Effectiveness of freshman seminars

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Effectiveness of freshman seminars

  1. 1. 11 EFFECTIVENESS OFEFFECTIVENESS OF FRESHMAN SEMINARSFRESHMAN SEMINARS AND FIRST-YEARAND FIRST-YEAR PROGRAMSPROGRAMS ON STUDENTON STUDENT RETENTIONRETENTION Thesis Proposal DefenseThesis Proposal Defense PRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSONPRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSON ADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSONADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSON
  2. 2. 22 CONTENTSCONTENTS I.I. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION II.II. PURPOSES OF THE STUDYPURPOSES OF THE STUDY III.III. RESEARCH QUESTION &RESEARCH QUESTION & IV.IV. RESEARCH HYPOTHESISRESEARCH HYPOTHESIS V.V. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW VI.VI. METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY
  3. 3. 33 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  Background of the StudyBackground of the Study Retaining students has always been importantRetaining students has always been important to institutions of higher educationto institutions of higher education (Henderson, 1998; Rudolph, 1990/1962;(Henderson, 1998; Rudolph, 1990/1962; Thelin, 2004).Thelin, 2004).
  4. 4. 44 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BackgroundBackground  With the development of enrollmentWith the development of enrollment management as a distinct discipline overmanagement as a distinct discipline over the past 30 years, scholarly contributionsthe past 30 years, scholarly contributions to understanding retention have grown.to understanding retention have grown. (Henderson, 2001)(Henderson, 2001)
  5. 5. 55 introductionintroduction BackgroundBackground  One approach to increasing retention is the first-One approach to increasing retention is the first- year seminar.year seminar.  Introduced by John Gardner at the University ofIntroduced by John Gardner at the University of South Carolina in 1972 as “University 101”South Carolina in 1972 as “University 101”  Adopted by 95% of America’s colleges andAdopted by 95% of America’s colleges and universities (Barefoot, 2002) (Cited byuniversities (Barefoot, 2002) (Cited by Pascarella & TerenziniPascarella & Terenzini, 2005), 2005)
  6. 6. 66 introductionintroduction  BackgroundBackground During the same time, external and internalDuring the same time, external and internal pressures have intensified the need forpressures have intensified the need for practical ideas for improving retentionpractical ideas for improving retention rates (Hossler, Ziskin, Moore, &rates (Hossler, Ziskin, Moore, & Wakhungu, 2008).Wakhungu, 2008).
  7. 7. 77 Statement of the problemStatement of the problem  Studies of college studentStudies of college student retention/attrition are based on data fromretention/attrition are based on data from four-year residential colleges orfour-year residential colleges or universities (Web, 1988).universities (Web, 1988).  Retaining a student is fundamental to theRetaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out itsability of an institution to carry out its missionmission
  8. 8. 88 Statement of the problemStatement of the problem There is a significant fiscal impact:There is a significant fiscal impact:  Loss of tuitionLoss of tuition  Loss of majors in some departmentsLoss of majors in some departments  Loss of highly trained individuals to enterLoss of highly trained individuals to enter the workforce or perform civic dutiesthe workforce or perform civic duties  Symbolic failure of an institution toSymbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose (National Center forachieve its purpose (National Center for Education Statistics,2001) .Education Statistics,2001) .
  9. 9. 99 Purpose for the studyPurpose for the study  To examine theTo examine the effectivenesseffectiveness of freshmanof freshman seminars and first-year programs on theseminars and first-year programs on the persistencepersistence andand retentionretention of freshman studentsof freshman students to their sophomore yearto their sophomore year To determine if there is aTo determine if there is a correlationcorrelation betweenbetween freshman seminars and first-year programs onfreshman seminars and first-year programs on student retention and persistencestudent retention and persistence
  10. 10. 1010 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Research QuestionResearch Question ““What are the correlation of freshmanWhat are the correlation of freshman seminars and first-year experiences onseminars and first-year experiences on student persistence and retention?”student persistence and retention?” Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis ““Students who participate in freshmanStudents who participate in freshman seminars and first-year experiences tend toseminars and first-year experiences tend to persist to the sophomore year.”persist to the sophomore year.”
