Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience
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Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience

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Presented at the Edge of the Web 2009 conference in Perth, Western Australia

Presented at the Edge of the Web 2009 conference in Perth, Western Australia

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  • Alex took us through the history this morning <br /> Started with simple websites
  • 1998 &#x2018;modern web era&#x2019; <br /> Got more functionality
  • Browsers & functionality exploded with web apps common
  • Added new devices
  • ...and the Internet evolved to be more social
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone&#x2019;s talking about user experience <br /> Do it on purpose or not, you&#x2019;re designing user experiences
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone&#x2019;s talking about user experience <br /> Do it on purpose or not, you&#x2019;re designing user experiences
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone&#x2019;s talking about user experience <br /> Do it on purpose or not, you&#x2019;re designing user experiences
  • Clap. Stop. Do this. Good. Keep doing that and hop on your left foot.
  • Couldn&#x2019;t go straight to this. A couple of people might have started to do it, but would quickly stop. So why did this work?
  • You paid to see us present. I&#x2019;m standing out front. I&#x2019;m in an authoritative position
  • It was a simple behaviour
  • People like you, your peers, all stood up. You&#x2019;d feel uncomfortable if you didn&#x2019;t follow them
  • I guided you through small increments in behaviour, and only progressed once I succeeded
  • I provided visual and verbal cues. I led with triggers
  • To guide people, you have to understand how they tick
  • Driven mostly by our primal instincts
  • On the savannah, our ancestors evolved these innate drives
  • Robert B Cialdini used to be a sucker. He&#x2019;d succumb to any sales pitch and he wanted to know why. Lucky he was an experimental psychologist.
  • 6 universal principles of persuasion = Compliance Psychology
  • Reciprocity - if someone gives you something, you feel obligated to at least hear them out <br />
  • Scarcity - The desire to have those things there are less of
  • Commitment & Consistency - the desire to be consistent with what we&#x2019;ve said to others. <br /> <br /> It&#x2019;s stronger if they write it out or show it in a public place
  • Authority - People tend to obey authority figures. We&#x2019;re lazy - we take the cognitive shortcut, moving the responsibility to those that lead us
  • Social proof - People want to follow the lead of people just like them. <br />
  • Liking - We are easily persuaded by people we like or find attractive <br /> Krista: &#x201C;Everybody&apos;s been real nice.&#x201D; <br /> Jim: &#x201C;Well, that&apos;s because you have big jugs.&#x201D;
  • Based on high pressure sales techniques to make people say &#x201C;yes&#x201D;
  • For years, usability people have been telling us that it&#x2019;s essential to get usability right, or our product, service and or business will fail
  • Ben Goldacre from Bad Science put it more aptly.
  • Sure, usability is important, but there are other factors that affect behaviour & purchasing decisions
  • Yes, usability is important. It&#x2019;s got to be easy to do. We&#x2019;re inherently lazy!
  • But ability can be played off against our motivation for doing something.
  • ...and even if it&#x2019;s easy to do and we&#x2019;re motivated, we need to be triggered to take action at the appropriate time
  • Time and Money
  • If there&#x2019;s a low motivation, it&#x2019;s got to be very easy to do - stay up to date with podcasts <br /> If it&#x2019;s hard to do, there&#x2019;s got to be high motivation - fill out employee form to get paid, no matter how unusable <br /> So how can we look at motivations?
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses <br /> Mating & harm avoidance
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses <br /> Mating & harm avoidance
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses <br /> Mating & harm avoidance
  • Reflective - Remember the past <br /> Conceive the future
  • Reflective - Remember the past <br /> Conceive the future
  • Reflective - Remember the past <br /> Conceive the future
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Chronos: Sequential time
  • High motivation <br /> Low ability - trigger needs to help the user
  • High ability <br /> Low motivation - trigger needs to provide a spark
