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POWER, Empowerment
    &   Politics:
    in organizations
Agenda

1. POWER

2. EMPOWERMENT

3. POLITICS
Agenda

1. POWER

2. EMPOWERMENT

3. POLITICS
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER



                     (Star Wars, 1983)
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER tends to
  corrupt, and absolute power
  corrupts absolutely. Grea...
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER



                     (Star Wars, 1983)
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER
POWE
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?


                 POWER



                  R
  POWER              POWE...
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER
•The ability of one person or department
  in a organization to in...
What comes to mind when you think of POWER?




  POWER
Do I have the Power to Influence?



POWER
Do I have the Power to Influence?
I.Virtually every conversation,
interaction & relationship
involve elements of power.

  ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
I.Virtually every conversation,
interaction & relationship
involve elements of power.

  ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
I.Virtually every conversation,
interaction & relationship
involve elements of power.

  ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
I.Virtually every conversation,
interaction & relationship
involve elements of power.

  ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
I.Virtually every conversation, IV. Influencer’s tactics
interaction & relationship are ac...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
                   IV. Influencer’s tactics
                   are accepted or denied
    ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
                   IV. Influencer’s tactics
                   are accepted or denied
    ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
                   IV. Influencer’s tactics
                   are accepted or denied
    ...
Do I have the Power to Influence?
                         IV. Influencer’s tactics
                         are accepted or...
How do we decide whether to comply, or not?
How do we decide whether to comply, or not?
How do we decide whether to comply, or not?

 Subordinate’s Zone of Indifference
How do we decide whether to comply, or not?

 Subordinate’s Zone of Indifference

•In order for you gain compliance from a...
How do we decide whether to comply, or not?

 Subordinate’s Zone of Indifference

•In order for you gain compliance from a...
2 Catagories of Power in Organizations


1. Interpersonal Power

2. Structural Power
Five Sources of Interpersonal Power


                                                Position Power, Authority, Used
1. L...
Five Sources of Interpersonal Power

1. Legitimate Power
                      Prescribed by the
2. Reward Power       Org...
Five Sources of Interpersonal Power

1. Legitimate Power
                      Leads to
2. Reward Power       Compliance

...
Five Sources of Interpersonal Power

1. Legitimate Power
                       Theory X
2. Reward Power

3. Coercive Powe...
Forms of Structural Power
•Distribution of power in an organization is
 contingent on the organization’s structure.
 1.Aut...
Forms of Structural Power
      1.Authoritative Power
        •Same as Formal Power

        Weber’s 3 Types of Authority ...
Forms of Structural Power
2. Resource Power
  • Open channels to: $, People,Technology, etc

• Relies on Authoritative/For...
Forms of Structural Power
3. Decision Making Power
  • Degree to which individuals or subunits can
   affect decision maki...
Forms of Structural Power
4. Decision Making Power
  • Degree to which individuals or subunits can
   affect decision maki...
Forms of Structural Power
 5. Network Centrality
  •Central location of individual or group in an organization
           ...
Forms of Structural Power
5. Network Centrality

             STAR Network
                   D
         E                ...
Forms of Structural Power
5. Network Centrality

           LINE Network


G    F    E     D     C   B   A
Forms of Structural Power
5. Network Centrality

             LINE Network
                 E       D

         F         ...
Horizontal Power
- Horizontal Power is not defined by the formal hierarchy of the organization.
Some departments have more ...
The IllusioN of Power
 Milgrim’s Classic Experiment on
           Obedience:


Are we smarter than the participants
      ...
The IllusioN of Power:

     STARING:
      Jestin Lentz
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How motivated do         Hey! My van
you feel to comply   broke down. Think I
with his request?     Could hitch a ride
   ...
How about now?
How about now?