  11. 11. 1111 Literature reviewLiterature review Theoretical Framework Student Attributes ffecting Persistence Review of Empirical Literature First-Year Experiences
  12. 12. 1212 Literature reviewLiterature review Tinto’s Theory of Student DepartureTinto’s Theory of Student Departure The “failure to negotiate the rites of passage”The “failure to negotiate the rites of passage” (Cited in Braxton, Elkin, & James, 2000, p. 251)(Cited in Braxton, Elkin, & James, 2000, p. 251) Unsuccessful negotiation:Unsuccessful negotiation: the individual failsthe individual fails to become integrated into the intellectual and/orto become integrated into the intellectual and/or social structure of the institution (Boyle, 1989)social structure of the institution (Boyle, 1989)
  13. 13. 1313 Literature reviewLiterature review Tinto (1993) states students must go throughTinto (1993) states students must go through Three stages as they enter college:Three stages as they enter college:  SeparationSeparation -occurs prior to and at the outset of the college experience in both the academic and social system. Students must separate themselves from membership in communities of the past, such as family, friends, high school, and local areas of residence.  Transition –Students must pass through or transition themselves into the social environment.  Incorporation –The process of student persistence Students is similar to becoming incorporated into the life of human communities. This stage ultimately influences the student departure decision
  14. 14. 1414 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW Astin’s Theory of Student Involvement First PostulateFirst Postulate::  The amount of physical and psychologicalThe amount of physical and psychological energy that the student devotes to theenergy that the student devotes to the academic experience (Astin, 1984).academic experience (Astin, 1984).  Refers to what the student actually does,Refers to what the student actually does, rather than he student’s feelings orrather than he student’s feelings or thoughts.thoughts.
  15. 15. 1515 Literature reviewLiterature review  Second PostulateSecond Postulate Involvement occurs along a continuumInvolvement occurs along a continuum Different students manifest different degrees ofDifferent students manifest different degrees of involvement in a given objectinvolvement in a given object  Third PostulateThird Postulate Involvement has both qualitative (whether theInvolvement has both qualitative (whether the student reviews and comprehends readingstudent reviews and comprehends reading assignments, or stares at books) andassignments, or stares at books) and quantitative features (how many hours thequantitative features (how many hours the student spends studying).student spends studying).
  16. 16. 1616 Literature reviewLiterature review  Fourth Postulate:Fourth Postulate: The amount of student learning and personalThe amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educationaldevelopment associated with any educational program is directly proportionalprogram is directly proportional Fifth PostulateFifth Postulate The effectiveness of any educational policy orThe effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of thatpractice is directly related to the capacity of that policy or practice to increase studentpolicy or practice to increase student involvementinvolvement (Astin, 1984)(Astin, 1984)
  17. 17. 1717 Literature review Student AttributesStudent Attributes AffectingAffecting PersistencePersistence  NontraditionalNontraditional StudentsStudents  First GenerationFirst Generation StudentsStudents  GenderGender  Full-time/Part-timeFull-time/Part-time StudentsStudents  Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity Takes 12 orTakes 12 or More hoursMore hours Takes less thanTakes less than 12 hours12 hours More womenMore women attendingattending CollegeCollege than menthan men 25 Years25 Years or olderor older First in familyFirst in family To attendTo attend collegecollege 46% of total46% of total Student populationStudent population Will be students ofWill be students of colorcolor
  18. 18. 1818 Literature reviewLiterature review Review of EmpiricalReview of Empirical LiteratureLiterature  Astin’s (1993) 4-yearAstin’s (1993) 4-year longitudinal study found thelongitudinal study found the only variable that hadonly variable that had positive effects on studentpositive effects on student outcome was a “true coreoutcome was a “true core curriculum” where studentscurriculum” where students took the same courses.took the same courses.  Findings indicated thatFindings indicated that particular courses whichparticular courses which included different generalincluded different general education courses had noeducation courses had no significant effect on a widesignificant effect on a wide range of educationalrange of educational outcomes.outcomes.  College experienceCollege experience variable having the mostvariable having the most significant impact onsignificant impact on students’ educationalstudents’ educational development was thedevelopment was the frequency offrequency of student-student- studentstudent andand student-student- faculty interaction.faculty interaction. (Astin, 1993).(Astin, 1993).
  19. 19. 1919 Literature reviewLiterature review Review of EmpiricalReview of Empirical LiteratureLiterature  Effective academicEffective academic advising is anadvising is an important institutionalimportant institutional factor influencingfactor influencing student retentionstudent retention (Beal & Noel, 1980;(Beal & Noel, 1980; Tinto, 2002).Tinto, 2002).  High quality advisingHigh quality advising had significant buthad significant but indirect effect onindirect effect on retention throughretention through increased studentincreased student satisfaction, highersatisfaction, higher GPAs, and aGPAs, and a decreased intent todecreased intent to leave.leave. (Metzer, 1989).(Metzer, 1989).
