Participatory Plant Breeding, Biodiversity, Genetic Resources, Gender and Climate Changes


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Participatory Plant Breeding, Biodiversity, Genetic Resources, Gender and Climate Changes

  1. 1. Participatory Plant Breeding, Biodiversity, Genetic Resources, Gender and Climate Changes<br /><br />
  2. 2. Reduction of biodiversity<br />The Right to Food is the Right to Biodiversity<br />Biodiversity<br />It has been recognized that biodiversity is key to securing global food supply<br />Source Thrupp LA (2000). Linking agricultural biodiversity and food security. The valuable role of agrobiodiversity for sustainable agriculture. Int. Affairs, 76: 265-281<br />Biodiversity<br />75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops<br />has been lost<br />Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food<br />United Nations<br />General Assembly<br />23 July 2009<br />Source International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) <br />Food security<br />Right to Food<br />
  3. 3. Reduction of agro-biodiversity<br />4 varieties<br />4 varieties<br />6 variety<br />75%<br />65%<br />71%<br />Source:<br />World Conservation Monitoring Center, Global Biodiversity<br />6 varieties<br />9 varieties<br />50%<br />50%<br />
  4. 4. The world seed market<br />11%<br />49%<br />33%<br />53%<br />36%<br />17%<br />These are the same<br />
  5. 5. Diversity, Food…… and Health<br /><ul><li>There are approximately 250.000 plant species
  6. 6. 50.000 are edible
  7. 7. 250 are food crops
  8. 8. 90% of the calories in the human diet come from 15 crops and 60% from 3 crops (wheat, rice and maize)
  9. 9. The most widely grown varieties of these three crops are closely related and genetically uniform (pure lines and hybrids)</li></li></ul><li>How did we do that?<br />
  10. 10. The Evolution of Plant Breeding<br /><ul><li>For millennia plant breeding has been done by farmers
  11. 11. Many different farmers in very many places selected for specific adaptation landraces
  12. 12. With the beginning of Genetics plant breeding was taken away from farmers and started being done by very few people in very few places
  13. 13. Breeding for specific adaptation was replaced by breeding for wide adaptation displacement of landraces
  14. 14. ……. and then most plant breeding became private and farmers’ breeding (almost) illegal </li></li></ul><li>Local Knowledge and Diversity<br />
  15. 15. Not only in developing countries<br />
  16. 16. Three Levels of Biodiversity<br /><ul><li>Different Crops</li></li></ul><li>Three Levels of biodiversity<br /><ul><li>Different Crops
  17. 17. Different Varieties within the same crop</li></li></ul><li>Three Levels of biodiversity<br /><ul><li>Different Crops
  18. 18. Different Varieties within the same crop
  19. 19. Heterogeneous Varieties</li></li></ul><li>
  20. 20. Genetic vulnerability<br />The Great Potato famine in Ireland (1845-1849)<br />
  21. 21. Genetic uniformity and vulnerability (UG99)<br />IRAN 2008<br />PAKISTAN 2009<br />
  22. 22. Freezing diversity: from fields to gene banks<br /><ul><li>Gene Banks are very important
  23. 23. Not all has been conserved
  24. 24. They freeze not only seed but also evolution
  25. 25. Must be complemented by in situ conservation</li></li></ul><li>Return to Diversity through Participatory Plant Breeding<br />Can we reconcile biodiversity and food security?<br />
  26. 26. Definitions<br />Decentralization<br />Participation<br />
  27. 27. Decentralization<br />Decentralization = direct selection in the target environment<br />Decentralized selection is not necessarily<br />selection for specific adaptation<br />Fully accepted by professional breeders in some countries (for example Australia)<br />
  28. 28. What is Participatory Plant Breeding?<br />
  29. 29. What is plant breeding and who is a breeder?<br /><ul><li>those scientists who have the full responsibility of a breeding program, made up of subsequent cycles, to develop new cultivars and improved germplasm
