Designing to
Persuade:
Shaping User Experience




                          designing better user experiences
Evolution of the industry
Evolution of the industry
Evolution of the industry
Evolution of the industry
Evolution of the industry
Evolution of the industry




  Functionality
Evolution of the industry




              Usability

  Functionality
Evolution of the industry

                   User Experience

              Usability

  Functionality
Stand Up.
Couldn’t go
straight into
a silly movement
• Authority
• Authority
• Simple behaviour
• Authority
• Simple behaviour
• Social proof
• Authority
• Simple behaviour
• Social proof
• Small increments
• Authority
• Simple behaviour
• Social proof
• Small increments
• Trigger
persuasion:
the process of
guiding someone towards
the adoption of a behaviour or idea
Understand
behaviours
Driven by primal instinct
Compete




Survive
                       Socialise




          Reproduce                Conserve
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Dr. Robert B Cialdini
Reciprocity    Scarcity




Commitment      Compliance        Social proof
& Consistency
                Psychology

     ...
Reciprocity
( Scarcity )
Commitment-&-Consistency
Authority
Social Proof
Liking
Compliance psychology
    1. Reciprocity
    2. Scarcity
    3. Consistency & commitment
    4. Authority
    5. Social pr...
“On the Web,
usability is a
necessary
condition for
survival.”
J Nielsen - Usability 101: Introduction to Usability
http:/...
i think you’ll find
    it’s a bit more
complicated than that.
              www.badscience.net
Usability is
obviously not
the whole story
Elements of behaviour change:

    1. Ability
Elements of behaviour change:

    1. Ability
    2. Motivation
Elements of behaviour change:

    1. Ability
    2. Motivation
    3. Trigger
Fogg Behaviour Model
      High
                                                            Target
                       ...
Piano stairs - TheFunTheory.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
1. Ability




        Low   1. Ability   High
Time and Money
Physical Effort
Brain Cycles
Social Deviance
Non-Routine
1. Ability
To increase ability, lower the need for:
       1. Time
       2. Money
       3. Physical effort
       4. Bra...
2. Motivation
      High



      2. Motivation




      Low             1. Ability   High
Ability v Motivation
       High



       2. Motivation




       Low             1. Ability   High
Sensation
Sensation



            P leasure
Sensation



            P leasure   Pain
Anticipation
Anticipation
Hope
Anticipation
Hope

       Fear
Social Cohesion
Social Cohesion




Acceptance
Social Cohesion




Acceptance
               Rejection
2. Motivation
To increase motivation:

                   Promise     Threat

                    Pleasure     Pain

     ...
3. Trigger
       High

                             3. Trigger
       2. Motivation




       Low             1. Ability...
Kairos: Opportune moment
Three types of trigger
        High



        2. Motivation
                        1. Facilitator




        Low       ...
Three types of trigger
        High



        2. Motivation




                                     2. Spark
        Low...
Three types of trigger
        High



        2. Motivation
                                     3. Signal




        Lo...
Facilitator
 Facilitator
    as a
as a Trigger
  Trigger


    High motivation, Low ability
Facilitator to help
Spark as a Trigger
Low motivation, High ability
Spark to motivate
Signal as a Trigger
High motivation, High ability
Signal to say “do it now”
3. Trigger
       High



       2. Motivation
                       1. Facilitator      3. Signal




                  ...
Fogg Behaviour Model
      High
                                                            Target
                       ...
Doodle Jump - BE WARNED:
Insanely Addictive!
Persuasion on many levels
Simple
instructions
& gameplay
increase
ability
High score
marks
motivate
Immediate
                                                    replay
                                                    t...
Motivation
to share
high score
Facilitator
Reinforcing
motivation
Polite
confirmation
+
extra
facilitator
Motivation + ability + trigger
Guiding the next person to play
Facilitator
Motivation + ability + trigger
Results of persuasive design

Mar     Doodle Jump Released
Apr     #1 Arcade Game: US
May     #1 Arcade Game: France
 Jun ...
Design process for persuasion
1. Start small
1. Start small
2. Choose a receptive audience
3. Discover what’s currently
preventing the behaviour

