Introduction United States of America were born in 1783, after an Independence War against Britain which started in 1776 (Declaration of Independence)
Introduction The new country expanded towards the West by conquering lands where Indian Americans lived for centuries under other European or American powers sovereignty
Introduction Even from the Independence, there were strong differences between North and South
Introduction The North, more populated and industrialised, opposed slavery and wanted to «preserve the Union»
Introduction The South, with abundant slave black population that worked in the cotton fields, wanted to maintain slavery and secede from the United States
The war Bloody and violent war which devastated the US. More than 600.000 people died either in battle or disease
The beginnings Urban In the Northern RuralIndustry andTrade based Agriculture states a growing based on on free workforce slave work anti-slavery opinionIn favour of a In favour of demanded the more politicalmore unified Union power for the abolition of States slavery in the US
The Compromise of 1850 • California, free state • Territories of New Mexico and Utah • Border issues between Texas and Mexico settled • Slavery banned in Washington D.C. • The Fugitive Slave Law
The Compromise of 1850 • Slaves who escaped to the North must be sent back to their masters • This law changed the atmosphere regarding slavery in the North, encouragin the abolitionist movement
Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • Growing political unrest on the slavery issue • Violent incidents • Election campaign of 1860
Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • Republican Party (Abraham Lincoln): abolition and stronger central government • Democratic Party: States should decide on slavery issue (maintaining slavery in the South)
Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln and Republicans’ victory triggered the secession (separation) of several southern states.
Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • These states formed the Confederate States of America, the Confederacy which fought the Union (23 northern and some western states) • Border Slave States: supported slavery and favoured the Confederacy but did not secede from the Union
The War (1861-1865) • Battle of Fort Sumter 1861 – the beginning • Extremely cruel war (600.000 people were killed, not including Native Americans) • 179.000 African Americans fought in both sides. 40.000 of them died. • «War of attrition»: relentless, bloody war until the complete exhaution of materials and soldiers of one side
The War (1861-1865) The main figures of the war: • Ulysses S. Grant, the most prominent Union general • Robert E. Lee, one of the principle Confederate generals
The War (1861-1865) The battles: • Antietam, 1862. The Northern army kept the Confederate army from further advancing to the North • Gettysburg, 1863. The Union started winning the war. The higher number of casualties.
The War (1861-1865) The Gettysburg address: • The most famous of Abraham Lincoln’s speeches • The Union Army was fighting for a new country in «which equality and central government would reign»
The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The fall of Atlanta(july 1865) • «The March to the sea» from Atlanta to Savannah • Batle of Five Forks (april 1865)
The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The Union was maintained • 13th Amendment to the US Constitution: Abolition of slavery
The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • Actually, the restoration of African Americans human and civil rights proved to be vey complicated • Shortly, segregation substituted slavery in the Southern States of the former Confederacy • "Jim Crow" had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro" by 1838, before the war
The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The «Jim Crow» laws were passed in southern states from 1875 to 1965 • They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities • The separation in practice led to inferior conditions for African Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.
The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The best example of the difficulties of bringing racial equality in the US was the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in April 1865 by John Wilkes, a supporter of slavery and the Confederacy