  20. 20. 2020 Literature reviewLiterature review Review of Empirical LiteratureReview of Empirical Literature  Mohr, Eiche, and Sedlaeck (1989) found students’Mohr, Eiche, and Sedlaeck (1989) found students’ negative perceptions of advising and teaching tonegative perceptions of advising and teaching to significant predictors of dropout among college students.significant predictors of dropout among college students.  Direct impact of receiving aid toward a bachelor’s degreeDirect impact of receiving aid toward a bachelor’s degree is marginal. When financial aid and work-study isis marginal. When financial aid and work-study is combined with grant-aid, it has a positive and direct andcombined with grant-aid, it has a positive and direct and positive impact on persistence (Perna, 1998) .positive impact on persistence (Perna, 1998) .  Cabrea, Nora, and Castaneda (1992) found that havingCabrea, Nora, and Castaneda (1992) found that having financial aid helps students fit into the academic andfinancial aid helps students fit into the academic and social setting of the institution, thus influencing students’social setting of the institution, thus influencing students’ commitment to stay in college.commitment to stay in college.
  21. 21. 2121 Literature review First-YearFirst-Year ExperiencesExperiences Freshman Orientation Primary Purpose ofPrimary Purpose of Orientation:Orientation:  To ease the transition toTo ease the transition to college and to the componentscollege and to the components of the environmentof the environment  Give them informationGive them information necessary to explore thenecessary to explore the environment and discover howenvironment and discover how it can meet their needsit can meet their needs (Titley, 1985)(Titley, 1985)  Orientation programs prior toOrientation programs prior to enrolling and during the first yearenrolling and during the first year of college, prepares students,of college, prepares students, meets their needs for adjustmentmeets their needs for adjustment to college life (Brophy, 1984)to college life (Brophy, 1984)  Retention rates of studentsRetention rates of students enrolled in an orientation course isenrolled in an orientation course is higher than for students who dohigher than for students who do not enroll in the course.not enroll in the course.  Dropout rates for freshmanDropout rates for freshman seminar participants wereseminar participants were significantly lower than non-significantly lower than non- participantsparticipants (Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone,(Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone, 1991)1991)
  22. 22. 2222 Literature reviewLiterature reviewFirst Year Experiences Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars  Major Purpose:Major Purpose: To connect studentsTo connect students to the institution, its keyto the institution, its key educational agents, supporteducational agents, support services, and co-curricularservices, and co-curricular opportunities.opportunities.  First introduced by John GardnerFirst introduced by John Gardner (1989) at the University of South(1989) at the University of South Carolina as “University 101”Carolina as “University 101”  Gardner’ study found thatGardner’ study found that students who participated in first-students who participated in first- year seminars tended to persist toyear seminars tended to persist to their sophomore year in college;their sophomore year in college; There were differences noted inThere were differences noted in students who did not participate instudents who did not participate in first-year seminars.first-year seminars.  Most cited goals of first-Most cited goals of first- year seminars are toyear seminars are to increase student use ofincrease student use of campus resources andcampus resources and facilities.facilities. (Barefoot & Fidler, 1996).(Barefoot & Fidler, 1996).  Dropout rates forDropout rates for freshman seminarfreshman seminar participants wereparticipants were significantly lower thansignificantly lower than non-participants.non-participants. (Shanley & Witten, 1990;(Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone, 1991).Cone, 1991).