    1. Ability
    2. Motivation
    3. Trigger
4. Choose the right channel
5. Look for relevant examples of
persuasive technology
6. Imitate
7. Test and iterate quickly
7. Test and iterate quickly
  a. I’m on Twitter.                                                              4.70%




  ...
7. Test and iterate quickly
  a. I’m on Twitter.                                                              4.70%

  b. ...
7. Test and iterate quickly
  a. I’m on Twitter.                                                              4.70%

  b. ...
7. Test and iterate quickly
  a. I’m on Twitter.                                                              4.70%

  b. ...
7. Test and iterate quickly
  a. I’m on Twitter.                                                              4.70%

  b. ...
8. Expand on success
8. Expand on success
8. Expand on success
8. Expand on success
1. Start small
2. Choose a receptive audience
3. Discover what’s stopping them
4. Choose the right channel
5. Look for per...
Buy
more
books
The old way
Buy
 more
 books




Shop from home
Buy
 more
 books




Social motivation
Buy
     more
     books




Increase ability to buy
Buy
more
books




        Recommend
        new books
Buy
                   more
                   books

Holds my library
Buy
                        more
                        books

Buy anywhere, anytime
Buy
          more
          books




Better battery
Holds more books
Smaller
Lighter
Cheaper
Buy
      more
      books




100 countries
Buy
more
books
x   x   x
            Buy
            more
            books
Fogg Behaviour Model
      High
                                                            Target
                       ...
Resources
Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
http://www.amazon.com/Influence-Psychology-Persuasion-INFLUENCE-REV/dp/B00...
Ash Donaldson
      ash@produxi.com
        @ashdonaldson




      designing better user experiences
Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience
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Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience

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  • Alex took us through the history this morning
    Started with simple websites
  • 1998 ‘modern web era’
    Got more functionality
  • Browsers & functionality exploded with web apps common
  • Added new devices
  • ...and the Internet evolved to be more social
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone’s talking about user experience
    Do it on purpose or not, you’re designing user experiences
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone’s talking about user experience
    Do it on purpose or not, you’re designing user experiences
  • Started on the programming side; progressed through making it easier; now everyone’s talking about user experience
    Do it on purpose or not, you’re designing user experiences
  • Clap. Stop. Do this. Good. Keep doing that and hop on your left foot.
  • Couldn’t go straight to this. A couple of people might have started to do it, but would quickly stop. So why did this work?
  • You paid to see us present. I’m standing out front. I’m in an authoritative position
  • It was a simple behaviour
  • People like you, your peers, all stood up. You’d feel uncomfortable if you didn’t follow them
  • I guided you through small increments in behaviour, and only progressed once I succeeded
  • I provided visual and verbal cues. I led with triggers
  • To guide people, you have to understand how they tick
  • Driven mostly by our primal instincts
  • On the savannah, our ancestors evolved these innate drives
  • Robert B Cialdini used to be a sucker. He’d succumb to any sales pitch and he wanted to know why. Lucky he was an experimental psychologist.
  • 6 universal principles of persuasion = Compliance Psychology
  • Reciprocity - if someone gives you something, you feel obligated to at least hear them out
    <In store taste testers>
  • Scarcity - The desire to have those things there are less of
  • Commitment & Consistency - the desire to be consistent with what we’ve said to others.
    <“I’m on a diet”>
    It’s stronger if they write it out or show it in a public place
  • Authority - People tend to obey authority figures. We’re lazy - we take the cognitive shortcut, moving the responsibility to those that lead us
  • Social proof - People want to follow the lead of people just like them.
    <“The majority of our guests re-use their towel at least once” increased compliance 28%>
  • Liking - We are easily persuaded by people we like or find attractive
    Krista: “Everybody's been real nice.”
    Jim: “Well, that's because you have big jugs.”
  • Based on high pressure sales techniques to make people say “yes”
  • For years, usability people have been telling us that it’s essential to get usability right, or our product, service and or business will fail
  • Ben Goldacre from Bad Science put it more aptly.
  • Sure, usability is important, but there are other factors that affect behaviour & purchasing decisions
  • Yes, usability is important. It’s got to be easy to do. We’re inherently lazy!
  • But ability can be played off against our motivation for doing something.
  • ...and even if it’s easy to do and we’re motivated, we need to be triggered to take action at the appropriate time
  • Time and Money
  • If there’s a low motivation, it’s got to be very easy to do - stay up to date with podcasts
    If it’s hard to do, there’s got to be high motivation - fill out employee form to get paid, no matter how unusable
    So how can we look at motivations?
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses
    Mating & harm avoidance
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses
    Mating & harm avoidance
  • Visceral - Basic survival responses
    Mating & harm avoidance
  • Reflective - Remember the past
    Conceive the future
  • Reflective - Remember the past
    Conceive the future
  • Reflective - Remember the past
    Conceive the future
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Social creatures - born with large heads
  • Chronos: Sequential time
  • High motivation
    Low ability - trigger needs to help the user
  • High ability
    Low motivation - trigger needs to provide a spark
  • High motivation
    High ability - trigger just needs to say “do it now”
  • Facilitator as a trigger
    High motivation, but lack ability. The facilitator triggers the behaviour and makes it easier to do e.g. address book uploader
  • Spark as a trigger
    When a user lacks motivation, he or she needs a motivational ‘spark’
    Remember when you first were invited to Facebook?
  • Social proof. Come join your friends. Share pictures, videos, and events
  • High motivation + High ability
    e.g. Calendar reminder to get ready for this preso
  • BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! = cognitive bias
    Trigger: Buy app button
  • Simple. On-screen instructions at the start of the game teach you everything you need to know in seconds. Gives you very high ability.
  • Shows the high scores of other players, increasing motivation to play and beat their scores
  • Play again = high ability; ‘Insanely Addictive!’ bias = high motivation + high ability + well-timed trigger
    Cross-promo for PocketGod
    Gameplay: Simple > progressive add of features > flow
  • High score brag = motivation high; Submit score = ability high
    Buttons = Well-timed trigger is a spark AND facilitator
  • Simple log in, but gives you the option to control if you’re kept logged in
  • Reinforces reasons to post to Facebook
  • Gives you control to publish scores only when you want with well designed wording for your news feed - AND lets you update your status (another well-timed trigger as facilitator), providing a second avenue of visibility for Doodle Jump.
  • People on Facebook usually looking for distraction
  • BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! = cognitive bias
    Trigger: Buy app button
  • Same for Twitter. They even crafted a hashtag for it, so you can see that...
  • Every few minutes, someone’s network, somewhere in the world hears of Doodle Jump (trigger) with a challenge to beat them (increasing motivation) and a link to the app in the iTunes store (increasing ability)
    So, how has all this worked out for them?
  • Target simple & achievable behaviour
    Something that takes little or no effort to change
  • Rod, add Whistle, then Hoop & Whistle
  • Focus on a specific group: people that would most easily change their behaviour
  • Behaviour will be prevented by one of these elements lacking
  • Find out which channels the target group are using
    Pick the channel(s) that best match the behaviour
  • Use an educated guess. It’s just a starting point.
    Nike+ relies on an accelerometer and shoe. Heavy on motivation with social proof & authority. Compete with others. Get tips from experts.
  • Start where others have left off.
    Runkeeper increases ability: no extra equipment, mapping, elevation, cheaper. Can also be used for any dist. activities.
  • No more than a few hours/test. Many quick & dirties tell you much more than one big test. Don’t get emotionally attached; throw most ideas away.
    Every successful online service started small Google; Amazon; iPod
  • No more than a few hours/test. Many quick & dirties tell you much more than one big test. Don’t get emotionally attached; throw most ideas away.
    Every successful online service started small Google; Amazon; iPod
  • Tried many variations
  • Found successes
  • ...and built on them
  • Increased conversion to 173% through many quick & dirty trials
  • Once you succeed with one behaviour, scale up to the next. Keep inching toward target behaviour.
    iPod’s came from Apple’s ‘digital hub’ category, yet started with just music
  • iTunes, Podcasts and calendars
  • Photos and contacts
  • Phone, Internet, Games, Videos, Applications of all kinds
  • Travel to a bookstore is time, money, physical effort, brain cycles, non-routine
  • Shop from home.
    Large selection + Delivered to your door = increased ability
  • Iterated through many designs and factors
    Strong use of social proof - motivated to make purchase decision
  • 1-click shopping increased ability
  • Recommendations increased motivation
  • Digital Book. Holds your whole library.
    Uses 3G to increase ability via WhisperNet
  • Problem is, WhisperNet only worked in the US
  • New version
  • Now WhisperNet is available in 100 countries
  • Phone is ubiquitous. Whispersync’s with your Kindle.
    If people can consume more books, they’ll buy more books.
  • Sometimes people just look at the technology without considering the motivation, abilities or triggers
  • Transcript of "Designing to Persuade: Shaping the User Experience"