  30. 30. those scientists who contribute to crop improvement through breeding research</li></ul>Ransom C, Drake C, Ando K, Olmstead J (2006) Report of breakout group 1: What kind of training do plant breeders need, and how can we most effectively provide that training? HortScience 41, 53–54.<br />
  31. 31. What is Participatory Plant Breeding?<br />Is a dynamic collaboration between Breeding Institutions (National or International) and farmers which exploits their comparative advantages<br />
  32. 32. A Plant Breeding Program<br />New genetic materials<br />Stages on station<br />Stages in farmers’ fields<br />Crosses<br />Segregating populations<br />On-station trials<br />On-farm trials<br />All the decisions are taken by the breeder’s team<br />
  33. 33. Participatory Plant Breeding<br />Participatory Variety Selection<br />New genetic materials<br />Stages on station<br />Stages in farmers’ fields<br />Crosses<br />Segregating populations<br />Yield Trials<br />Decisions are taken jointly by the breeder’s team and the farmers’ community<br />……. but there are less choices to be made<br />
  34. 34. Conventional Plant Breeding<br />Participatory Plant Breeding<br />Selection of new varieties<br />Selection of new varieties<br />Supply Driven<br />Demand Driven<br />Variety Release<br />Adoption<br />Variety Release<br />Production of Certified Seed<br />Production of Certified Seed<br />Adoption<br />
  35. 35. Participation and Decentralization<br />Farmers selection on station<br />Centralized<br />Conventional<br />On- farm trials<br />PPB<br />Decentralized<br />PVS<br />Most breeding programs<br />in Australia<br />Participatory<br />Non participatory<br />
  36. 36. L_1<br />4 stages of selection<br />General Model of PPB<br />Stage 1<br />Research Institute<br />Stage 2<br />Crosses<br />Populations<br />Germplasm collections<br />GMO’s<br />Variety A<br />Stage 3<br />L_2<br />4 stages of selection<br />Different locations may receive different germplasm<br />L_3<br />4 stages of selection<br />Variety B<br />Stage<br /> 4<br />Variety C<br />L_4<br />4 stages of selection<br />Variety A<br />Variety D<br />Genetic Variability<br />
  37. 37. The ideal partners group<br />The ideal PPB team<br />Breeder<br />Social scientists<br />Socio economist<br />Anthropologist<br />Gender scientist<br />Farmers<br />Market specialists<br />Seed companies<br />Consumers<br />NGOs<br />Extension staff<br />
  38. 38. Experimental designs and statistical <br />analysis to maximize the precision <br />of the trials<br />
  39. 39. Experimental designs in PPB trials <br />Experimental designs <br />Type of trial<br />Stage 1 (several entries, little seed per entry)<br />Un replicated with systematic checks or partially replicated in rows and columns or incomplete blocks in two reps <br />Stage 2 (less entries, more seed per entry)<br />Incomplete blocks in two replications in rows and columns<br />Stage 3(few entries, much more seed per entry)<br />Incomplete blocks in two replications in rows and columns<br />Stage 4 (2-4 entries, large amount of seed per entry)<br />RBD with farmers as replications<br />Adoption + Parents for crossing block<br />
  40. 40. In each stage and in addition to the usual data collected in a breeding program a group of farmers score all the plots<br />
  41. 41. Statistical analysis in PPB trials <br />Statistical analysis <br />Type of trial<br />Stage 1<br />Spatial analysis (rows and columns) for un replicated trials<br />Stages 2 and 3<br />Spatial analysis (rows and columns) for replicated trials in incomplete blocks<br />Stage 4<br />RBD analysis<br />Best linear Unbiased Estimators (BLUE’s)<br />Best linear Unbiased Predictors (BLUP’s)<br />
  42. 42. GE Interactions<br />Superior entries in specific locations or farmers’ fields<br />Farmers’ preferences<br />Relationships between traits<br />
  43. 43. At the end of the analysis the final selection for the following stage is<br />done in a joint meeting with farmers<br />