Now???
How about now?
Agenda

1. POWER

2. EMPOWERMENT

3. POLITICS
Empowerment
- Power sharing, the delegation of power
or authority to subordinates in the
organization.




               ...
Empowerment
Reasons organizations adopt empowerment:

1. As a strategic imperative to improve products
  or services
2. Be...
Empowerment
 Reasons empowerment is not embraced:
1. Managers fear the loss of power, control and
  authority.
2. Employee...
Elements of empowerment
1. Employees receive information about company
  performance.
2. Employees have knowledge & skill ...
How does an organization implement empowerment?

  The Empowerment Process (accomplished in 5 stages):

1. Diagnose condit...
Other Keys to Effectively Empowering Employees


1.   Delegating responsibility is contingent on delegating authority too....
Spiral of Powerlessness




                    (Rymer, 2009)
Spiral of empowerment




                 (Rymer, 2009)
Agenda

1. POWER

2. EMPOWERMENT

3. POLITICS
Politics
Politics: Strategies & Tactics
  Politically Oriented Behavior is:
1. Usually outside the legitimate, recognized
   power ...
Political Behavior:
Henery Mintzber identified 13 Political
Games to describe political behavior in
organizations.
        ...
Political Influence Tactics
9 Specific Tactics Used by individuals to influence their
superiors, co-workers, and subordinates...
Cialdini’s 6 Pervasive Influence Tactics

1.Reciprocation                        •Obligation to repay what was received.
  ...
Currencies: The Source of Influence
•Basis of influence is based on mutually satisfactory exchanges.
•Individuals are influ...
4 Keys to Effective Influence
1.Think about the person you want to influence as an ally, not
  adversary.

2.Know the world ...
Managing Power Effectively
1.Recognize that there are multiple interests in every
  organization.

2.Know what position re...
Takeaways

•   Outside factors influence our values, behavior, attitudes,
    decision-making, personality, etc.

•   Being...
POWER, Empowerment
    &   Politics:
    in organizations

        Thank You
Sources
Bradford, D & Cohen, A (Winter, 1989). Influence Without Authority: The Use of Alliances, Reciprocity, and
Exchange...
Power & Influence
Power & Influence
Power & Influence
Power & Influence
Power & Influence
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Power & Influence

