARCH
OUTCOMES
(SRO)
4
CROSS-
CUTTING
OUTCOMES
(CCO)
SRP2. Improved
and resilient...
13
• Respond to current and future challenges in
drylands of the developing world, and in
particular ICARDA’s traditional ...
Partnerships along the Impact Pathway of Ag. R-4-D
Research
inputs or
activities
Research
Outputs
Outcomes
(Adoption or
us...
Impact Pathway of Agriculture Research for Development
(Raised-bed in Egypt)
IFAD, AFESD, OFID
2004 2006
ARC
ICARDA
Farmer...
3 Methodologies
Proximity
(Mass dissemination)
Farmers Fields
Schools
(Group of Farmers)
Platforms
(Leader farmer +
satell...
Recommended
Package Dissemination
recommended package
Mass Dissemination Methodology
On-farm verification yield trials
Fie...
Farmers-group
Leader and satellite farmers
disseminate innovations
Regular meeting in fields
Discuss and take economica...
 Fernana (Rainfed conditions)
6
6
 Chebika (Irrigated conditions)
Dissemination Methodologies
Mass Platform Cluster
Depend on Existing Regional
Extension Staff
Identification of disseminat...
SMS
Direct Linkage
Indirect Linkage
Field days
Meeting
Field visit & Traveling
Workshops
Field
Demonstration
Leaflets
Inte...
*** R: Rainfed, SI: Supplemental Irrigation, I: Full irrigation
GRAIN WHEAT YIELD (T/HA) OBTAINED IN THE DEMONSTRATION FIE...
Increasing Water Productivity in Wheat for Enhancing Food Security
while Saving Water Resources in Egypt
• Reduce applied ...
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025
Percentage
Percentage of wheat import in total
dem...
Multiplier Impact of Scaling Up of RB in Egypt: Improving Livelihoods
• Cumulative job creation 2017-2026 is 98, 290 jobs
...
26
Jobs created from raised bed technology
• Cumulative job creation 2017-2026 is 98, 290 jobs
– Manufacturing of RBM
– Ma...
27
New Collaborative Projects Between ICARDA and CIHEAM in the Mediterranean
• Starengthening knowledge management for gre...
28
“Science for resilient livelihoods in the dry areas.”
Thank You for Your Attention
Important: Non-Tropical Dryland Agrobiodiversity
Total taxa
Perennial
Cross-pollinated
865
> 100
> 130
% unique accessions 45
% landraces and native
species
65-85
% charac...
Hydroponics Production Systems
Comparison No of
harvests
Yield/
Harvest
(Kg)
Total
Yield
(Kg)
Land
Productivity
Kg/m2
wate...
Achievements & Impacts: Enhancing food production and water security
Buffel grass: water saving forage production
Arabian ...
Water harvesting for rangelands
 Low cost WH technologies integrated
 Mechanization, laser guided contouring, direct
see...
Google Earth showing implementation sites
34
Adoption of Polycarbonate Drying
Chambers (PDC) led to: Reducing
postharvest loses and waste for dates
by 30-50%
Adoption ...
Achievements & Impacts: Improving agricultural productivity and food security
Enhanced small-holder wheat-legume cropping ...
37
Efficiency Gains Associated with Conservation Agriculture in
Wheat Production, Iraq
Level of Efficiency (TE) %
Percenta...
38
drylands of Africa suffer from stunted growth
INNOVATION FOR THE FUTURE – WHAT IS NEW?
• Pre-breeding – mining adaptive...
39
NEW STRATEGY BUILDS ON ICARDA PAST ACHIEVEMENTS
 High value and climate resilient crops
 Crop improvements for yield ...
40
• Unique collections of wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, faba bean,
grass pea and forage genetic resources & rhizobia
•...
41
INDIGENOUS SHEEP & GOATS GENETICS TO ESTABLISH RESILIENCE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE
5 breeds of goats & 6 breeds of Egyptian...
