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Challenges of Sustainable Development in Qatar and the World 1

Sustainable Development

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Challenges of Sustainable Development in Qatar and the World 1

  1. 1. Sustainable Development Qatar and the World Challenges, Solutions & Opportunities Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture & Urban Planning Sunday, May 11th, 2014 3:30 pm – 5:30 pm Qatar University - College of Engineering Ph.D Program Course Name: Sustainable Development
  2. 2. Inspiring Quotes "It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.“ - Aristotle
  3. 3. Activity • We want to begin this workshop by questioning and exploring some of the multitude of interpretations of “Sustainable Development”. • This is in order for us to comprehend how different disciplines are using the terminology to support their particular needs or environmental aspirations. • It will also enable us to open a discussion concerning the manner in which Sustainable Development' as a force within the professions is diverging and developing a more complex nature.
  4. 4. What is Sustainable Development? • Fahad – Chemical – Green • Mohammad – Mechanical – Water • Abdullah – Management – Able • Simona – Architecture – People • Eman – Architecture – Balance • Hind – Computer Science – Efficiency • Bothayna – Management – Continuity • Amal – Computer Engineering – Better • Arsalan – CENG – Energy • Huda – Material – Stay • Hammuda- CENG - Environment
  5. 5. Contents • Activity 1 • Sustainable Development: – 3Es: Environment, Economy and Equity. • Sustainable Development Challenges: – World Challenges • Climate Change: Pollution, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, etc. • World Resources: Water, Energy, etc. • Poverty, Health, etc. – Qatar Challenges • Water, Food and Energy • Population: Citizens, Expats and Migrant Workers. • Regional conflicts • Good Governance • Urban Environment: Sprawl, Traffic, Services, etc. • Qatar National Vision 2030 • World Events: FIFA World Cup 2022 • Qatar National Master Plan • Knowledge Based Economy • GSAS/QSAS • Housing • Activity 2
  6. 6. American Heritage Dictionary • sus·tain v. – To keep in existence; maintain. – To supply with necessities or nourishment; provide for. – To support from below; keep from falling or sinking; prop. – To support the spirits, vitality, or resolution of; encourage. – To bear up under; withstand: can't sustain the blistering heat. – To experience or suffer: sustained a fatal injury. – To affirm the validity of: The judge has sustained the prosecutor's objection. – To prove or corroborate; confirm. – To keep up (a joke or assumed role, for example) competently. Sustainable Development Defined
  7. 7. Sustainable Development Defined • The 1987 Brundtland Report, defined sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs". • The term “Sustainable Development" was adopted by the Agenda 21 program of the United Nations. • Sustainability can be defined both qualitatively in words, and quantitatively as a ratio. • Put in qualitative terms, sustainability seeks to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future.
  8. 8. Sustainable Development Defined • The 1995 World Summit on Social Development further defined this term as "the framework for our efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for all people," in which "economic development, social development and environmental protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components".
  10. 10. Sustainable Development Defined • The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development expanded this definition identifying the "three overarching objectives of sustainable development" to be: (1) eradicating poverty, (2) protecting natural resources, and (3) changing unsustainable production and consumption patterns.
  11. 11. Sustainable Development • 3Es: Environment, Energy, Economy and Equity.
  12. 12. World Challenges
  14. 14. Top 10 World Challenges 1. Rapidly increasing population. 2. Extreme poverty afflicting more than 1 billion. 3. Conflicts and political instability in many regions. 4. Inequality in most societies, with pervasive gender and ethnic discrimination. 5. Lack of good jobs for youth. 6. Climate change. 7. Environmental degradation in all parts of the world. 8. Rapid Urbanization. 9. Cities. 10. Increased Energy Consumption.
  15. 15. World Challenges • World Population
  16. 16. World Challenges Population
  17. 17. World Challenges Population
  18. 18. World Challenges • Energy Consumption
  19. 19. World Challenges Climate Change • Climate change is already happening! • Globally, the ten hottest years on record have all occurred since the beginning of the 1990’s. • Current climate models predict that global temperatures could warm from between 1.4 to 5.8 º C over the next 100 years, depending on the amounts of greenhouse gases emitted and the sensitivity of the climate system.
