Research Methods in Architecture - Literature Review - البحث المعمارى - البحث المكتبى

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Literature Review from Architectural Research Methods by Linda Groat and David Wang

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Research Methods in Architecture - Literature Review - البحث المعمارى - البحث المكتبى

  1. 1. Research Methods in Architecture Literature Review Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  2. 2. Literature ReviewArchitectural Research MethodsLinda Groat & David Wang
  3. 3. Introduction• Knowledge we already possess  New information• Literature Review (LR): – A survey of various sources to produce knowledge that is more lasting and has more widespread usefulness. – A very important part of the research process – Not only at the beginning of the process but throughout it.
  4. 4. IntroductionInformation from research:• Address a specific topic Summarized in several sentences)• Find its place in larger domain of relevant literature (community of people)• Should be able to stand on its own
  5. 5. Research Cyclical Process• A research must be informed about existing literature.• The outcome will expand that body of literature.
  6. 6. 3.1.1. LR as an Exploratory System• LR: – A body of information existing in a wide varity of stored formats – Has conceptual relevance for a particular topic of inquiry. – Activities to use that body of information to define and address a topic of inquiry.
  7. 7. 3.1.1. LR as an Exploratory System• Important issues: – Key sources – Key theories – Major issues and databases – Epistemological* and ontological** grounds – Main questions and problems * Epistemological - is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ** Ontological - is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality.
  8. 8. 3.1.2. Annotated Bibliography vs LR• Annotated Bibliography: – Listing of references obtained from searching a field’s literature – Respond to each reference cited with a descriptive paragraph: Goals, Theoretical stance, Relevance for the investigation.
  9. 9. 3.1.2. Annotated Bibliography vs LR• Annotated Bibliography: – Listing of references obtained from searching a field’s literature – Respond to each reference cited with a descriptive paragraph: Goals, Theoretical stance, Relevance for the investigation.
  10. 10. 3.1.2. Annotated Bibliography vs LR• Annotated Bibliography: – Listing of references obtained from searching a field’s literature – Respond to each reference cited with a descriptive paragraph: Goals, Theoretical stance, Relevance for the investigation.
  11. 11. 3.1.2. Annotated Bibliography vs LR• From Annotated Bibliography TO Literature Review – Introductory statement – Summary of the lines of existing research (grouped) – Observations on the state of literature: Expand – Covered – Arguments - …
  12. 12. 3.1.3. Diagrammatic Structure for a Research Study• Question• Audience• Literature• Topic  Actions
  13. 13. 3.1.4. LR for Designers vs LR for Researcher Design ResearchAim Empirical object Explanatory conceptual Particular place and Beyond place and time timeUse Pragmatic - Connect topic f inquiry – Typological - Facts for Theoretical – normative action Philosophical – Epistemological - MethodolicalOutcome Loose connection – Connections – Designed object – Explanatory – Relates to Without reference to a body of literature larger literature
  14. 14. 3.2. Uses of LR• To identify the research question: – Emerge from analyzing, criticizing and suggesting improvements to an existing work. – Comparison of literature. – Existing Theory – Testing Theory – Expansion of concept or Theory• Mining the Literature to develop a research question
  15. 15. 3.2. Uses of LR• Research Creativity: – Derive new implications from existing position – Critique past stances from an awareness of present positions – Project future conditions based upon learned premises.
  16. 16. 3.2. Uses of LR• To Focus the topic of inquiry: – Topic should not be: • Too general • Too broad • Too restrictive• To Understand the Makeup of the Research Question – Back-and-forth between Literature and Research – Restate the topic several times
  17. 17. 3.2. Uses of LR• To Understand an Idea’s Generic Roots – Historical lineage – Family tree – Network – Grow the tree
  18. 18. 3.2. Uses of LR• To Understand the Current Conceptual Landscape – Contemporary context – Current points of view • Competing • Opposing • Nuanced (slight degree of difference) – Intellectual agenda (buzz-words) • Sustainability • Deconstruction • Transdisciplinary
  19. 19. 3.3. General Topics• Facts and Ideas – Fact: Agreement – Quantifiable and certifiable - – Idea: Inference or hypothesis (newspapers, letters, material objects, historical studies, …)• Primary and secondary Sources – Primary: Original – Secondary: A source can be primary or secondary• Methodology by Theory and by Application – Describe methodology – Apply methodology
  20. 20. 3.4. Specific Tactics1. Knowing where the resources are2. Having an organizing and retrieving system3. Motivation and imagination
  21. 21. 3.4.1. Where to go: Resources• Internet• Library• Archives• Organizations• Agencies• Media
  22. 22. 3.4.1. Where to go: Resources• Internet – Search Engines – Specialized Search Engines • Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Colombia University – http://library.columbia.edu/indiv/avery/avery_index.html • Arts and Humanities Search – http://www.thomsonscientific.com/cgi- bin/jrnlst/jloptions.cgi?PC=H
  23. 23. 3.4.1. Where to go: Resources• Internet – Full Text Services • eJournals • eBooks – ProQuest http://www.proquest.co.uk/en-UK/ – ScienceDirect http://www.sciencedirect.com/ – NetLibrary http://www.netlibrary.net/
  24. 24. 3.4.1. Where to go: Resources• Internet – Library Databases – Specific Websites
  25. 25. 3.4.2. What to do: Organization and Retrieval• Locating   Borrowing• Digest the gathered information• Frame the research report• Note taking• Catalog• Creative imagination
  26. 26. 3.4.2. What to do: Organization and Retrieval• Note taking – Systematic way – Index cards – Notebook – Laptop – Record all of the bibliographic Information of the source – Order – To be retrieved – Note taking  Note organizing – Creativity and Imagination
  27. 27. 3.4.2. What to do: Organization and RetrievaliPad App Review: Index Card iPad for Writers: Apps
  28. 28. END

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