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Mediterranean Innovation Partnership Network for Youth and Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer in Agro-food Sector: The Role of Research and Innovation Systems

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Science-based solutions for thriving, resilient livelihoods in the dry areas

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Mediterranean Innovation Partnership Network for Youth and Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer in Agro-food Sector: The Role of Research and Innovation Systems

  1. 1. Science-based solutions for thriving, resilient livelihoods in the dry areas Mediterranean Innovation Partnership Network for Youth and Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer in Agro-food Sector: The Role of Research and Innovation Systems Presented by: K. Shideed, ADG-ICC, ICARDA 18-19 Jan 2018, CIHEAM- BAri
  2. 2. 2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE  Why the dry areas (non-tropical) matter?  Challenges and opportunities for research and science  New ICARDA Strategy 2017- 2026 for Scientific Rigor and Excellence to spur Agricultural Development in the Dry Areas
  3. 3. 3 WHY THE DRY AREAS MATTER?
  4. 4. 4 CHALLENGES FACED IN DRY AREAS  Climate change  Poverty and equity issues  Land degradation and desertification  Water scarcity  Political instability and conflict  Global food trade and yield gaps  Loss of agro biodiversity  Population growth and rapid urbanization
  5. 5. 5 DRY AREAS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
  6. 6. 6 IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP YIELDS World Bank Development Report, 2010.
  7. 7. 7 LAND DEGRADATION
  8. 8. 8 Impact of Climate Change on Food Production (Case of Wheat)
  9. 9. Middle East and North AfricaIraq, Libya, Syrian Arab Republic, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Yemen Europe and Central Asia Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Sub-Saharan AfricaBurundi, Cameron, Central African Republic, Chand, Comoros, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe South Asia Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka Latin America and the CaribbeanHaiti East Asia and PacificDemocratic People’s Republic of Korea, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Myanmar, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu FRAGILE STATES &ECONOMIES MOSTLY FOUND IN DRY AREAS 50 countries listed a fragile countries and economies. These countries are home to 43% of poor people. ICARDA has been collaborating – for many years- with at least 20 fragile countries in the MENA, South Asia and Sub- Saharan Africa regions. Data Sources: OECD, 2015; World Bank Fund for Peace; ICARDA, 2016
  10. 10. 10 OPPORTUNITIES FOR SHAPING DEVELOPMENT IN DRY AREAS Science research opportunities ICARDA’s solid network of partnerships for impact and unique experience
  11. 11. 11 NEW ICARDA STRATEGY 2017-2026 Science-based solutions for thriving and resilient drylands. Thriving and resilient livelihoods in dry areas of the developing world with robust incomes, secure access to food, markets, nutrition & health, & the capacity to manage natural resources in equitable, sustainable, innovative ways. Our Mission To reduce poverty, food and nutritional insecurity and environmental degradation in the face of climate change. We will seek: • innovative science-based solutions for improving the livelihoods and resilience of the resource-poor in non-tropical drylands in order to reduce poverty, enhance food, nutrition, and water security, through the sustainable management of natural resources in the face of climate change. • cutting-edge science, strategic partnerships and capacity development for inclusive and equitable growth. Our Vision
  12. 12. SDGsCGIAR SLOs OURRESEARCH 5 SRATEGIC RESEARCH OUTCOMES (SRO) 4 CROSS- CUTTING OUTCOMES (CCO) SRP2. Improved and resilient crops for greater food security in face of climate change and market volatilities. SRP3. Develop integrated drylands farming systems for improved and resilient livelihoods. SRP5: Support sustainable use and management of water and land resources in drylands. SRP1. Preserve and protect agricultural biodiversity in drylands in order to meet future climate and market related challenges. REDUCED POVERTY FOOD & NUTRITION SECURITY SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation Gender Equity & Youth Big Data & ICT Taking Research to Scale – Partnerships for Impact SRP4. Support the establishment of functional value chains and viable off- farm activities for diversified incomes and improved livelihoods in drylands. Capacity Development
  13. 13. 13 • Respond to current and future challenges in drylands of the developing world, and in particular ICARDA’s traditional sphere of operation in the MENA region – the global challenges are manifested in the MENA • Respond to NARS needs and priorities that emerged from consultations • Align with CGIAR SRF and SDGs Agenda • Consultation with partners, donors, CG Centers and staff. • Activities that are core to our business and likely to produce greatest impact. • Leverage ICARDA’s strengths and comparative advantages. HOW DID WE ARRIVE AT THESE RESEARCH PRIORITIES?
