Prospects and Challenges of Wheat Production in Ethiopia: Evidence from Major Wheat Producing Regions of the Country
Prospects and Challenges of Wheat Production inEthiopia: Evidence from Major Wheat Producing Regions of the Country Mesay Yami, Fekadu Fufa, Terfe Fita and Sultan Usman Wheat Regional Center of Excellence (WRCoE) Eastern Africa Agricultural Productivity Project (EAAPP) Wheat for Food security in Africa Conference October 8-12, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Outline• Introduction (EAAPP)• Purpose of the study• Methodology• Findings• Policy implications
Introduction• Major challenges facing the Eastern Africa sub-region are – raising level of poverty, – food insecurity, and – high rate of unemployment• To alleviate these challenges, the region has to clearly articulate its development agenda covering all key sectors of the economy.• Agriculture is one of the sectors considered the most critical economic pillar – 45% of the regional GDPs and – directly employing over 75% of the population• Therefore, its revitalization is likely to yield wide range of positive impacts.• MDGs of halving global poverty by 2015, NEPAD through CAADP initiated a regional outfit.
• This new outfit was dubbed Eastern Africa Agricultural Productivity Project (EAAPP). – Focusing on improving agricultural research, technology generation, dissemination and adoption.• Four commodities were identified to be implemented in the four RCoEs.
Purpose of the study• The overall objectives of study was to collect baseline information on wheat production, productivity, production constraints, and availability of technologies.• The specific objectives were: o Assess production, productivity and income obtained from the existing wheat culture; o Identify the main constraints and opportunities for scaling-up of wheat production; and o Understand farmers’ perception on services provisions by the public and communication methods of technology pathways for wheat technologies.
Methodology Fig 1. EAAPP-wheat districts and survey areasSampling procedure and sample size in Ethiopia• Multi stages sampling techniques were used.Table 1: Number of respondent by regionallevelRegional No of Total No. Male Femalestate district of HHHOromia 5 315 288(91.4) 27(8.6)SNNPR 2 158 129(81.6) 29(18.4)Tigray 5 143 123(86) 20(14)Amhara 6 340 305(89.7) 35(10.3)Total 18 956 845 (88%) 111 (12%)
Data collection & analysis• Both primary and secondary sources• Primary data related to – Demographic and socio-economic characteristics, – Access to institutions and infrastructure, – Crop management practices, were collected using structured questionnaires.• Primary data were collected from June to July 2011.• The coded data file was also shared with other EAAPP countries.• The household data were analyzed first at district level and then finally the country level weighted figures were aggregated.
Major findingsSocio-economic characteristics• A grater proportion of the respondent (90%) were MHH.• FHH of is relatively high in SNNPR (18%) as compared to the proportion in Tigray region state (14%), Amhara (10%) and Oromia (7%).• Mean family size was 6 persons per household with the range of 5 – 9.• Education level of household heads 31%- none educated /illiterate, 36% -read and write, 9%- primary education, 19% -junior education, 4% -secondary education and 0.58% -of the HHH respondents were tertiary level, respectively .
Households access to basic facilities AccessAccess to services/facilities Yes NoAgricultural inputs and services 91.68 8.32outlets/providersAll-weather road 85.18 14.82Animal health 82.06 17.94Credit 78.52 21.48Electricity 21.79 78.21Health center 94.73 5.27Internet 1.82 98.18Output market 94.47 5.53Potable water 56.83 43.17Public telephone 60.07 39.93Public agricultural extension 86.77 13.23School 98.06 1.94Overall 74.59 25.41
Level of satisfaction of farmers to PAESFarmers’ overall attitude towardsPAES was positive.The positive attitude of wheatfarmers towards the PAES meansthat the farmers were satisfiedwith these services.
Wheat production statusProductivity ranged from 0.76t/ha in SNNPR to 1.92 t/ha inTigray region.The productivity was low inSNNPR and Oromia.The severity of yellow rust wasvery high in the year 2010 mainlyin Oromia and SNNPR.According to the survey result theproductivity of the crop was1.52t/ha.
• CSA for 2011 and 2012 season the productivity of the crop increasesd from 1.84t/ha to 2.03t/ha.• If we compare the land allocated, production and productivity of wheat for the 2010, 2011 and 2012 season, the result is in mixed scenario.• In 2012 crop season land allocation for wheat decreased by 7.5% . – Attributed due to yellow rust epidemics in 2010 season forces farmers to reduce wheat land in 2012.• Despite the decreases in land allocation, the production of wheat in 2012 increased by 2% compared to 2011 seasons, and• Productivity of the crop had 11 and 10% increases over 2010 and 2011 crop season, respectively (CSA, 2012).• The increase in production and productivity of the crop in 2012 crop season, triggered by the normal and adequate rainfall.
