Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience

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Presented at the Edge of the Web 2009 conference in Perth, Western Australia

Presented at the Edge of the Web 2009 conference in Perth, Western Australia

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  • Alex took us through the history this morning
    Started with simple websites
  • 1998 ‘modern web era’
    Got more functionality
  • Browsers & functionality exploded with web apps common
  • Added new devices
  • ...and the Internet evolved to be more social
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone’s talking about user experience
    Do it on purpose or not, you’re designing user experiences
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone’s talking about user experience
    Do it on purpose or not, you’re designing user experiences
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone’s talking about user experience
    Do it on purpose or not, you’re designing user experiences
  • Clap. Stop. Do this. Good. Keep doing that and hop on your left foot.
  • Couldn’t go straight to this. A couple of people might have started to do it, but would quickly stop. So why did this work?
  • You paid to see us present. I’m standing out front. I’m in an authoritative position
  • It was a simple behaviour
  • People like you, your peers, all stood up. You’d feel uncomfortable if you didn’t follow them
  • I guided you through small increments in behaviour, and only progressed once I succeeded
  • I provided visual and verbal cues. I led with triggers
  • To guide people, you have to understand how they tick
  • Driven mostly by our primal instincts
  • On the savannah, our ancestors evolved these innate drives
  • Robert B Cialdini used to be a sucker. He’d succumb to any sales pitch and he wanted to know why. Lucky he was an experimental psychologist.
  • 6 universal principles of persuasion = Compliance Psychology
  • Reciprocity - if someone gives you something, you feel obligated to at least hear them out
    <In store taste testers>
  • Scarcity - The desire to have those things there are less of
  • Commitment & Consistency - the desire to be consistent with what we’ve said to others.
    <“I’m on a diet”>
    It’s stronger if they write it out or show it in a public place
  • Authority - People tend to obey authority figures. We’re lazy - we take the cognitive shortcut, moving the responsibility to those that lead us
  • Social proof - People want to follow the lead of people just like them.
    <“The majority of our guests re-use their towel at least once” increased compliance 28%>
  • Liking - We are easily persuaded by people we like or find attractive
    Krista: “Everybody's been real nice.”
    Jim: “Well, that's because you have big jugs.”
  • Based on high pressure sales techniques to make people say “yes”
  • For years, usability people have been telling us that it’s essential to get usability right, or our product, service and or business will fail
  • Ben Goldacre from Bad Science put it more aptly.
  • Sure, usability is important, but there are other factors that affect behaviour & purchasing decisions
  • Yes, usability is important. It’s got to be easy to do. We’re inherently lazy!
  • But ability can be played off against our motivation for doing something.
  • ...and even if it’s easy to do and we’re motivated, we need to be triggered to take action at the appropriate time
  • Time and Money
  • If there’s a low motivation, it’s got to be very easy to do - stay up to date with podcasts
    If it’s hard to do, there’s got to be high motivation - fill out employee form to get paid, no matter how unusable
    So how can we look at motivations?
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses
    Mating & harm avoidance
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses
    Mating & harm avoidance
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses
    Mating & harm avoidance
  • Reflective - Remember the past
    Conceive the future
  • Reflective - Remember the past
    Conceive the future
  • Reflective - Remember the past
    Conceive the future
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Chronos: Sequential time
  • High motivation
    Low ability - trigger needs to help the user
  • High ability
    Low motivation - trigger needs to provide a spark
  • High motivation