  14. 14. Partnerships along the Impact Pathway of Ag. R-4-D Research inputs or activities Research Outputs Outcomes (Adoption or use of outputs) Social, Economic, or Environmental Impacts AR4D Project Interventions Research Process Process of agricultural innovation (Diffusion /dissemination) Process of agricultural development RESEARCH PARTNERS DEVELOPMENTAL PARTNERS
  15. 15. Impact Pathway of Agriculture Research for Development (Raised-bed in Egypt) IFAD, AFESD, OFID 2004 2006 ARC ICARDA Farmers University Raisedbed Technology Outputs 2010 AFESD 2014 AFESD+ KFAED+ IsDB+ OFID USAID (on RBM) Outcomes Adoption of MRB at governorate level (Al- Sharkia) 18% of wheat Area •Yield increased •Water saving •Seed rate reduction •Water productivity increase 2016 NWC+ AFESD+ KFAED+ GATES Foundation+ OFID + FAO Large Scale dissemination to 22 governorates 120, 000 ha Impact •Food Security •Water saving (national) •Farm income increase Research Process Innovation Process Development Process Mechanization of RB ARC Zagazik Univ ICARDA Private Sector Farmers Scaling out to other countries Research
  16. 16. 3 Methodologies Proximity (Mass dissemination) Farmers Fields Schools (Group of Farmers) Platforms (Leader farmer + satellite/cluster farmers) Recomm ended Package Dissemination Methodologies
  17. 17. Recommended Package Dissemination recommended package Mass Dissemination Methodology On-farm verification yield trials Field Demonstration Selection based on less producing fields 2010/2011 2011/2012 Demonstration Fields 115 250 Farmers 1000 2500
  18. 18. Farmers-group Leader and satellite farmers disseminate innovations Regular meeting in fields Discuss and take economical decisions about the best crop managemrnt practices •Dissemination of recommended package at satellite fields Cluster Dissemination Methodology Field Demonstration Field demonstrations of (CA) 2010/2011 2011/2012 Fields demonstration 12 132 Farmers 511 1800
  19. 19.  Fernana (Rainfed conditions) 6 6  Chebika (Irrigated conditions)
  20. 20. Dissemination Methodologies Mass Platform Cluster Depend on Existing Regional Extension Staff Identification of dissemination methodology
  21. 21. SMS Direct Linkage Indirect Linkage Field days Meeting Field visit & Traveling Workshops Field Demonstration Leaflets Internet Dissemination Tools
  22. 22. *** R: Rainfed, SI: Supplemental Irrigation, I: Full irrigation GRAIN WHEAT YIELD (T/HA) OBTAINED IN THE DEMONSTRATION FIELDS VERSUS FARMERS’ FIELDS AVERAGE OF 2016/2017 SEASON) ARAB FOOD SECURITY PROJECT Country Egypt Iraq Jordan Morocco Palestine Sudan Syria Tunisia Yemen Overall mean Production system **** I I R SI R R I R SI R SI SI Improved practices 9.27 4.29 2.39 6.19 3.21 1.91 4.45 2.53 5.03 2.69 4.74 3.58 4.19 Farmers’ practices 7.67 3.77 1.99 5.18 2.63 1.69 2.98 2.09 4.71 2.10 3.60 2.72 3.43 Average increase (%) 21 14 20 19 22 13 49 21 7 28 32 32 22 Maximum yield 9.64 5.40 3.06 8.55 4.30 3.16 6.68 3.20 7.80 5.18 6.62 5.83 5.79 Average Yield Increase = 22% Maximum Yield Increase = 69% 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 Mean Average Yield Increase (%) 28 23 22 24 Maximum Yield Increase (%) 59 62 69 63
  23. 23. Increasing Water Productivity in Wheat for Enhancing Food Security while Saving Water Resources in Egypt • Reduce applied water by 30% • Increased yields by 25% • Reduced seed rate by 50% • Increased WUE by 72% Increasing wheat crop productivity and food security while saving on water resources The development of wheat area grown on raisedbed (ha) in Sharkia governorate, Egypt Adopted on 700,000 acres across Egypt in 6 years. Egyptian Government National Campaign is targeting 1.8 million acres (730,000 ha) by 2020. Mechanized Raisedbed (Evaporation)Farmer practices (Evaporation) 950 2,080 6,293 21,200 29,167 33,600 36,500 38,800 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 ha Year