  20. 20. World Challenges Source: WFES – Foster and Partners
  21. 21. World Challenges Rapid Urbanization
  22. 22. World Challenges Rapid Urbanization
  23. 23. World Challenges Cities
  24. 24. World Challenges Cities Population Traffic Waste
  25. 25. World Challenges Cities: Future Challenges
  26. 26. World Challenges Cities - Challenges Key city responsibilities: • Built environment • Water and waste water • Energy • Telecommunications • Transportation • Health and human services • Public safety • Payments
  29. 29. Global Solutions Strategies for Solutions – Economic Development • Low-Income Countries (LICs) become Middle-Income Countries (MICs) – Ending Extreme Poverty • Ending extreme poverty in all its forms (income, education, infrastructure, hunger, and health) – Improved Education • Universal access to quality primary and post-primary education – Social Inclusion • Gender equality and women’s empowerment • Respect for political, economic, cultural, social rights • Reduction in income and wealth inequality • Decent work for all, especially the young • Promotion of social trust and subjective wellbeing
  30. 30. Global Solutions Strategies for Solutions – Good Governance • Personal security, peacekeeping and peace building • Good public governance • Good corporate governance • Vigorous civil society – Security and Peace • Adequate resource mobilization • Adequate framework for global collective action – Environmental Sustainability • Mitigating human-Induced climate change through low-carbon energy • Building sustainable and resilient cities • Ensuring sustainable agriculture and fisheries • Sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services, including in the oceans • Sustainable materials processes (waste, toxics) in industry and urban areas • Establishing robust risk and disaster management systems • Promotion of Sustainable Technologies in Smart Cities
  32. 32. Global Solutions Smart Cities
  33. 33. Global Solutions Smart Cities
  34. 34. Activity • Propose a “Sustainable Development Strategy” for Qatar!
  35. 35. 5W&H What , Where, When , Who, Why & How Problem Sustainable Development Solution Fahad – Jobs for youth Create more jobs, Energy sector, outside Doha in new cities, “Now” start now and plan with other education, government and private , to avoid unemployment, to develop the economy & diversifying the economy, Knowledge Based Economy, programs, Energy Jobs (Co. Op. program) Mohammad – Air pollution highest per capita in the world Doha and Um Saiid, ASAP, MOE, to reduce the CO2, More public transportation, Metro, Subways, Car pooling, Cooling systems, Solar, District cooling, Neighborhood cooling, awareness, restrictions, laws, limitations, penalties, increase license fees, traffic preilvages in stress , cycling, walking
  36. 36. 5W&H What , Where, When , Who, Why & How Problem Sustainable Development Solution Abdullah – Traffic Jam, number of cars, roads design, population, centralization, city planning, lack of public transportation, construction sites, highways, CBD, started!, government (Ashghal), Better transportation, Alternative transportation, Simona – waste management Recycle, environmental protection, everywhere, buildings, bottles, consumerism, urgent, pilot project for QU, training, behavior, landscape composte, papers, water, books, furniture, electronics Eman – City Planning Doha!, connections between Mega Projects, sustainable islands, sustainable corridors that connect these projects , Private sector, Government,
  37. 37. 5W&H What , Where, When , Who, Why & How Problem Sustainable Development Solution Hind – water In Doha, Awareness, Use, Abused, Urgent, Individual to Institutions, Raise awareness, Rule laws, taxes, utilities tariffs, switching to more sustainable solutions, enforcement of law, pay more, increase utilities prices. Huda – food security Bothayna – use of natural resources Amal – telecom and ICT Ali - population
  40. 40. Gulf Cities Challenges 1. High Expectations 2. Competition with other cities 3. Transient Population 4. Aging infrastructure 5. Fossil Fuel Economy 6. Stressed Resources 7. Disconnected Agencies 8. Consumerism 9. Threats to Public Health & Safety 10. Climate Change 11. Regional Security Risks 12. Youth Population Growth 13. Employment Needs
  41. 41. Gulf Cities Challenges Major Regional Needs • Sustainable Development • Job Generation • Quality Education • Economic diversification • Linkages between supply and demand • Agricultural and industrial growth
  44. 44. Doha skyline, 2005 Doha skyline 2007 Doha skyline 2010 Doha Skyline Development Doha skyline, 1960
  45. 45. Qatar Challenges • State of Qatar: • Total Land Area = 11,500 km2 approx. • Population (Q1 2014) = +2.0 Million
  46. 46. Qatar Challenges • Qatar Population
  47. 47. Qatar Challenges • Population Increase and Composition: Citizens, Expats and Migrant Workers. • Basic Needs: Water, Food and Energy. • Waste Management. • Natural Environment Degradation. • Urban Development: Sprawl, Traffic, Services, etc. • Inability to manage rapid urban development. • Good Urban Governance. • Mega/Giga Projects Procurement: Materials, Labor, Management, etc. • Regional conflicts.