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Power & Influence

  1. 1. POWER, Empowerment & Politics: in organizations
  2. 2. Agenda 1. POWER 2. EMPOWERMENT 3. POLITICS
  3. 3. Agenda 1. POWER 2. EMPOWERMENT 3. POLITICS
  4. 4. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER (Star Wars, 1983)
  5. 5. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men. ~ Lord Acton (1887). (Star Wars, 1983)
  6. 6. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER (Star Wars, 1983)
  7. 7. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER
  8. 8. POWE What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER R POWER POWER POW POWER POWER POWER POWER POWER POWER POWER ER POWER POWERPOWER
  9. 9. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER
  10. 10. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER •The ability of one person or department in a organization to influence other people to bring about desired outcomes.
  11. 11. What comes to mind when you think of POWER? POWER
  12. 12. Do I have the Power to Influence? POWER
  13. 13. Do I have the Power to Influence? I.Virtually every conversation, interaction & relationship involve elements of power. POWER
  14. 14. Do I have the Power to Influence? I.Virtually every conversation, interaction & relationship involve elements of power. POWER Definition of Power: II. An individual or group’s potential to influence.
  15. 15. Do I have the Power to Influence? I.Virtually every conversation, interaction & relationship involve elements of power. POWER AND INFLUENCE Definition of Power: II. An individual or group’s potential to influence.
  16. 16. Do I have the Power to Influence? I.Virtually every conversation, interaction & relationship involve elements of power. POWER AND INFLUENCE Definition of Power: Definition of Influence: III. Putting an individual II. An individual or group’s or group’s potential potential to influence. to influence in to action.
  17. 17. Do I have the Power to Influence? I.Virtually every conversation, IV. Influencer’s tactics interaction & relationship are accepted or denied involve elements of power. by the influencee. POWER AND INFLUENCE Definition of Power: Definition of Influence: III. Putting an individual II. An individual or group’s or group’s potential potential to influence. to influence in to action.
  18. 18. Do I have the Power to Influence? IV. Influencer’s tactics are accepted or denied by the influencee.
  19. 19. Do I have the Power to Influence? IV. Influencer’s tactics are accepted or denied by the influencee.
  20. 20. Do I have the Power to Influence? IV. Influencer’s tactics are accepted or denied by the influencee. Compliance
  21. 21. Do I have the Power to Influence? IV. Influencer’s tactics are accepted or denied by the influencee. Compliance How do we decide whether to comply, or not?
  22. 22. How do we decide whether to comply, or not?
  23. 23. How do we decide whether to comply, or not?
  24. 24. How do we decide whether to comply, or not? Subordinate’s Zone of Indifference
  25. 25. How do we decide whether to comply, or not? Subordinate’s Zone of Indifference •In order for you gain compliance from a individual (subordinate), your request must fall inside the individual’s Zone of Indifference.
  26. 26. How do we decide whether to comply, or not? Subordinate’s Zone of Indifference •In order for you gain compliance from a individual (subordinate), your request must fall inside the individual’s Zone of Indifference. •Requests that do not fall within this threshold will not render compliance.
  27. 27. 2 Catagories of Power in Organizations 1. Interpersonal Power 2. Structural Power
  28. 28. Five Sources of Interpersonal Power Position Power, Authority, Used 1. Legitimate Power Vertically Person’s ability to reward follower 2. Reward Power for compliance. 3. Coercive Power Power to Punish 4. Expert Power Person possesses special expertise Person’s behavior and personality. 5. Referent Power (e.g., Charismatic leadership John R. P. Frenck and Bertram Raven, The Basis of Social Power,” in D. Cartwright (ed), Studies in Social Power (Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1959). pp482-521
  29. 29. Five Sources of Interpersonal Power 1. Legitimate Power Prescribed by the 2. Reward Power Organization 3. Coercive Power 4. Expert Power Grounded in the Individual 5. Referent Power
  30. 30. Five Sources of Interpersonal Power 1. Legitimate Power Leads to 2. Reward Power Compliance 3. Coercive Power Leads to Resistance 4. Expert Power Leads to Commitment 5. Referent Power
  31. 31. Five Sources of Interpersonal Power 1. Legitimate Power Theory X 2. Reward Power 3. Coercive Power 4. Expert Power Theory Y 5. Referent Power
  32. 32. Forms of Structural Power •Distribution of power in an organization is contingent on the organization’s structure. 1.Authoritative Power 2.Resource Power 3.Decision-Making Power 4.Information Power 5. Network Centrality
  33. 33. Forms of Structural Power 1.Authoritative Power •Same as Formal Power Weber’s 3 Types of Authority in Organizations 1. Rational-legalauthority 2. Traditional authority 3. Charismatic authority Daft L. Richard (2009). Power and Politics. Organization Theory and Design. Studievereniging Stress; 441-461.