  44. 44. Biplot of farmers’ score and grain yield<br />Biplot of farmers’ score, grain yield and plant height<br />
  45. 45. Areas of improvement<br /><ul><li>AsREML (separable auto-regressive of order one, AR1 × AR1) for un replicated trials
  46. 46. Combine appropriate data across stages
  47. 47. Use of pedigree information
  48. 48. DiGGer: A flexible tool for spatial (and block) designs</li></li></ul><li>Participatory Plant Breeding<br />The Science of Plant Breeding does not change<br />The differences between Conventional and Participatory Plant Breeding:<br />
  49. 49. Trials from Research Station to Farmers’ Fields<br />Decisions shared between breeder and farmers<br />
  50. 50. 500<br />400<br />500<br />350<br />PPB in Barley covers 90% of the production area in Syria<br />600<br />500<br />300<br />400<br />400<br />300<br />350<br />350<br />300<br />300<br />250<br />HASSAKEH<br />ALEPPO<br />TH<br />TH<br />RAQQA<br />200<br />IDLIB<br />1000<br />1400<br />LATAKIA<br />150<br />DEIR EZZOR<br />HAMA<br />1200<br />TARTUS<br />200<br />1000<br />HOMS<br />PALMYRA<br />Research sites<br />DAMASCUS<br />800<br />600<br />Research Station of the Ministry of Agriculture<br />DARA'A<br />500<br />SUWEIDA<br />ICARDA headquarters<br />100<br />The process is conducted independently in each target environment<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. N. Africa<br />(Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt)<br />Lebanon<br />Jordan<br />Eritrea<br />Central Asia,<br />Iran Turkey<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />Creation<br />of<br />Variability<br />Yemen<br />NARS<br />Iraq:<br />Irrigated<br />Rainfed<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />NARS<br />Far East<br />(China, India, Nepal, Korea)<br />Ethiopia<br />Latin America(Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia)<br />A global decentralized breeding program<br />A global decentralized-participatory breeding program<br />
  53. 53. Countries and Crops with PPB programs<br />barley<br />lentil<br />NEW<br />faba bean<br />wheat<br />chickpea<br />
  54. 54. Women participation<br />Jordan<br />Eritrea<br />Iran<br />Syria<br />Yemen<br />Egypt<br />
  55. 55. In participatory research (by definition inclusive) women have the priority because<br /><ul><li>Often have knowledge of production processes along the whole food value-chain (complementary to that of men)
  56. 56. They usually have distinct needs and priorities of traits and crops
  57. 57. Have a specific interest in food security (they are usually in charge of preparing the food)
  58. 58. In most developing countries are the poorest of the poor</li></li></ul><li>
  59. 59. Participatory trials in Syria (stage 1)<br />45 m<br />83 m<br />
  60. 60. Participatory trials in Syria (stage 1)<br />
  61. 61. Participatory trials in Syria (stage 2)<br />Second Rep<br />First Rep<br />22.5 m<br />1.6 m<br />
  62. 62. Participatory trials in Syria (stage 3)<br />3.2 m<br />22.5 m<br />1st Rep<br />2nd Rep<br />
  63. 63. A variety selected and planted by a farmer in stage 4<br />
  64. 64. PPB trials in Yemen (barley and lentil) at 3000 m asl<br />
  65. 65. Lentil and faba bean in Eritrea<br />
  66. 66. Bread wheat in Eritrea<br />
  67. 67. Chickpea in Syria<br />Lenticchie e fave in Eritrea<br />
  68. 68. Barley and Durum Wheat in Jordan<br />
  69. 69. Rainfed barley in Kermanshah, Iran<br />
  70. 70. Irrigated barley in Iran<br />
  71. 71. Barley and Durum Wheat in Algeria<br />
  72. 72. Maize and Rice in China<br />
  73. 73. Cassava in Tanzania<br />
  74. 74. Cassava in East Timor<br />
  75. 75. Sweet potato in East Timor<br />
  76. 76. The method is flexible<br /><ul><li>Type of agriculture (commercial, organic, subsistence, irrigated, rainfed, etc)
  77. 77. Type of crops (self-pollinated, cross-pollinated, vegetatively propagated)
  78. 78. Type of varieties (pure lines, populations, hybrids, clones)
  79. 79. Type of farmers (rich, poor, large, small, literate, illiterate, men, women, etc.)