  48. 48. Rapid Urbanization
  49. 49. Qatar Challenges • Energy Sources
  50. 50. Qatar Challenges • Waste Management • Domestic Waste Generated in 2013: approx. 2600-2700 T/d (excludes Industrial Wastes, Construction and Demolition Wastes, Waste Tires and Hazardous Wastes) • Waste Growth Rate per annum: approx. 10% fuelled by rapid development, rapid population growth, high GDP and increasing living standards.
  51. 51. Qatar Challenges • FIFA World Cup 2022
  52. 52. Qatar Challenges Rapid Urban Development • Failure to implement sound urban planning in Qatar is the result of a detachment between the master planning phase – usually sub-contracted to external consultants that are insensitive to Gulf dynamics – and the implementation phase – usually carried out by incapable and redundant local government agencies – all in absence of a serious discussion of ongoing mega-projects.
  53. 53. National Spatial Strategy Structure Plan 2032 Metropolitan Doha Structure Plan 2032
  54. 54. The QNDF Centers Hierarchy
  55. 55. Qatar Challenges Qatar Upcoming Projects Overview • Qatar’s project market the outlook from now to 2020 is extremely strong. • Although much of this has been attributed to its successful bid to host the FIFA 2022 football World Cup, the reality is that the projects planned and under way are more about meeting the country’s National Vision 2030 than hosting the international sporting event. • However, combining these two drivers leads to an active projects market estimated to be worth $285bn. 2017 ˜ 2022!
  56. 56. Qatar Challenges Housing • About 97% of Qataris live in villas while only 3% live in residential buildings with flats. It is required to change attitudes of Qataris towards housing requirements to accept smaller and different types. • Non-Qatari families live in small housing units, particularly small and medium-size flats. – 75% of the units are comprised of one to four rooms.
  57. 57. Qatar Challenges Housing • More than 50% of the workforce in Qatar living in compounds. • Approximately 70% of the expatriates are singles living in small groups of 7 or less accommodated in shared flats or villas. • 2/3 of the groups of workers live in villas amidst families causing social and security problems.
  58. 58. Qatar Challenges Housing Stock in Qatar “Source: Qatar Statistics Authority”
  59. 59. Qatar Challenges Housing Stock in Qatar “Source: Qatar Statistics Authority”
  60. 60. Cost of accommodation in Qatar • Accommodation costs forms the bulk of an expat’s expenditure, roughly 30 to 40 percent of a monthly salary. • Rents in expat standard accommodation are high, but they have decreased over the past few years. • Most expats tend to choose which area they live in according to availability and proximity to work and children’s school.
  61. 61. Factors Influencing Housing • Social and Cultural Factors – Family and Privacy – Neighbors and neighborhood • Climatic Factors – Sun, Wind and Precipitations. – Environmental • Site and Context – Location – Site and Topography • Construction and Materials – Structure – Exterior and Interior Materials • Utilities – Water and Electricity – Sanitary and Garbage Collection • Technology – Basic Technology: Telecommunication, Entertainment and HVAC – Advanced Technology: Smart and Sustainable Technology • Planning and Design – City and Neighborhood Planning – Individual and Prototype Unit Design • Economics – Cost – Affordability – Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Value Engineering
  62. 62. Bridging the gap between ResearchDesign Sustainability Sustainable Housing Design Process Architecture & Technology Housing Lifestyle Design Process Knowledge
  64. 64. A vision for the FUTURE • Qatar National Vision 2030 • Qatar National Master Plan 2032 • FIFA World Cup 2022
  65. 65. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  66. 66. Pillars of Qatar National Vision 2030
  67. 67. Pillars of Qatar National Vision 2030
  68. 68. Pillars of Qatar National Vision 2030 Economic Social Human Environment QNV 2030
  69. 69. QNV2030 • By 2030, Qatar aims to be an advanced society capable of sustaining its development and providing a high standard of living for all of its people. • Qatar’s National Vision defines the long-term outcomes for the country and provides a framework within which national strategies and implementation plans can be developed.
  70. 70. Economic Development • Economic development is an essential part of the Qatar National Vision 2030, as the engine that drives progress by providing better opportunities and a better way of life for the country’s citizens. • Achieving that objective hinges on Qatar’s ability to create a balance between an oil-based and a knowledge-based economy, helping diversify the country’s economy and guaranteeing a stable and sustainable business environment. • The Qatar National Vision 2030 will also guide the wise management of the Qatari economy, helping increase competition, attracting more investments, and stimulating growth.
