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Us history 8th May, 2012


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Us history 8th May, 2012

  1. 1. US history survey May 8, 20121850s crises – steps toward Civil War, 1861 - 1865
  2. 2. announcements• paper # 2 due Tuesday 22 May.• 1 – 2 pages, typed, double spaced. No emails.• write an autobiography describing how the Civil War affects your life.• do internet research, & write an original essay.• choose – race, gender, age, class, enslaved or free. – state(s) in which you live.
  3. 3. 1850s crises• compromises of 1850 did not resolve the issue of extension of slavery into territories.• political parties no longer national, but increasingly sectional.• Republican party founded, all Northerners.• N & S attitudes hardening, compromises less possible.• violence – Kansas & elsewhere.
  4. 4. Preston Brooks attacks Charles Sumner in Senate, 1856
  5. 5. Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857Scott, lifelong slave, taken by owner tofree territory, 1830s. Married a slave,Harriet, & daughter born in free territory.Returned to slave state.• sued for freedom for 3 based on residence in free state.• S-dominated Supreme Court, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney. Sectional decision.
  6. 6. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857• Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.• federal govt. had no right to interfere w/ movement of property = states’ rights position of Calhoun.• “beings of an inferior order.”• “altogether unfit to associate with the white race.”• “no rights which the white man was bound to respect”
  7. 7. ongoing political crises• Dred Scott decision swept away free soil foundation of Republican party.• crisis over admitting Kansas, 1858, w/ slavery constitution. Opposed by S. Douglas. Congress Refused admission. (Later admitted as free state, 1861.)• 1858, 30 Congressmen in a free-for-all fight.
  8. 8. Lincoln-Douglas debates• 1858 debate, Lincoln (R) & Douglas (D). Could a territory exclude slavery?• Douglas: yes, popular sovereignty.• Douglas loses support of Democratic South.
  9. 9. raid on Harper’s Ferry federal arsenal• 1859• Virginia border w/ Maryland • Black & white men attempted to seize weapons to start slave uprising. • raid failed.
  10. 10. John Brown • had killed unarmed pro-slavery men in Kansas, 1856. • H. F. raid financed by abolitionists. • captured, tried, executed, a martyr. • public mourning in North.
  11. 11. 1860• presidential election, 11/1860. Democrats split. Republicans nominated Lincoln. 2nd highest turnout in election ever.• Southern governors called state conventions.• South Carolina seceded, 12/1860, followed by 6 other deep south states.• Lincoln would not compromise on extension of slavery. Moderate in response to secession.
  12. 12. 1861• 7 states form Confederacy in Montgomery, AL.• copied US Constitution, except – strong support for states’ rights. – abolition of slavery virtually impossible.• elected Jefferson Davis, a moderate, president.• built on decentralization.• military defense of South would require strong central government.
  13. 13. • 1861 inaugurations – Lincoln & Davis both pray for peace.• Lincoln would not give up federal power over military forts & customs posts in South.• Lincoln sent food to Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC. Davis demanded: surrender the fort or Confederacy would attack.
  14. 14. attack on Fort Sumter
  15. 15. • Border slavery states do not secede: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri. • W Virginia breaks into separate state, 1863.• 1861• 4 more states secede: VA, NC, Tenn, Ark.• Confederate capital moved to Richmond, VA.
  16. 16. armies created• before Ft. Sumter, Confederacy calls for 100,000 volunteers.• after Ft. Sumter, Lincoln calls for 75,000 state militiamen to serve in federal army; no Blacks.• few expected a long or serious war.• North: larger, richer, more industrialized.• South: fighting in self-defense, more experienced military, able to continue economy w/ slave labor.• Robert E. Lee offered command of both sides.
  17. 17. war expands power of government• N borrowed $2.6 billion, initiated sales tax & 1st federal income tax.• created national currency for 1st time.• Morrill Tariff Act – higher tariffs.• chartered 2 corporations to build a transcontinental RR.• Homestead Act – 160 acres free for living on it 5 years & improving it.• Morrill Land Grant Act – lands for states to create practical colleges – agriculture, engineering, etc.
  18. 18. Europe?• North tried to ensure Britain & France didn’t recognize Confederacy.• Confederacy believed cotton was king.• Europe stayed out & found other sources for cotton.• N naval blockade eventually successful in keeping supplies from reaching South.
  19. 19. people
  20. 20. draft = compulsory labor• Confederate draft began April 1862 – 1st draft law in America, white men 18 – 35.• unpopular because denied rights of individual man.• owners of more than 20 slaves exempt.• rich could hire a replacement instead of serving in military.• “a rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight.”
  21. 21. Union draft, March, 1863• well-to-do Northern white men could buy their way out of being drafted by paying $300.• working-class white men had to serve.• working class anger.• 3 days of rioting NYC, 1863, resulted in at least 120 civilian deaths, 11 lynchings of African Americans, & substantial property damage. Focused on African Americans.
  22. 22. draft riots, NYC, 1863
  23. 23. women• procurement & supply – both sides.• soldiers in disguise – both sides.• nurses (previously not respectable).• organizers – more in Union, more experienced in organizations.• US Sanitary Commission – N women, supplied funds, food, clothes, medicine, quilts.
  24. 24. population in 1860enslaved Black pop. 3,951,000free people of color 477,000white 26,691,000how did people gain freedom pre-CW?
  25. 25. free people of color enlisted in Union Army
  26. 26. Emancipation Proclamation, 1863
  27. 27. what happened to enslaved people during Civil War?• some men forced to serve in Confederate Army, usually as domestic workers. No guns!• numerous enslaved men escaped to & joined Union forces when they came nearby.• slaves waged a general strike: stopped working, produced only for their own needs.• general strike undermined Confederate Army, leading to Union victory.
  28. 28. W.E.B. DuBois (1868 – 1963) • challenged racist histories of Black people. • saw Black people as historical actors. • discussed alliances of freedpeople & poor whites post-CW: free public education & social services.
  29. 29. announcements• paper # 2 due Tuesday 22 May.• 1 – 2 pages, typed, double spaced. No emails.• write an autobiography describing how the Civil War affects your life.• do internet research, & write an original essay.• choose – race, gender, age, class, enslaved or free. – state(s) in which you live.
  30. 30. Dokuz Eylul Conference• Being a Woman: Awareness & Liberalization.• Wed, May 9 – Fri May 11, Dokuz Eylul Rectorate in Alsancak.• free for students.• I’m speaking at a plenary session, Fri, 9:30. “From Awareness to Action, from Liberalization to Liberation.”
  31. 31. reading assignment for May 15• Out of Many – Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, 207 – 208. – African American soldier, 212. – Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, 214 – 215.