  80. 80. Role of the partners</li></li></ul><li>Types of impact:<br /><ul><li> Variety development</li></ul>+71%<br />
  81. 81. Types of impact:<br /><ul><li> Variety development
  82. 82. Institutional</li></ul>The DG of NARI (Eritrea) visiting a wheat PPB trial<br />
  83. 83. Types of impact:<br /><ul><li> Variety development
  84. 84. Institutional
  85. 85. Farmers’ skills and empowerment</li></li></ul><li>Types of impact:<br /><ul><li> Variety development</li></ul>Jemelieh 10<br />Sabah<br />Joud<br />Byloun<br />Byloun<br />Samra<br /><ul><li> Institutional</li></ul>Byloun<br />Byloun<br />Bishmish<br />Sabah<br />Hyat<br /><ul><li> Farmers’ skills and empowerment</li></ul>+48%<br />+58%<br />+56%<br />+62%<br />Jedaan<br /><ul><li> Enhancement of biodiversity
  86. 86. Higher benefit/cost ratio</li></ul>Hader<br />
  87. 87. Types of impact:<br />PPB and CPB Costs and Benefits<br /><ul><li> Variety development
  88. 88. Institutional
  89. 89. Farmers’ skills and empowerment
  90. 90. Enhancement of biodiversity
  91. 91. Higher benefit/cost ratio</li></li></ul><li>Farmers’ interest in landraces <br />
  92. 92. Iran<br />160 accessions of wheat and 160 accessions of barley in 3 locations and two years<br />
  93. 93. Jordan<br />160 accessions of wheat and 160 accessions of barley<br />
  94. 94. Yemen<br />65 wheat, 100 barley, 47 lentil, 22 pea<br />
  95. 95. Combining Participation and Evolution<br />
  96. 96. Per complementare la conservazioneex situ e in situ sipuópensare ad un tipodimiglioramentogeneticoevoluzionistico – popolazioni molto grandi (milionidipiante) derivate damigliaiadiincrocichesievolvono in localitácaratterizzatedaalte temperature o dasiccitá sotto l’ azionecongiuntadellaselezionenaturale e artificiale (degliagricoltori) – come un mododinamicodirispondereaicambiamenticlimatici<br />Evolutionary Plant Breeding<br />Suneson, 1956<br />
  97. 97. Populations obtained from thousand of crosses or from mixing new and old varieties<br />left evolving in the target environments<br />
  98. 98. Evolutionary Plant Breeding<br />One mega population of barley<br />(1600 F2’s)<br />Kazakhstan<br />Uzbekistan<br />Georgia<br />Kyrgyzstan<br />Armenia<br />Azerbaijan<br />Turkmenistan<br />Turkey<br />Tajikistan<br />Syria<br />Tunisia<br />Cyprus<br />Afghanistan<br />Lebanon<br />Morocco<br />Iraq<br />Jordan<br />Pakistan<br />Iran<br />Kuwait<br />Algeria<br />Bahrain<br />Libya<br />Egypt<br />Qatar<br />Saudi<br />UAE<br /> Arabia<br />Oman<br />Mauritania<br />Eritrea<br />Sudan<br />Yemen<br />Ethiopia<br />Somalia<br />
  99. 99. Participatory-Evolutionary Plant Breeding<br />
  100. 100. Evolutionary Participatory Plant Breeding<br />Original Population<br />Dry and Hot sites <br />Salt Affected<br />PPB program<br />PPB program<br />High Input<br />Cold<br />Pest and Diseases<br />PPB program<br />PPB program<br />PPB program<br />
  101. 101. Evolutionary Plant Breeding<br />One mega population of durum wheat<br />(700 F2’s)<br />Kazakhstan<br />Uzbekistan<br />Georgia<br />Kyrgyzstan<br />Armenia<br />Azerbaijan<br />Turkmenistan<br />Turkey<br />Tajikistan<br />Syria<br />Tunisia<br />Cyprus<br />Afghanistan<br />Lebanon<br />Morocco<br />Iraq<br />Jordan<br />Pakistan<br />Iran<br />Kuwait<br />Algeria<br />Bahrain<br />Libya<br />Egypt<br />Qatar<br />Saudi<br />UAE<br /> Arabia<br />Oman<br />Mauritania<br />Eritrea<br />Sudan<br />Yemen<br />Ethiopia<br />Somalia<br />
  102. 102.
