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Amercian civil war
 

Amercian civil war

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Ppt presentation on the American Civil War

Ppt presentation on the American Civil War

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    Amercian civil war Amercian civil war Presentation Transcript

    • The American Civil War
    • Introduction United States of America were born in 1783, after an Independence War against Britain which started in 1776 (Declaration of Independence)
    • Introduction The new country expanded towards the West by conquering lands where Indian Americans lived for centuries under other European or American powers sovereignty
    • Introduction Even from the Independence, there were strong differences between North and South
    • Introduction The North, more populated and industrialised, opposed slavery and wanted to «preserve the Union»
    • Introduction The South, with abundant slave black population that worked in the cotton fields, wanted to maintain slavery and secede from the United States
    • The war Bloody and violent war which devastated the US. More than 600.000 people died either in battle or disease
    • The beginnings Urban In the Northern RuralIndustry andTrade based Agriculture states a growing based on on free workforce slave work anti-slavery opinionIn favour of a In favour of demanded the more politicalmore unified Union power for the abolition of States slavery in the US
    • The Compromise of 1850 • California, free state • Territories of New Mexico and Utah • Border issues between Texas and Mexico settled • Slavery banned in Washington D.C. • The Fugitive Slave Law
    • The Compromise of 1850 • Slaves who escaped to the North must be sent back to their masters • This law changed the atmosphere regarding slavery in the North, encouragin the abolitionist movement
    • The Compromise of 1850
    • Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • Growing political unrest on the slavery issue • Violent incidents • Election campaign of 1860
    • Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • Republican Party (Abraham Lincoln): abolition and stronger central government • Democratic Party: States should decide on slavery issue (maintaining slavery in the South)
    • Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln and Republicans’ victory triggered the secession (separation) of several southern states.
    • Regional Division, Political Unrest and the Elections of 1860 • These states formed the Confederate States of America, the Confederacy which fought the Union (23 northern and some western states) • Border Slave States: supported slavery and favoured the Confederacy but did not secede from the Union
    • The War (1861-1865) • Battle of Fort Sumter 1861 – the beginning • Extremely cruel war (600.000 people were killed, not including Native Americans) • 179.000 African Americans fought in both sides. 40.000 of them died. • «War of attrition»: relentless, bloody war until the complete exhaution of materials and soldiers of one side
    • The War (1861-1865) The main figures of the war: • Ulysses S. Grant, the most prominent Union general • Robert E. Lee, one of the principle Confederate generals
    • The War (1861-1865) The battles: • Antietam, 1862. The Northern army kept the Confederate army from further advancing to the North • Gettysburg, 1863. The Union started winning the war. The higher number of casualties.
    • The War (1861-1865) The Gettysburg address: • The most famous of Abraham Lincoln’s speeches • The Union Army was fighting for a new country in «which equality and central government would reign»
    • The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The fall of Atlanta(july 1865) • «The March to the sea» from Atlanta to Savannah • Batle of Five Forks (april 1865)
    • The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The Union was maintained • 13th Amendment to the US Constitution: Abolition of slavery
    • The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • Actually, the restoration of African Americans human and civil rights proved to be vey complicated • Shortly, segregation substituted slavery in the Southern States of the former Confederacy • "Jim Crow" had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro" by 1838, before the war
    • The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The «Jim Crow» laws were passed in southern states from 1875 to 1965 • They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities • The separation in practice led to inferior conditions for African Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.
    • The end of the American Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln • The best example of the difficulties of bringing racial equality in the US was the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in April 1865 by John Wilkes, a supporter of slavery and the Confederacy