  23. 23. 2323 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW 4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges and Universitiesand Universities Attrition is attributedAttrition is attributed more to studentmore to student characteristics thancharacteristics than they are tothey are to institutionalinstitutional characteristicscharacteristics (Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan, 2004)2004) StudentStudent CharacteristicsCharacteristics Amount ofAmount of FinancialFinancial AidAid availableavailable StudentStudent InstitutionInstitution FitFit SocialSocial EnvironmentEnvironment
  24. 24. 2424 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW 4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges and Universitiesand Universities Retention PracticesRetention Practices responsible for theresponsible for the greatest contribution togreatest contribution to persistencepersistence (Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan, 2004)2004) RetentionRetention PracticesPractices First-yearFirst-year ProgramsPrograms FreshmanFreshman SeminarsSeminars UniversityUniversity 101101 CreditCredit OrOr noncreditnoncredit
  25. 25. 2525 Literature reviewLiterature review 4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges and Universitiesand Universities Retention Practices thatRetention Practices that had the greatesthad the greatest impactimpact (Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan, 2004)2004) FreshmanFreshman Seminar/UniversitySeminar/University 101101 16%16% AdvisingAdvising InterventionsInterventions 16.2%16.2% InternshipsInternships 13.5%13.5% Integration ofIntegration of AcademicAcademic Advising withAdvising with First-yearFirst-year ProgramsPrograms 12.7%12.7% Pre-enrollmentPre-enrollment OrientationOrientation
  26. 26. 2626 Literature reviewLiterature review 4-Year Private Colleges and Universities  69% of full-time freshman at private for-profit69% of full-time freshman at private for-profit two year colleges return for the sophomore yeartwo year colleges return for the sophomore year Most recent estimate (2008).Most recent estimate (2008).  79% of full-time freshmen at private not for-profit79% of full-time freshmen at private not for-profit four-year colleges return for the sophomore yearfour-year colleges return for the sophomore year (2008).(2008).  No change from 2007-2008.No change from 2007-2008. (College Board Advocacy Center, 2008)(College Board Advocacy Center, 2008)
  27. 27. 2727 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW  Retention rates depict a complex interactionRetention rates depict a complex interaction between both the characteristics of a school andbetween both the characteristics of a school and the students attending school (Bean, 1990).the students attending school (Bean, 1990).  Retention rates change as the demographics,Retention rates change as the demographics, student experiences, academic, social andstudent experiences, academic, social and psychological changes occur (Bean, 1990).psychological changes occur (Bean, 1990).
  28. 28. 2828 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW  Retention rates are as individual as theRetention rates are as individual as the institutions themselves (Bean, 1990).institutions themselves (Bean, 1990).  Retention and persistence studies oftenRetention and persistence studies often examine one institution and should not beexamine one institution and should not be generalized to a larger population (Bean,generalized to a larger population (Bean, 1990).1990).
  29. 29. 2929 Literature reviewLiterature review  It is important to know the student’s goalIt is important to know the student’s goal before retention can effectively be measuredbefore retention can effectively be measured (Bean, 1990).(Bean, 1990).
  30. 30. 3030 methodologymethodology Research design instrument procedure
  31. 31. 3131 methodologymethodology QUANTITATIVE STUDY Survey ResearchSurvey Research  Utilizes surveys and questionnaires to collect numerical data (Creswell, 2009)
  32. 32. 3232 methodologymethodology  ParticipantsParticipants Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students atat George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
  33. 33. 3333 methodologymethodology  ParticipantsParticipants Sophomore studentsSophomore students George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University DemographicDemographic informationinformation  AgeAge  GenderGender  Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity  Attendance StatusAttendance Status  Attendance Status inAttendance Status in FamilyFamily  Freshman seminarFreshman seminar
  34. 34. 3434 methodologymethodology  InstrumentInstrument On-line SurveyOn-line Survey 5-Point Likert Scale5-Point Likert Scale 1= Strongly disagree1= Strongly disagree 2= Disagree2= Disagree 3= Neither disagree nor agree3= Neither disagree nor agree 4= Agree4= Agree 5= Strongly Agree5= Strongly Agree SophomoreSophomore StudentsStudents George FoxGeorge Fox UniversityUniversity
  35. 35. 3535 methodologymethodology Procedure Online SurveyOnline Survey created oncreated on SurveyMonkey.comSurveyMonkey.com Data AnalysisData Analysis
  36. 36. 3636 DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS  Research QuestionResearch Question ““What are theWhat are the correlation ofcorrelation of Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars and First-Yearand First-Year Programs on StudentPrograms on Student Retention?”Retention?”  Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis ““Students whoStudents who participate inparticipate in Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars and First-Yearand First-Year programs tend toprograms tend to persist to thepersist to the sophomore year”sophomore year”
  37. 37. 3737 Data analysisData analysis IndependentIndependent VariablesVariables  StudentStudent InvolvementInvolvement  Academic AdvisingAcademic Advising  OrientationOrientation  Financial AidFinancial Aid DependentDependent VariablesVariables  RetentionRetention  PersistencePersistence
  38. 38. 3838 methodologymethodology  Data AnalysisData Analysis Descriptive StatisticsDescriptive Statistics Inferential StatisticsInferential Statistics Spearman RSpearman R One-tail test 0.05One-tail test 0.05 (Alpha)95%(Alpha)95% ConfidenceConfidence intervalinterval (Healey, 2002)(Healey, 2002) modemode medianmedian meanmean Standard deviationStandard deviation rangerange
  39. 39. 3939 Thank you !

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