    High ability - trigger just needs to say “do it now”
  • Facilitator as a trigger
    High motivation, but lack ability. The facilitator triggers the behaviour and makes it easier to do e.g. address book uploader
  • Spark as a trigger
    When a user lacks motivation, he or she needs a motivational ‘spark’
    Remember when you first were invited to Facebook?
  • Social proof. Come join your friends. Share pictures, videos, and events
  • High motivation + High ability
    e.g. Calendar reminder to get ready for this preso
  • BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! = cognitive bias
    Trigger: Buy app button
  • Simple. On-screen instructions at the start of the game teach you everything you need to know in seconds. Gives you very high ability.
  • Shows the high scores of other players, increasing motivation to play and beat their scores
  • Play again = high ability; ‘Insanely Addictive!’ bias = high motivation + high ability + well-timed trigger
    Cross-promo for PocketGod
    Gameplay: Simple > progressive add of features > flow
  • High score brag = motivation high; Submit score = ability high
    Buttons = Well-timed trigger is a spark AND facilitator
  • Simple log in, but gives you the option to control if you’re kept logged in
  • Reinforces reasons to post to Facebook
  • Gives you control to publish scores only when you want with well designed wording for your news feed - AND lets you update your status (another well-timed trigger as facilitator), providing a second avenue of visibility for Doodle Jump.
  • People on Facebook usually looking for distraction
  • BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! = cognitive bias
    Trigger: Buy app button
  • Same for Twitter. They even crafted a hashtag for it, so you can see that...
  • Every few minutes, someone’s network, somewhere in the world hears of Doodle Jump (trigger) with a challenge to beat them (increasing motivation) and a link to the app in the iTunes store (increasing ability)
    So, how has all this worked out for them?
  • Target simple & achievable behaviour
    Something that takes little or no effort to change
  • Rod, add Whistle, then Hoop & Whistle
  • Focus on a specific group: people that would most easily change their behaviour
  • Behaviour will be prevented by one of these elements lacking
  • Find out which channels the target group are using
    Pick the channel(s) that best match the behaviour
  • Use an educated guess. It’s just a starting point.
    Nike+ relies on an accelerometer and shoe. Heavy on motivation with social proof & authority. Compete with others. Get tips from experts.
  • Start where others have left off.
    Runkeeper increases ability: no extra equipment, mapping, elevation, cheaper. Can also be used for any dist. activities.
  • No more than a few hours/test. Many quick & dirties tell you much more than one big test. Don’t get emotionally attached; throw most ideas away.
    Every successful online service started small Google; Amazon; iPod
  • No more than a few hours/test. Many quick & dirties tell you much more than one big test. Don’t get emotionally attached; throw most ideas away.
    Every successful online service started small Google; Amazon; iPod
  • Tried many variations
  • Found successes
  • ...and built on them
  • Increased conversion to 173% through many quick & dirty trials
  • Once you succeed with one behaviour, scale up to the next. Keep inching toward target behaviour.
    iPod’s came from Apple’s ‘digital hub’ category, yet started with just music
  • iTunes, Podcasts and calendars
  • Photos and contacts
  • Phone, Internet, Games, Videos, Applications of all kinds
  • Travel to a bookstore is time, money, physical effort, brain cycles, non-routine
  • Shop from home.
    Large selection + Delivered to your door = increased ability
  • Iterated through many designs and factors
    Strong use of social proof - motivated to make purchase decision
  • 1-click shopping increased ability
  • Recommendations increased motivation
  • Digital Book. Holds your whole library.
    Uses 3G to increase ability via WhisperNet
  • Problem is, WhisperNet only worked in the US
  • New version
  • Now WhisperNet is available in 100 countries
  • Phone is ubiquitous. Whispersync’s with your Kindle.
    If people can consume more books, they’ll buy more books.
  • Sometimes people just look at the technology without considering the motivation, abilities or triggers