Area (ha) per Percent Adoption of wheat Variety Target1 Yearrelease1 HHH2 adopter2 Digelu National 2005 0.8 15.1 varieties Galema National 1995 0.5 28.2 Tuse National 1997 1.1 6.0 Madawalabu SE Oromia 2000 0.4 8.4 Kubsa National 1995 0.5 42.0The current survey registered Hawi National 2000 0.6 3.8 Simba National 2000 1.0 0.2a total of 21 cultivars. Pavon-76 National 1982 0.9 0.2 Sofumar SE Oromia 2000 0.1 4.2 Shina NW Amhara 1999 1.0 1.5A range of bread wheat K 6295-4A National 1980 0.3 2.3varieties released from 1980 Dinkinesh Wello 2007 0.3 0.1to 2009 were identified. Jiru NS Amhara 2006 0.8 0.3 Tossa Wello 2004 0.50 0.1 ET-13 National 1981 0.6 0.1 Enkoy National - 0.4 0.3 Menzie NS Amhara 2007 0.3 0.5 Bollo NS Amhara 2009 0.3 0.1 Mellnium National 2007 0.8 0.7 Israel Local - 0.2 1.3 Local Various - 0.3 22.5 Source: 1,Variety registry book (2010); 2,Survey result
The largest number of improvedcultivars - 12 out of the total 19 wasgrown in Oromia.Less variety choice in SNNPR andTigray regional states.
Variety Area (ha) per HHH2 Percent adopter2‘Kubsa’ and ‘Galema’ were the Digelu 0.8 15.1most adopted varieties at Galema 0.5 28.2national level. Tuse 1.1 6.0 Madawalabu 0.4 8.4 Kubsa 0.5 42.0The popularity of ‘Kubsa’ and Hawi 0.6 3.8‘Galema’ Simba 1.0 0.2 • Adaptability, high yield, Pavon-76 0.9 0.2 • End use quality and Sofumar 0.1 4.2 • Abundant availability of Shina 1.0 1.5 their seed. K 6295-4A 0.3 2.3 Dinkinesh 0.3 0.1Unfortunately, both ‘Kubsa’ and Jiru 0.8 0.3‘Galema’ became susceptible to Tossa 0.50 0.1yellow rust. ET-13 0.6 0.1 Enkoy 0.4 0.3 Menzie 0.3 0.5‘Digelu’, and previously existing Bollo 0.3 0.1ones like ‘Medawalabu’ are Mellnium 0.8 0.7expected to overtake. Israel 0.2 1.3
Gross margin income of Figure 3: Gross margin income from wheat production by regional states wheat producers 6,510The country mean weighted gross 5,482margin income from wheat production 6,000.00 5,027was 4608 ETB/ha. Income (ETB/ha)The low profitability in Oromia in the 4,000.00year could be partly attributed to 3,116Devastating effect of yellow rust 2,000.00 Oromia Tigray Amhara SNNPRHigh cost of production Regional states Due to the use of machinery in major wheat producing zones of the regional state, Arsi and Bale During the time of the survey 1US$ = 16.80 Ethiopia Birr (ETB) zones. The use of chemicals - especially herbicide - is common in Arsi and Bale zones for the control of grass weeds.
Major wheat production constraints• Diseases, especially rust diseases;• Weeds especially grass weeds in wheat mono-cropping areas of the country;• Farmers in mechanized wheat production areas cannot get pure seed from own harvest due to varietal mixing during combine harvesting of farmers’ fields after farmers’ fields planted to different types of varieties;• Combine harvesting of small scale farmers’ fields after farmers’ fields aggravates spread of weed seeds from farm to farm, a problem currently observed in Arsi and Bale zones in Oromia regional state; – The combine harvester operators will not adjust the cleaner to separate weeds and grain effectively for overestimating wheat yield.
Continued• Extreme moisture conditions, low moisture , waterlogging and low soil fertility;• Shortage/unavailability of seed of improved variety;• Less farmers awareness of improved crop management practices ;• Improved varieties are not timely available to farmers distant from wheat improvement research centers;• High cost of combine harvesting in mechanized wheat production system;• High price of seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides;• Less availability and efficacy of many pesticides.
Opportunities• The interest of farmers in improved varieties;• Availability of market for the crop;• Strong interest of national and international research organizations in the crop improvement;• The importance of the crop in food self-sufficiency as strategic crop at regional and national levels;• Conducive environment for wheat production;• The diverse use value of the crop;• Availability of various processing plants for various products; and• Availability of human resource and knowledge in the improvement and development of the crop.• Population growth and urbanizations
Recommendations• Develop and disseminate appropriate cultural practices to contain the problem of weed infestation in wheat mono-cropping systems;• Improve farmers’ knowledge in quality seed production;• Focus on dissemination of not only improved varieties but also management practices:• Increase farmers’ awareness on the importance of ICMP;• Focus on demonstration, multiplication, and up-scaling of rust resistant, high yielding and end use quality wheat varieties are essential;• Emphasis on breeding for durable resistance is indispensable to counteract the frequent disease epidemics and to ensure sustainable production of the crop and its contribution to food security;• Develop and disseminate available pre-harvest and post-harvest farm implements appropriate for small scale farm size.