  71. 71. Economic Development • Sound Economic Management • Reasonable and sustained rates of economic growth that secure a high standard of living for this generation and for future generations • Financial and economic stability characterized by low inflation rates, sound financial policy and a secure and efficient financial system • A stimulating business climate capable of attracting foreign funds and technologies and of encouraging national investments • Open and flexible economic structures capable of competing in a changing world • Coordination with Gulf Cooperation Council states and with Arab and regional economic organizations to establish trade, investment and financial ties
  72. 72. Economic Development • Responsible Exploitation of Oil and Gas • Optimum exploitation of hydrocarbon resources, establishing a balance between reserves and production, and between economic diversification and the degree of depletion. • A vigorous oil and gas sector that generates advanced technological innovations and contributes to the development of human resources and economic capacities throughout Qatar. • A fully developed gas industry that provides a major source of clean energy for Qatar and for the world. • The long term maintenance of strategic reserves of oil and gas to meet the needs of national security and sustainable development.
  73. 73. Economic Development • Suitable Economic Diversification • A diversified economy that gradually reduces its dependence on hydrocarbon industries, enhances the role of the private sector and maintains its competitiveness through: – Expansion of industries and services with competitive advantages derived from hydrocarbon industries – Design and development of economic activities in which Qatar can specialize, including the technical and human requirements of these activities – A knowledge-based economy characterized by innovation; entrepreneurship; excellence in education; a world-class infrastructural backbone; the efficient delivery of public services; and transparent and accountable government
  74. 74. Social Development • Social development under the Qatar National Vision 2030 encompasses a system dedicated to social welfare and protection for all citizens and to bolstering women’s role in society and empowering them to be active community members. • Social advancement also means equal educational, employment and career opportunities for all citizens, regardless of their background or gender and a tolerant and fair society that embraces Islam’s values of peace, welfare, justice and community. • Under the QNV 2030, Qatar will serve as a regional and global example with an increased role in the Middle East and the world.
  75. 75. Social Development • Social Care and Protection Strong cohesive families that care for their members, and maintain moral and religious values and humanitarian ideals. • An effective social protection system for all Qataris that ensures their civil rights, values their contribution in developing their society, and ensures an adequate income to maintain a healthy and dignified life
  76. 76. Social Development • A Sound Social Structure Effective public institutions and strong and active civil society organizations that: – Preserve Qatar’s national heritage and enhance Arab and Islamic values and identity – Provide high quality services that respond to the needs and the desires of individuals and businesses – Establish a secure and stable society operating on the principles of justice, equality and the rule of law – Enhance women’s capacities and empower them to participate fully in the political and economic spheres, especially in decision-making roles – Develop a spirit of tolerance, constructive dialogue and openness towards others at the national and international levels
  77. 77. Social Development • International Cooperation • Qatar will continue to build upon its role in the international community in the following areas: • An increased regional role economically, politically and culturally, particularly within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation • Council, the Arab League and the Organization of Islamic Conference • Intensification of cultural exchange with the Arab peoples in particular and with other nations in general • Sponsorship and support of dialogue among civilizations, promoting coexistence between different religions and cultures • Contribution towards international peace and security through political initiatives and developmental and humanitarian assistance
  78. 78. Human Development • Qatar cannot develop its economy and society without its human capital and resources: its people. • Human development according to the QNV 2030 entails a holistic and modern health care infrastructure that caters to all and an educational system at par with the highest international standards, preparing Qatar’s students to take on the world’s challenges and become tomorrow’s innovators, entrepreneurs, artists and professionals. • Moreover, a world-class education system and equal opportunities will propel Qataris to increase their role in all sectors of their country’s economy.