  24. 24. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Percentage Percentage of wheat import in total demand BAU RB 0 500 1000 1500 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 MillionUSD Foreign currency savings: Import value of the extra production due to raised bed adoption Multiplier Impact of Scaling Up of RB in Egypt: Reducing Imports and Saving Water
  25. 25. Multiplier Impact of Scaling Up of RB in Egypt: Improving Livelihoods • Cumulative job creation 2017-2026 is 98, 290 jobs – Manufacturing of RBM – Maintenance of RBM – Operating the RBM – Indirect jobs created due to increased crop production
  26. 26. 26 Jobs created from raised bed technology • Cumulative job creation 2017-2026 is 98, 290 jobs – Manufacturing of RBM – Maintenance of RBM – Operating the RBM – Indirect jobs created due to increased crop production
  27. 27. 27 New Collaborative Projects Between ICARDA and CIHEAM in the Mediterranean • Starengthening knowledge management for greater development effectiveness in NENA &CA ($1.8 m- IFAD). 3 components & 3 countries (Morocco): – KM capacity assessment for enhanced formulation of learning needs – Capacity development and knowledge systematization – Enhanced regional knowledge exchange • A project proposal (under development) on “the development of youth business innovations in the Mediterranean countries to reduce unemployment in agro-food sector”. This is within the framework of “Mediterranean innovation Partnership (MIP)
  28. 28. 28 “Science for resilient livelihoods in the dry areas.” Thank You for Your Attention
  29. 29. Important: Non-Tropical Dryland Agrobiodiversity
  30. 30. Total taxa Perennial Cross-pollinated 865 > 100 > 130 % unique accessions 45 % landraces and native species 65-85 % characterized 78 % safe duplicated 98 % stored in Svalbard 80 Number of Rhizobium strains 1380 ICARDA’s Germplasm Collection in Numbers Crop No of accs. Crop No of accs. Barley 30,201 Pisum spp. 6,121 Bread wheat 14,681 Trifolium spp. 5,883 Durum wheat 20,526 Vicia spp. 6,388 Primitive wheat 1,022 Faba bean 10,034 Aegilops spp. 4,843 Chickpea 15,195 Wild Triticum 2,079 Lentil 13,907 Wild Hordeum 2,359 Wild Cicer 547 Not mandate cereals 179 Wild Lens 605 Lathyrus spp. 4,289 Range & Pasture 7,358 Medicago annual 9,120 Others 50 Total 155,387 Crop genepool Global Ranking % acc. globally Barley 2nd 18 Wheat 3rd 11 Chickpea 2nd 15 Faba bean 1st 48 Lentil 1st 51 Lathyrus 1st 36 Medicago 1st 28 Pisum 2nd 15 Trifolium 2nd 11 Vicia 1st 13 Overall 2nd 5.6 (1) Based on GENESYS information Total accessions: 3,631,898 in 482 institutions
  31. 31. Hydroponics Production Systems Comparison No of harvests Yield/ Harvest (Kg) Total Yield (Kg) Land Productivity Kg/m2 water Productivity Kg/m3 Hydroponic 25 104 2620 8.1 73.6 Conventional 13 77.7 1010 3.1 15.3 Achievements & Impacts: Improved Management of Natural Resources Benefits: Soil-less production increased yield and water productivity by 50% (average)
  32. 32. Achievements & Impacts: Enhancing food production and water security Buffel grass: water saving forage production Arabian Peninsula (AFESD, IFAD, OFID) • Huge water savings in water scarce countries: switching to Buffel Grass for forage reduces water requirement by 50% – Oman growers produce 418,366 tons of Green Rhodes grass, with 228 million m3 of water. – For producing same amount of forage with Buffel grass, only 116 million m3 of water was required. Potential national water savings: 112M m3. Buffle Grass: high-nutrition forage crop with less water requirements.