  34. 34. Forms of Structural Power 2. Resource Power • Open channels to: $, People,Technology, etc • Relies on Authoritative/Formal Power: ‣Usually, organizations allocate resources downward ‣ Lower level mgrs. must rely on upper level mgmt. to provided needed resources
  35. 35. Forms of Structural Power 3. Decision Making Power • Degree to which individuals or subunits can affect decision making. Decision Making Power involves influencing: •How the decision is made / the process. •The alternatives considered. •When the decision made. •Does not require Formal Power.
  36. 36. Forms of Structural Power 4. Decision Making Power • Degree to which individuals or subunits can affect decision making. Decision Making Power involves influencing: •How the decision is made / the process. •The alternatives considered. •When the decision made. •Does not require Formal Power.
  37. 37. Forms of Structural Power 5. Network Centrality •Central location of individual or group in an organization 3 Types of Centrality: 1.Degree •Having ties other indivs./groups Centrality: •The more people you know the more Power 2.Closeness •Being closer to other indivs./ groups. Centrality: •Could be physical or personal closeness 3.Betweenness •Liken it to being the middle man Centraility:
  38. 38. Forms of Structural Power 5. Network Centrality STAR Network D E C A F B G
  39. 39. Forms of Structural Power 5. Network Centrality LINE Network G F E D C B A
  40. 40. Forms of Structural Power 5. Network Centrality LINE Network E D F C G B A Hanneman, Robert A. (2002).
  41. 41. Horizontal Power - Horizontal Power is not defined by the formal hierarchy of the organization. Some departments have more power than others = subunit power -Strategic Contingency - An event that is extremely important to accomplishing organizational goals. 5 Power Sources of Horizontal Power: 1. Dependency 2. Financial Resources 3. Centrality 4. Substitutability 5. Coping with Uncertainty
  42. 42. The IllusioN of Power Milgrim’s Classic Experiment on Obedience: Are we smarter than the participants in this study today?
  43. 43. The IllusioN of Power: STARING: Jestin Lentz
  44. 44. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  45. 45. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  46. 46. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  47. 47. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  48. 48. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  49. 49. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  50. 50. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  51. 51. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  52. 52. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  53. 53. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  54. 54. How motivated do Hey! My van you feel to comply broke down. Think I with his request? Could hitch a ride with you? Very Motivated? Moderately Motivated? Neutral? Not Motivated? No Chance in Hell!?!?
  55. 55. How about now?
  56. 56. How about now? Now???
  57. 57. How about now?
  58. 58. Agenda 1. POWER 2. EMPOWERMENT 3. POLITICS
  59. 59. Empowerment - Power sharing, the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization. (Star Wars, 1977 )
  60. 60. Empowerment Reasons organizations adopt empowerment: 1. As a strategic imperative to improve products or services 2. Because other firms in the industry are doing so 3.To create an unique organization with superior performance capabilities (best)
  61. 61. Empowerment Reasons empowerment is not embraced: 1. Managers fear the loss of power, control and authority. 2. Employees are not capable of making responsible responsible decisions. 3. Prior attempts to empower employees failed. 4. Not everyone wants to be empowered.
  62. 62. Elements of empowerment 1. Employees receive information about company performance. 2. Employees have knowledge & skill to contribute to company goals 3. Employees have power to make substantive decisions 4. Employees are rewarded based on company performance.
  63. 63. How does an organization implement empowerment? The Empowerment Process (accomplished in 5 stages): 1. Diagnose conditions that lead to employee powerlessness 2. Implement and engage employees in empowerment practices and activities. 3. (A) Remove conditions identified in the first stage. (B) Feedback to subordinates regarding their self-efficacy 4. Feelings of empowerment among employees. 5. Behaviors of empowerment are adopted by employees.
  64. 64. Other Keys to Effectively Empowering Employees 1. Delegating responsibility is contingent on delegating authority too. 2. Must communicate to subordinates that it is OK to make mistakes. 3. Information sharing provides employees with “big picture” 4. T&D so employees can effectively perform new responsibilities. 5. FEEDBACK!!! (Expectancy Theory)
  65. 65. Spiral of Powerlessness (Rymer, 2009)
  66. 66. Spiral of empowerment (Rymer, 2009)
  67. 67. Agenda 1. POWER 2. EMPOWERMENT 3. POLITICS