Transcript

  • 1. Designing to Persuade: Shaping User Experience designing better user experiences
  • 2. Evolution of the industry
  • 3. Evolution of the industry
  • 4. Evolution of the industry
  • 5. Evolution of the industry
  • 6. Evolution of the industry
  • 7. Evolution of the industry Functionality
  • 8. Evolution of the industry Usability Functionality
  • 9. Evolution of the industry User Experience Usability Functionality
  • 10. Stand Up.
  • 11. Couldn’t go straight into a silly movement
  • 12. • Authority
  • 13. • Authority • Simple behaviour
  • 14. • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof
  • 15. • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof • Small increments
  • 16. • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof • Small increments • Trigger
  • 17. persuasion: the process of guiding someone towards the adoption of a behaviour or idea
  • 18. Understand behaviours
  • 19. Driven by primal instinct
  • 20. Compete Survive Socialise Reproduce Conserve
  • 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
  • 22. Dr. Robert B Cialdini
  • 23. Reciprocity Scarcity Commitment Compliance Social proof & Consistency Psychology Authority Liking
  • 24. Reciprocity
  • 25. ( Scarcity )
  • 26. Commitment-&-Consistency
  • 27. Authority
  • 28. Social Proof
  • 29. Liking
  • 30. Compliance psychology 1. Reciprocity 2. Scarcity 3. Consistency & commitment 4. Authority 5. Social proof 6. Liking
  • 31. “On the Web, usability is a necessary condition for survival.” J Nielsen - Usability 101: Introduction to Usability http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html
  • 32. i think you’ll find it’s a bit more complicated than that. www.badscience.net
  • 33. Usability is obviously not the whole story
  • 34. Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability
  • 35. Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability 2. Motivation
  • 36. Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability 2. Motivation 3. Trigger
  • 37. Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
  • 38. Piano stairs - TheFunTheory.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
  • 39. 1. Ability Low 1. Ability High
  • 40. Time and Money
  • 41. Physical Effort
  • 42. Brain Cycles
  • 43. Social Deviance
  • 44. Non-Routine
  • 45. 1. Ability To increase ability, lower the need for: 1. Time 2. Money 3. Physical effort 4. Brain cycles 5. Social deviance 6. Non-routine
  • 46. 2. Motivation High 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
  • 47. Ability v Motivation High 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
  • 48. Sensation
  • 49. Sensation P leasure
  • 50. Sensation P leasure Pain
  • 51. Anticipation
  • 52. Anticipation Hope
  • 53. Anticipation Hope Fear
  • 54. Social Cohesion
  • 55. Social Cohesion Acceptance
  • 56. Social Cohesion Acceptance Rejection
  • 57. 2. Motivation To increase motivation: Promise Threat Pleasure Pain Hope Fear Acceptance Rejection
  • 58. 3. Trigger High 3. Trigger 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
  • 59. Kairos: Opportune moment
  • 60. Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 1. Facilitator Low 1. Ability High
  • 61. Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 2. Spark Low 1. Ability High
  • 62. Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 3. Signal Low 1. Ability High
  • 63. Facilitator Facilitator as a as a Trigger Trigger High motivation, Low ability
  • 64. Facilitator to help
  • 65. Spark as a Trigger Low motivation, High ability
  • 66. Spark to motivate
  • 67. Signal as a Trigger High motivation, High ability
  • 68. Signal to say “do it now”
  • 69. 3. Trigger High 2. Motivation 1. Facilitator 3. Signal 2. Spark Low 1. Ability High
  • 70. Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
  • 71. Doodle Jump - BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! Persuasion on many levels
  • 72. Simple instructions & gameplay increase ability
  • 73. High score marks motivate
  • 74. Immediate replay trigger makes it ‘Insanely Addictive’ Doodle Jump and Pocket God Crossover Easter Egg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbuniFB2lkA
  • 75. Motivation to share high score
  • 76. Facilitator
  • 77. Reinforcing motivation
  • 78. Polite confirmation + extra facilitator
  • 79. Motivation + ability + trigger
  • 80. Guiding the next person to play
  • 81. Facilitator
  • 82. Motivation + ability + trigger
  • 83. Results of persuasive design Mar Doodle Jump Released Apr #1 Arcade Game: US May #1 Arcade Game: France Jun #1 App: Austria Jul #1 App: Austria Aug #1 Game: Germany & Spain Sep #1 Game: Australia
  • 84. Design process for persuasion
  • 85. 1. Start small
  • 86. 1. Start small
  • 87. 2. Choose a receptive audience
  • 88. 3. Discover what’s currently preventing the behaviour 1. Ability 2. Motivation 3. Trigger
  • 89. 4. Choose the right channel
  • 90. 5. Look for relevant examples of persuasive technology
  • 91. 6. Imitate
  • 92. 7. Test and iterate quickly
  • 93. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 94. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 95. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 96. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% d. You should follow me on twitter here. 12.81% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 97. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% d. You should follow me on twitter here. 12.81% total increase 173% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
  • 98. 8. Expand on success
  • 99. 8. Expand on success
  • 100. 8. Expand on success
  • 101. 8. Expand on success
  • 102. 1. Start small 2. Choose a receptive audience 3. Discover what’s stopping them 4. Choose the right channel 5. Look for persuasive examples 6. Imitate 7. Test & iterate quickly 8. Expand on success
  • 103. Buy more books
  • 104. The old way
  • 105. Buy more books Shop from home
  • 106. Buy more books Social motivation
  • 107. Buy more books Increase ability to buy
  • 108. Buy more books Recommend new books
  • 109. Buy more books Holds my library
  • 110. Buy more books Buy anywhere, anytime
  • 111. Buy more books Better battery Holds more books Smaller Lighter Cheaper
  • 112. Buy more books 100 countries
  • 113. Buy more books
  • 114. x x x Buy more books
  • 115. Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
  • 116. Resources Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion http://www.amazon.com/Influence-Psychology-Persuasion-INFLUENCE-REV/dp/B001SS2HTK/ref=sr_1_2? ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1257229147&sr=1-2-spell Persuasive Technology http://www.amazon.com/Persuasive-Technology-Computers-Interactive-Technologies/dp/1558606432 Neuro Web Design http://www.amazon.com/Neuro-Web-Design-Makes-Click/dp/0321603605/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1257229091&sr=1-1 Persuasion, Emotion, Trust (PET) http://www.humanfactors.com/training/pet.asp
  • 117. Ash Donaldson ash@produxi.com @ashdonaldson designing better user experiences