  33. 33. Water harvesting for rangelands  Low cost WH technologies integrated  Mechanization, laser guided contouring, direct seedling planting  Water stored in soils and aquifer  Grazing management  Combating desertification 33 WANA Benchmark Project: Water Harvesting for Marginal Dry areas • Country scale, VWH implemented on 3900 ha till 2015, out of 650, 000 ha that are suitable for development in Jordan. • CWANA region scale, similarity analysis showed a potential area of 3.24 million m2 is suitable
  34. 34. Google Earth showing implementation sites 34
  35. 35. Adoption of Polycarbonate Drying Chambers (PDC) led to: Reducing postharvest loses and waste for dates by 30-50% Adoption of Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) System led to: Significant water saving/ha: KSA (27%); Oman (35-72%); Qatar (44.5%) Adoption of Liquid Pollination (LP) Technology led to: Reduction in pollination costs by 89%; At least 20% higher yields (1300-2000 kg/ha) Technology in Protected Agriculture and Date Palm
  36. 36. Achievements & Impacts: Improving agricultural productivity and food security Enhanced small-holder wheat-legume cropping systems to improve food security under changing climate in the drylands of NAWA (EU-IFAD) • 9 390 farmers exposed to improved technologies and technology packages in two seasons 2013 and 2014 in 8 countries: • 2130 farmers in 2013 • 7260 farmers in 2014 • 15 175 farmers were exposed to project technology packages in 2015. • Orabanche –resistant feba bean varieties which has reversed the trend of declining local production • Application of SI. increased the yield of wheat (27-47%) and food legume (24-40%) in Tunisia and Algeria • Supporting policy change: Egypt - national campaign for faba bean production + lentil. Tunisia – support faba bean production;
  37. 37. 37 Efficiency Gains Associated with Conservation Agriculture in Wheat Production, Iraq Level of Efficiency (TE) % PercentageofFarmers(%)13% Efficiency gains associated with the use of ZT in Iraq Impacts & achievements: Improved Natural Resource Management Improving the Food Security and Climate Change Adaptability of Livestock Producers using the Rainfed Barley-based System in Iraq and Jordan
  38. 38. 38 drylands of Africa suffer from stunted growth INNOVATION FOR THE FUTURE – WHAT IS NEW? • Pre-breeding – mining adaptive genes from crop wild relatives for a 4°C warmer world in our mandated crops- “climate-smart crops”. • High precision phenotyping for multiple and combined stresses. • Farming with alternative pollinators. • Going beyond just agriculture to functional and sustainable value chains for durum, barley, pulses and small ruminants – job creation and targeting markets. • Genomics of small ruminants a tool for understanding heat and cold tolerance – building “climate resilient” small ruminants. • Precision feeding and flock/herd reproductive management. • The Options x Context in sustainable land management-decision supporting tool. • Protected agriculture to address water scarcity-full self sustaining systems producing high value crops-Sundrop systems. • Sequential biological concentration – adding value to marginal quality water – developing value chains for saline irrigation drainage waters.
  39. 39. 39 NEW STRATEGY BUILDS ON ICARDA PAST ACHIEVEMENTS  High value and climate resilient crops  Crop improvements for yield potential and for abiotic and biotic stresses  Integrated livestock/rangelands/crops production systems  Intensification and diversification of cropping systems  Protected agriculture  Improvements in water availability and management and greywater use  Added value on dairy products in marginal dry areas
  40. 40. 40 • Unique collections of wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, faba bean, grass pea and forage genetic resources & rhizobia • Breeding programs using local indigenous species • Key contributor to global germplasm conservation • Small ruminant genetics & expertise • Develop improved germplasm to meet farmer and market needs, with resistance to biotic & abiotic stress, with quality & nutritional attributes • Water harvesting and on-farm water management • Integrated Systems research capacity • Integrated farming systems – in one decentralized Centre • Biometrics & Statistics support, innovations & knowledge- sharing • On-farm research for a deeper understanding of challenges and enables us to offer adoptable solutions to prevalent problem • Farming with alternative pollinators (FAP). • GIS/RS skills and capacity LEVERAGING ICARDA STRENGTHS AND COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE Science Strengths
  41. 41. 41 INDIGENOUS SHEEP & GOATS GENETICS TO ESTABLISH RESILIENCE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE 5 breeds of goats & 6 breeds of Egyptian sheep analyzed: Both species show high levels of allelic & genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation. Research identified & developed abiotic-stress tolerant Barki sheep & goats to support livelihoods & resilience of desert communities to hot dry conditions in Egypt’s Coastal Zone of Western Desert. Findings were published in Heredity. More breeds of sheep and goats were sampled: tests identified chromosomes 6, 12 and 16 which harbor important genes for adaptation to abiotic stress. The next step is to further confirm the functional significance of the identified genes in expression studies. Project began in 2008-2009 under ARC-ICARDA Collaborative Program on Irrigated Wheat-Based System & Small Ruminant-Based System; Funded by Egypt’s contribution to the CGIAR through ICARDA; ICARDA L&F CRP; State of Iowa Hatch Funds & Ensminger fund; Illumina’s “Greater Good Initiative ”GeneSeek Inc. Team members: ARC-Egypt, Iowa State University, ICARDA

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