    1. 1. Designing to Persuade: Shaping User Experience designing better user experiences
    2. 2. Evolution of the industry
    3. 3. Evolution of the industry
    4. 4. Evolution of the industry
    5. 5. Evolution of the industry
    6. 6. Evolution of the industry
    7. 7. Evolution of the industry Functionality
    8. 8. Evolution of the industry Usability Functionality
    9. 9. Evolution of the industry User Experience Usability Functionality
    10. 10. Stand Up.
    11. 11. Couldn’t go straight into a silly movement
    12. 12. • Authority
    13. 13. • Authority • Simple behaviour
    14. 14. • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof
    15. 15. • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof • Small increments
    16. 16. • Authority • Simple behaviour • Social proof • Small increments • Trigger
    17. 17. persuasion: the process of guiding someone towards the adoption of a behaviour or idea
    18. 18. Understand behaviours
    19. 19. Driven by primal instinct
    20. 20. Compete Survive Socialise Reproduce Conserve
    21. 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
    22. 22. Dr. Robert B Cialdini
    23. 23. Reciprocity Scarcity Commitment Compliance Social proof & Consistency Psychology Authority Liking
    24. 24. Reciprocity
    25. 25. ( Scarcity )
    26. 26. Commitment-&-Consistency
    27. 27. Authority
    28. 28. Social Proof
    29. 29. Liking
    30. 30. Compliance psychology 1. Reciprocity 2. Scarcity 3. Consistency & commitment 4. Authority 5. Social proof 6. Liking
    31. 31. “On the Web, usability is a necessary condition for survival.” J Nielsen - Usability 101: Introduction to Usability http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html
    32. 32. i think you’ll find it’s a bit more complicated than that. www.badscience.net
    33. 33. Usability is obviously not the whole story
    34. 34. Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability
    35. 35. Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability 2. Motivation
    36. 36. Elements of behaviour change: 1. Ability 2. Motivation 3. Trigger
    37. 37. Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
    38. 38. Piano stairs - TheFunTheory.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
    39. 39. 1. Ability Low 1. Ability High
    40. 40. Time and Money
    41. 41. Physical Effort
    42. 42. Brain Cycles
    43. 43. Social Deviance
    44. 44. Non-Routine
    45. 45. 1. Ability To increase ability, lower the need for: 1. Time 2. Money 3. Physical effort 4. Brain cycles 5. Social deviance 6. Non-routine
    46. 46. 2. Motivation High 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
    47. 47. Ability v Motivation High 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
    48. 48. Sensation
    49. 49. Sensation P leasure
    50. 50. Sensation P leasure Pain
    51. 51. Anticipation
    52. 52. Anticipation Hope
    53. 53. Anticipation Hope Fear
    54. 54. Social Cohesion
    55. 55. Social Cohesion Acceptance
    56. 56. Social Cohesion Acceptance Rejection
    57. 57. 2. Motivation To increase motivation: Promise Threat Pleasure Pain Hope Fear Acceptance Rejection
    58. 58. 3. Trigger High 3. Trigger 2. Motivation Low 1. Ability High
    59. 59. Kairos: Opportune moment
    60. 60. Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 1. Facilitator Low 1. Ability High
    61. 61. Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 2. Spark Low 1. Ability High
    62. 62. Three types of trigger High 2. Motivation 3. Signal Low 1. Ability High
    63. 63. Facilitator Facilitator as a as a Trigger Trigger High motivation, Low ability
    64. 64. Facilitator to help
    65. 65. Spark as a Trigger Low motivation, High ability
    66. 66. Spark to motivate
    67. 67. Signal as a Trigger High motivation, High ability
    68. 68. Signal to say “do it now”
    69. 69. 3. Trigger High 2. Motivation 1. Facilitator 3. Signal 2. Spark Low 1. Ability High