  • High motivation <br /> High ability - trigger just needs to say &#x201C;do it now&#x201D;
  • Facilitator as a trigger <br /> High motivation, but lack ability. The facilitator triggers the behaviour and makes it easier to do e.g. address book uploader
  • Spark as a trigger <br /> When a user lacks motivation, he or she needs a motivational &#x2018;spark&#x2019; <br /> Remember when you first were invited to Facebook?
  • Social proof. Come join your friends. Share pictures, videos, and events
  • High motivation + High ability <br /> e.g. Calendar reminder to get ready for this preso
  • BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! = cognitive bias <br /> Trigger: Buy app button
  • Simple. On-screen instructions at the start of the game teach you everything you need to know in seconds. Gives you very high ability.
  • Shows the high scores of other players, increasing motivation to play and beat their scores
  • Play again = high ability; &#x2018;Insanely Addictive!&#x2019; bias = high motivation + high ability + well-timed trigger <br /> Cross-promo for PocketGod <br /> Gameplay: Simple > progressive add of features > flow
  • High score brag = motivation high; Submit score = ability high <br /> Buttons = Well-timed trigger is a spark AND facilitator
  • Simple log in, but gives you the option to control if you&#x2019;re kept logged in
  • Reinforces reasons to post to Facebook
  • Gives you control to publish scores only when you want with well designed wording for your news feed - AND lets you update your status (another well-timed trigger as facilitator), providing a second avenue of visibility for Doodle Jump.
  • People on Facebook usually looking for distraction
  • BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! = cognitive bias <br /> Trigger: Buy app button
  • Same for Twitter. They even crafted a hashtag for it, so you can see that...
  • Every few minutes, someone&#x2019;s network, somewhere in the world hears of Doodle Jump (trigger) with a challenge to beat them (increasing motivation) and a link to the app in the iTunes store (increasing ability) <br /> So, how has all this worked out for them?
  • Target simple & achievable behaviour <br /> Something that takes little or no effort to change
  • Rod, add Whistle, then Hoop & Whistle
  • Focus on a specific group: people that would most easily change their behaviour
  • Behaviour will be prevented by one of these elements lacking
  • Find out which channels the target group are using <br /> Pick the channel(s) that best match the behaviour
  • Use an educated guess. It&#x2019;s just a starting point. <br /> Nike+ relies on an accelerometer and shoe. Heavy on motivation with social proof & authority. Compete with others. Get tips from experts.
  • Start where others have left off. <br /> Runkeeper increases ability: no extra equipment, mapping, elevation, cheaper. Can also be used for any dist. activities.
  • No more than a few hours/test. Many quick & dirties tell you much more than one big test. Don&#x2019;t get emotionally attached; throw most ideas away. <br /> Every successful online service started small Google; Amazon; iPod
  • No more than a few hours/test. Many quick & dirties tell you much more than one big test. Don&#x2019;t get emotionally attached; throw most ideas away. <br /> Every successful online service started small Google; Amazon; iPod
  • Tried many variations
  • Found successes
  • ...and built on them
  • Increased conversion to 173% through many quick & dirty trials
  • Once you succeed with one behaviour, scale up to the next. Keep inching toward target behaviour. <br /> iPod&#x2019;s came from Apple&#x2019;s &#x2018;digital hub&#x2019; category, yet started with just music
  • iTunes, Podcasts and calendars
  • Photos and contacts
  • Phone, Internet, Games, Videos, Applications of all kinds
  • Travel to a bookstore is time, money, physical effort, brain cycles, non-routine
  • Shop from home. <br /> Large selection + Delivered to your door = increased ability
  • Iterated through many designs and factors <br /> Strong use of social proof - motivated to make purchase decision
  • 1-click shopping increased ability
  • Recommendations increased motivation
  • Digital Book. Holds your whole library. <br /> Uses 3G to increase ability via WhisperNet
  • Problem is, WhisperNet only worked in the US
  • New version
  • Now WhisperNet is available in 100 countries
  • Phone is ubiquitous. Whispersync&#x2019;s with your Kindle. <br /> If people can consume more books, they&#x2019;ll buy more books.
  • Sometimes people just look at the technology without considering the motivation, abilities or triggers

Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience Presentation Transcript

  • Designing to Persuade: Shaping User Experience designing better user experiences
  • Evolution of the industry
  • Evolution of the industry
  • Evolution of the industry
  • Evolution of the industry
  • Evolution of the industry
  • Evolution of the industry Functionality
  • Evolution of the industry Usability Functionality
  • Evolution of the industry User Experience Usability Functionality
  • Stand Up.
  • Couldn’t go straight into a silly movement
  • • Authority
  • • Authority • Simple behaviour
  • • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof
  • • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof • Small increments
  • • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof • Small increments • Trigger
  • persuasion: the process of guiding someone towards the adoption of a behaviour or idea
  • Understand behaviours
  • Driven by primal instinct
  • Compete Survive Socialise Reproduce Conserve
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
  • Dr. Robert B Cialdini
  • Reciprocity Scarcity Commitment Compliance Social proof & Consistency Psychology Authority Liking
  • Reciprocity
  • ( Scarcity )
  • Commitment-&-Consistency
  • Authority
  • Social Proof
  • Liking
  • Compliance psychology 1. Reciprocity 2. Scarcity 3. Consistency & commitment 4. Authority 5. Social proof 6. Liking
  • “On the Web, usability is a necessary condition for survival.” J Nielsen - Usability 101: Introduction to Usability http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html
  • i think you’ll find it’s a bit more complicated than that. www.badscience.net
  • Usability is obviously not the whole story
  • Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability
  • Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability 2. Motivation
  • Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability 2. Motivation 3. Trigger
  • Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
  • Piano stairs - TheFunTheory.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
  • 1. Ability Low 1. Ability High
  • Time and Money
  • Physical Effort
  • Brain Cycles
  • Social Deviance
  • Non-Routine
  • 1. Ability To increase ability, lower the need for: 1. Time 2. Money 3. Physical effort 4. Brain cycles 5. Social deviance 6. Non-routine
  • 2. Motivation High 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
  • Ability v Motivation High 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
  • Sensation
  • Sensation P leasure
  • Sensation P leasure Pain
  • Anticipation
  • Anticipation Hope
  • Anticipation Hope Fear
  • Social Cohesion
  • Social Cohesion Acceptance
  • Social Cohesion Acceptance Rejection
  • 2. Motivation To increase motivation: Promise Threat Pleasure Pain Hope Fear Acceptance Rejection
  • 3. Trigger High 3. Trigger 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
  • Kairos: Opportune moment
  • Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 1. Facilitator Low 1. Ability High
  • Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 2. Spark Low 1. Ability High
  • Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 3. Signal Low 1. Ability High
  • Facilitator Facilitator as a as a Trigger Trigger High motivation, Low ability
  • Facilitator to help
  • Spark as a Trigger Low motivation, High ability
  • Spark to motivate
  • Signal as a Trigger High motivation, High ability
  • Signal to say “do it now”
  • 3. Trigger High 2. Motivation 1. Facilitator 3. Signal 2. Spark Low 1. Ability High
  • Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
  • Doodle Jump - BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! Persuasion on many levels
  • Simple instructions & gameplay increase ability
  • High score marks motivate
  • Immediate replay trigger makes it ‘Insanely Addictive’ Doodle Jump and Pocket God Crossover Easter Egg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbuniFB2lkA
  • Motivation to share high score
  • Facilitator
  • Reinforcing motivation
  • Polite confirmation + extra facilitator
  • Motivation + ability + trigger
  • Guiding the next person to play
  • Facilitator
  • Motivation + ability + trigger
  • Results of persuasive design Mar Doodle Jump Released Apr #1 Arcade Game: US May #1 Arcade Game: France Jun #1 App: Austria Jul #1 App: Austria Aug #1 Game: Germany & Spain Sep #1 Game: Australia
  • Design process for persuasion
  • 1. Start small
  • 1. Start small
  • 2. Choose a receptive audience
  • 3. Discover what’s currently preventing the behaviour 1. Ability 2. Motivation 3. Trigger
  • 4. Choose the right channel
  • 5. Look for relevant examples of persuasive technology
  • 6. Imitate
  • 7. Test and iterate quickly
  • 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% d. You should follow me on twitter here. 12.81% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% d. You should follow me on twitter here. 12.81% total increase 173% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 8. Expand on success
  • 8. Expand on success
  • 8. Expand on success
  • 8. Expand on success
  • 1. Start small 2. Choose a receptive audience 3. Discover what’s stopping them 4. Choose the right channel 5. Look for persuasive examples 6. Imitate 7. Test & iterate quickly 8. Expand on success
  • Buy more books
  • The old way
  • Buy more books Shop from home
  • Buy more books Social motivation
  • Buy more books Increase ability to buy
  • Buy more books Recommend new books
  • Buy more books Holds my library
  • Buy more books Buy anywhere, anytime
  • Buy more books Better battery Holds more books Smaller Lighter Cheaper
  • Buy more books 100 countries
  • Buy more books
  • x x x Buy more books
  • Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
  • Resources Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion http://www.amazon.com/Influence-Psychology-Persuasion-INFLUENCE-REV/dp/B001SS2HTK/ref=sr_1_2? ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1257229147&sr=1-2-spell Persuasive Technology http://www.amazon.com/Persuasive-Technology-Computers-Interactive-Technologies/dp/1558606432 Neuro Web Design http://www.amazon.com/Neuro-Web-Design-Makes-Click/dp/0321603605/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1257229091&sr=1-1 Persuasion, Emotion, Trust (PET) http://www.humanfactors.com/training/pet.asp
  • Ash Donaldson ash@produxi.com @ashdonaldson designing better user experiences