  68. 68. Politics
  69. 69. Politics: Strategies & Tactics Politically Oriented Behavior is: 1. Usually outside the legitimate, recognized power system 2. Designed to benefit an individual or subunit 3. Ofter at the expense of the overall organization 4. Politics are played at all levels of an organization 5. Tactics are perceived differently at all org levels.
  70. 70. Political Behavior: Henery Mintzber identified 13 Political Games to describe political behavior in organizations. Purpose of Political Behavior: •Resist Authority •Counter the Resistance to Authority •Build Power Bases •Defeat Rivals •Bring about Organizational Change
  71. 71. Political Influence Tactics 9 Specific Tactics Used by individuals to influence their superiors, co-workers, and subordinates to do what they want: 1.Consultation. • Participation 2.Rational Persuasion. • “Logically Best” 3.Inspirational Appeals. • Values & Ideals 4.Ingratiating Tactics. • Obligation 5.Coalition Tactics. • Peer Pressure 6.Pressure Tactics. • Demands, intimidation, and threats 7.Legitimating. • Claiming authority 8.Personal Appeals • Loyalty & Friendship 9.Exchange Tactics • Future promise
  72. 72. Cialdini’s 6 Pervasive Influence Tactics 1.Reciprocation •Obligation to repay what was received. •Reciprocal Concessions 2.Consistency •Desire to be, and appear to be, consistent. •Nobody want to be labeled a “flake” 3.Social Validation • Popularity: if a bunch of other do it I will too. 4.Liking • People prefer to say “yes” to those they like. 5.Authority • Claims of experience, expertise or credentials • Problems arise when claims are false. 6.Scarcity • Items and opportunities become more attractive as they become less available. •“limited supply”, “one-of-a-kind” * Cialdini, Robert (February, 2001). The Science of Persuasion. Scientific American, 14(1) 2004: 76-81.
  73. 73. Currencies: The Source of Influence •Basis of influence is based on mutually satisfactory exchanges. •Individuals are influential if their offers are need by others. •Power = Ability to meet others’ needs. Common Types of Organizational Currencies: 1.Inspiration-related. 2.Task-related. 3.Position-related. 4.Relationship-related. 5.Personal-related. *Bradford, D & Cohen, A (Winter, 1989). Influence Without Authority: The Use of Alliances, Reciprocity, and Exchange to Accomplish Work. Organizational Dynamics, 17(3): 5-7.
  74. 74. 4 Keys to Effective Influence 1.Think about the person you want to influence as an ally, not adversary. 2.Know the world of the potential ally (e.g., their pressures, needs, goals). 3.Be aware of key goals and available resources that may be valued by the potential ally. 4.Understand the exchange transaction itself so that win-win outcomes are achieved. *Bradford, D & Cohen, A (Winter, 1989). Influence Without Authority: The Use of Alliances, Reciprocity, and Exchange to Accomplish Work. Organizational Dynamics, 17(3): 5-7.
  75. 75. Managing Power Effectively 1.Recognize that there are multiple interests in every organization. 2.Know what position relevant individuals and groups hold with respect to issues important to you. 3.Understand that to get things done you must have power, and in the case of those who oppose you, you must have more power than they do. 4.Recognize the strategies and tactics through which organizational power is developed and used.
  76. 76. Takeaways • Outside factors influence our values, behavior, attitudes, decision-making, personality, etc. • Being controlled and controlling others is easy -- anybody can do it. But, it’s dangerous when you fail to understand and recognize what is influencing you to behave, think, feel, etc. one way or another. • Nobody can achieve true autonomy when making decisions, however, an awareness of the Power of Power, Politics and Influence will allow objectivity and better choices made.
  77. 77. POWER, Empowerment & Politics: in organizations Thank You
  78. 78. Sources Bradford, D & Cohen, A (Winter, 1989). Influence Without Authority: The Use of Alliances, Reciprocity, and Exchange to Accomplish Work. Organizational Dynamics, 17(3): 5-7. Cialdini, Robert (February, 2001). The Science of Persuasion. Scientific American, 14(1) 2004: 76-81. Hanneman, Robert A. (2002). Introduction to Social network methods: Centrality and Power. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from, http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/ ~hanneman/nettext/C10_Centrality.html#Degree John R. P. Frenck and Bertram Raven, The Basis of Social Power,” in D. Cartwright (ed), Studies in Social Power (Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1959). pp482-521 Rymer, Carlos (September 29, 2009). Spiral of Empowerment & Spiral of Powerlessness. Wordpress.com. Retrieved on October 12, 2009 from, http:// carlosrymer.wordpress.com/2009/09/29/spirals-of-powerlessness-and- empowerment/ Star Wars Images. (1977-1983). Section Star Wars de Hobbie One, images: Darth Vader; Luke Skywalker; Luke Skywalker & Yoda; light saber. Retrieved on October 13, 2009 from, http://starwars.france.online.fr/

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