    70. 70. Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
    71. 71. Doodle Jump - BE WARNED: Insanely Addictive! Persuasion on many levels
    72. 72. Simple instructions & gameplay increase ability
    73. 73. High score marks motivate
    74. 74. Immediate replay trigger makes it ‘Insanely Addictive’ Doodle Jump and Pocket God Crossover Easter Egg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbuniFB2lkA
    75. 75. Motivation to share high score
    76. 76. Facilitator
    77. 77. Reinforcing motivation
    78. 78. Polite confirmation + extra facilitator
    79. 79. Motivation + ability + trigger
    80. 80. Guiding the next person to play
    81. 81. Facilitator
    82. 82. Motivation + ability + trigger
    83. 83. Results of persuasive design Mar Doodle Jump Released Apr #1 Arcade Game: US May #1 Arcade Game: France Jun #1 App: Austria Jul #1 App: Austria Aug #1 Game: Germany & Spain Sep #1 Game: Australia
    84. 84. Design process for persuasion
    85. 85. 1. Start small
    86. 86. 1. Start small
    87. 87. 2. Choose a receptive audience
    88. 88. 3. Discover what’s currently preventing the behaviour 1. Ability 2. Motivation 3. Trigger
    89. 89. 4. Choose the right channel
    90. 90. 5. Look for relevant examples of persuasive technology
    91. 91. 6. Imitate
    92. 92. 7. Test and iterate quickly
    93. 93. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
    94. 94. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
    95. 95. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
    96. 96. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% d. You should follow me on twitter here. 12.81% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
    97. 97. 7. Test and iterate quickly a. I’m on Twitter. 4.70% b. Follow me on twitter. 7.31% c. You should follow me on twitter. 10.09% d. You should follow me on twitter here. 12.81% total increase 173% Dustin Curtis http://dustincurtis.com/you_should_follow_me_on_twitter.html
    98. 98. 8. Expand on success
    99. 99. 8. Expand on success
    100. 100. 8. Expand on success
    101. 101. 8. Expand on success
    102. 102. 1. Start small 2. Choose a receptive audience 3. Discover what’s stopping them 4. Choose the right channel 5. Look for persuasive examples 6. Imitate 7. Test & iterate quickly 8. Expand on success
    103. 103. Buy more books
    104. 104. The old way
    105. 105. Buy more books Shop from home
    106. 106. Buy more books Social motivation
    107. 107. Buy more books Increase ability to buy
    108. 108. Buy more books Recommend new books
    109. 109. Buy more books Holds my library
    110. 110. Buy more books Buy anywhere, anytime
    111. 111. Buy more books Better battery Holds more books Smaller Lighter Cheaper
    112. 112. Buy more books 100 countries
    113. 113. Buy more books
    114. 114. x x x Buy more books
    115. 115. Fogg Behaviour Model High Target 3. Trigger Behaviour ur vio 2. Motivation ha be et rg ta rm rfo pe o st es lin ke Li Low 1. Ability High Modified from www.BehaviorModel.org
    116. 116. Resources Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion http://www.amazon.com/Influence-Psychology-Persuasion-INFLUENCE-REV/dp/B001SS2HTK/ref=sr_1_2? ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1257229147&sr=1-2-spell Persuasive Technology http://www.amazon.com/Persuasive-Technology-Computers-Interactive-Technologies/dp/1558606432 Neuro Web Design http://www.amazon.com/Neuro-Web-Design-Makes-Click/dp/0321603605/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1257229091&sr=1-1 Persuasion, Emotion, Trust (PET) http://www.humanfactors.com/training/pet.asp
    117. 117. Ash Donaldson ash@produxi.com @ashdonaldson designing better user experiences
    1. ¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?

      Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.

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