  79. 79. Human Development • An Educated Population A world-class educational system that equips citizens to achieve their aspirations and to meet the needs of Qatar’s society, including: – Educational curricula and training programs responding to the current and future needs of the labor market – High quality educational and training opportunities appropriate to each individual's aspirations and abilities – Accessible educational programs for life-long learning – A national network of formal and non-formal educational programs that equip Qatari children and youth with the skills and motivation to contribute to society, fostering: • A solid grounding in Qatari moral and ethical values, traditions and cultural heritage • A strong sense of belonging and citizenship • Innovation and creativity • Participation in a wide variety of cultural and sports activities • Well-developed, independent, self-managing and accountable educational institutions operating under centrally-determined guidelines • An effective system for funding scientific research shared by the public and private sectors and conducted in cooperation with specialized international organizations and leading international research centers • A significant international role in cultural and intellectual activity and scientific research
  80. 80. Human Development • A Healthy Population: Physically and Mentally • A comprehensive world-class healthcare system whose services are accessible to the whole population, including: – Effective and affordable services in accordance with the principle of partnership in bearing the costs of health care – Coverage of preventive and curative health care, both physical and mental, taking into account the differing needs of men, women and children. – High quality research directed at improving the effectiveness and quality of healthcare – An integrated system of health care offering high-quality services through public and private institutions operating under the direction of a national health policy that sets and monitors standards for social, economic, administrative and technical aspects of health care – A skilled national workforce capable of providing high quality health services – Continued commitment by the state to provide sufficient funds for maintaining the health of Qatar’s population in accordance with the principle of partnership in bearing the costs of health care
  81. 81. Human Development • A Capable and Motivated Workforce • Increased and diversified participation of Qataris in the workforce through: – Broad investments in certification and training programs by public and private institutions – Incentives for Qataris to enter professional and management roles in business, health and educational sectors – High quality training opportunities for all citizens, corresponding to their ambitions and abilities – Increased opportunities and vocational support for Qatari women – Targeted Participation of Expatriate Labor – Recruitment of the right mix of expatriate labor, protecting their rights, securing their safety, and retaining those who are outstanding among them.
  82. 82. Environmental Development • Sustaining economic and social growth, moreover, is impossible without a holistic environmental vision that places environmental preservation for Qatar’s future generations at the forefront. • The Qatar National Vision 2030 aims to direct Qatar towards a balance between developmental needs and the protection of its natural environment, whether land, sea or air. • As such, the QNV 2030 includes an emphasis on establishing an effective legal framework and the environmental institutions that can serve as the guardians of Qatar’s environmental heritage. • The QNV 2030 also emphasizes the importance of increasing citizens’ awareness of their role in protecting the country’s environment for their children and the nation’s future generations.
  83. 83. Environmental Development • A Balance Between Development Needs and Protecting the Environment • Preserving and protecting the environment, including air, land, water and biological diversity, through: – An environmentally aware population that values the preservation of the natural heritage of Qatar and its neighboring states – An agile and comprehensive legal system that protects all elements of the environment, responding quickly to challenges as they arise – Effective and sophisticated environmental institutions that build and strengthen public awareness about environmental protection, and encourage the use of environmentally sound technologies. These institutions will also conduct awareness-raising campaigns, employ environmental planning tools, and carry out environmental research – A comprehensive urban development plan for Qatar that adopts a sustainable policy with regard to urban expansion and population distribution – Encouragement of regional cooperation to put in place preventive measures to mitigate the negative environmental effects of pollution arising from development activities – A proactive and significant international role in assessing the impact of climate change and mitigating its negative impacts, especially on countries of the Gulf
  84. 84. Possible topics from QNV • Encourage the use of environmentally sound technologies – Environment • assessing the impact of climate change • mitigating its negative impacts • environmental heritage • environmental preservation – Design • Technology: Environmental Design Tools (not only environmental assessment tools!) Lack of environmental design tools that related to natural environment and heritage. – Urban Planning Development • Technology: Environmental Planning Tools (not only environmental assessment tools!) Lack of environmental planning tools that related to natural environment and heritage. • Sustainable policy, to urban expansion and population distribution • Balance between developmental needs and the protection of its natural environment
  85. 85. Qatar Solutions • 3 Rs: • Recycle, • Reduce, and • Reuse
  86. 86. Qatar Solutions Sustainability Assessment Methods • Sustainability Measuring Methods • Sustainability Monitoring Methods – BREEAM - United Kingdom – LEED - U.S. – Green Building (G.B.)Tool – U.S. – Green Globes™ US - Canada in 2004 – CASBEE – Japan – Estedama – Arab Emirates – GSAS/QSAS- Qatar
  87. 87. GSAS/QSAS History & Purpose • Purpose: Promote healthy, energy & resource efficient, environmentally responsible building practices in Qatar and the entire Gulf region. • History: Launched by Gulf Organisation for Research and Development or GO R&D. – QSAS: Qatar Sustainability Rating System (2009) [Version1]. Incorporated into Qatar Construction Specification 2010 – Section 7 – GSAS: Global Sustainability Rating System (2013) [Version 2]
  88. 88. THANK YOU.

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