  103. 103. Experimental Evolution<br />Wild type (<5 % out crossing)<br />mutation<br />mutation<br />Caenorhabditis elegans<br />Mutation load and rapid adaptation favor out crossing over self-fertilization<br />LT Morran, MD Parmenter & PC Phillips<br />Nature, November 2009<br />100 % out crossing<br />100 % selfing<br />virulent bacterial pathogen<br />Rapid adaptation <br />Adaptation and increase in out crossing rate <br />No adaptation <br />
  104. 104. Institutionalization of PPB<br />Variety release systems and seed laws are the main problems<br />
  105. 105. Local seed production<br />
  106. 106. Seed Production of Adopted PPB Varieties<br />Seed Multiplication of Ramtha in Jordan<br />Harmal in Syria<br />Barley and Durum Wheat in Algeria<br />Seed Multiplication of 3 PPB varieties in Syria<br />Seed Multiplication of Shishai in Eritrea<br />
  107. 107. Conclusions<br />The International framework<br />The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture<br />The Special Report on the Right to Food<br />
  108. 108. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture<br />As of November 2008, 120 countries and the European Community are Contracting Parties to the Treaty<br />
  109. 109. Article 6 – Sustainable Useof Plant Genetic Resources<br />6.2 The sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture may include such measures as:<br />promoting, as appropriate, plant breeding efforts which, with the participation of farmers, particularly in developing countries, strengthen the capacity to develop varieties particularly adapted to social, economic and ecological conditions, including in marginal areas;<br />
  110. 110. Article 9 – Farmers’ Rights<br />(a) protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;<br />(b) the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;<br />(c) the right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.<br />9.3 Nothing in this Article shall be interpreted to limit any rights that farmers have to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved seed/propagating material, subject to national law and as appropriate.<br />
  111. 111.<br />
  112. 112. Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights imposes on States three levels of obligations in the realization of the right to food<br /><ul><li>to respect existing access to adequate food
  113. 113. to protect the right to food
  114. 114. to fulfill the right to food</li></li></ul><li>Recommendations to fulfill these<br />obligations<br /><ul><li>Allow farmers to rely on informal seed systems
  115. 115. Include landraces in the variety lists
  116. 116. Support and scale up local seed exchange systems
  117. 117. Develop incentives to the wider use of food products made out of farmers’ varieties
  118. 118. Ensure the active participation of farmers in decisions related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources
  119. 119. Increase the resources allocated to public agricultural research
  120. 120. Put farmers at the centre of research through participatory research schemes such as participatory plant breeding</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />Participatory Research in general and Participatory Plant Breeding in particular can be considered as international<br />public goods: <br />Food security<br />Climatic changes<br />Biodiversity<br />Seed <br />
  121. 121. Conclusions<br />Being a highly decentralized process participatory plant breeding produces varieties which are:<br /><ul><li>Different from country to</li></ul> country<br /><ul><li>Different from village to village</li></ul> within a country<br /><ul><li>Different within the same</li></ul> village<br />
  122. 122. Conclusions<br />Fits crops to the environment rather than modifying the environment, and therefore is ideal for organic conditions <br />
  123. 123. Thank you<br />