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EFFECTIVENESS OFEFFECTIVENESS OF
FRESHMAN SEMINARSFRESHMAN SEMINARS
AND FIRST-YEARAND FIRST-YEAR
PROGRAMSPROGRAMS
ON STUDENTON STUDENT
RETENTIONRETENTION
Thesis Proposal DefenseThesis Proposal Defense
PRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSONPRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSON
ADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSONADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSON
22
CONTENTSCONTENTS
I.I. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
II.II. PURPOSES OF THE STUDYPURPOSES OF THE STUDY
III.III. RESEARCH QUESTION &RESEARCH QUESTION &
IV.IV. RESEARCH HYPOTHESISRESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
V.V. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW
VI.VI. METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY
33
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
 Background of the StudyBackground of the Study
Retaining students has always been importantRetaining students has always been important
to institutions of higher educationto institutions of higher education
(Henderson, 1998; Rudolph, 1990/1962;(Henderson, 1998; Rudolph, 1990/1962;
Thelin, 2004).Thelin, 2004).
44
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
BackgroundBackground
 With the development of enrollmentWith the development of enrollment
management as a distinct discipline overmanagement as a distinct discipline over
the past 30 years, scholarly contributionsthe past 30 years, scholarly contributions
to understanding retention have grown.to understanding retention have grown.
(Henderson, 2001)(Henderson, 2001)
55
introductionintroduction
BackgroundBackground
 One approach to increasing retention is the first-One approach to increasing retention is the first-
year seminar.year seminar.
 Introduced by John Gardner at the University ofIntroduced by John Gardner at the University of
South Carolina in 1972 as “University 101”South Carolina in 1972 as “University 101”
 Adopted by 95% of America’s colleges andAdopted by 95% of America’s colleges and
universities (Barefoot, 2002) (Cited byuniversities (Barefoot, 2002) (Cited by
Pascarella & TerenziniPascarella & Terenzini, 2005), 2005)
66
introductionintroduction
 BackgroundBackground
During the same time, external and internalDuring the same time, external and internal
pressures have intensified the need forpressures have intensified the need for
practical ideas for improving retentionpractical ideas for improving retention
rates (Hossler, Ziskin, Moore, &rates (Hossler, Ziskin, Moore, &
Wakhungu, 2008).Wakhungu, 2008).
77
Statement of the problemStatement of the problem
 Studies of college studentStudies of college student
retention/attrition are based on data fromretention/attrition are based on data from
four-year residential colleges orfour-year residential colleges or
universities (Web, 1988).universities (Web, 1988).
 Retaining a student is fundamental to theRetaining a student is fundamental to the
ability of an institution to carry out itsability of an institution to carry out its
missionmission
88
Statement of the problemStatement of the problem
There is a significant fiscal impact:There is a significant fiscal impact:
 Loss of tuitionLoss of tuition
 Loss of majors in some departmentsLoss of majors in some departments
 Loss of highly trained individuals to enterLoss of highly trained individuals to enter
the workforce or perform civic dutiesthe workforce or perform civic duties
 Symbolic failure of an institution toSymbolic failure of an institution to
achieve its purpose (National Center forachieve its purpose (National Center for
Education Statistics,2001) .Education Statistics,2001) .
99
Purpose for the studyPurpose for the study
 To examine theTo examine the effectivenesseffectiveness of freshmanof freshman
seminars and first-year programs on theseminars and first-year programs on the
persistencepersistence andand retentionretention of freshman studentsof freshman students
to their sophomore yearto their sophomore year
To determine if there is aTo determine if there is a correlationcorrelation betweenbetween
freshman seminars and first-year programs onfreshman seminars and first-year programs on
student retention and persistencestudent retention and persistence
1010
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
Research QuestionResearch Question
““What are the correlation of freshmanWhat are the correlation of freshman
seminars and first-year experiences onseminars and first-year experiences on
student persistence and retention?”student persistence and retention?”
Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis
““Students who participate in freshmanStudents who participate in freshman
seminars and first-year experiences tend toseminars and first-year experiences tend to
persist to the sophomore year.”persist to the sophomore year.”
1111
Literature reviewLiterature review
Theoretical
Framework
Student Attributes
ffecting Persistence
Review of Empirical
Literature First-Year Experiences
1212
Literature reviewLiterature review
Tinto’s Theory of Student DepartureTinto’s Theory of Student Departure
The “failure to negotiate the rites of passage”The “failure to negotiate the rites of passage”
(Cited in Braxton, Elkin, & James, 2000, p. 251)(Cited in Braxton, Elkin, & James, 2000, p. 251)
Unsuccessful negotiation:Unsuccessful negotiation: the individual failsthe individual fails
to become integrated into the intellectual and/orto become integrated into the intellectual and/or
social structure of the institution (Boyle, 1989)social structure of the institution (Boyle, 1989)
1313
Literature reviewLiterature review
Tinto (1993) states students must go throughTinto (1993) states students must go through
Three stages as they enter college:Three stages as they enter college:
 SeparationSeparation -occurs prior to and at the outset of the
college experience in both the academic and social
system. Students must separate themselves from
membership in communities of the past, such as family,
friends, high school, and local areas of residence.
 Transition –Students must pass through or transition
themselves into the social environment.
 Incorporation –The process of student persistence
Students is similar to becoming incorporated into the life
of human communities. This stage ultimately influences
the student departure decision
1414
LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW
Astin’s Theory of Student Involvement
First PostulateFirst Postulate::
 The amount of physical and psychologicalThe amount of physical and psychological
energy that the student devotes to theenergy that the student devotes to the
academic experience (Astin, 1984).academic experience (Astin, 1984).
 Refers to what the student actually does,Refers to what the student actually does,
rather than he student’s feelings orrather than he student’s feelings or
thoughts.thoughts.
1515
Literature reviewLiterature review
 Second PostulateSecond Postulate
Involvement occurs along a continuumInvolvement occurs along a continuum
Different students manifest different degrees ofDifferent students manifest different degrees of
involvement in a given objectinvolvement in a given object
 Third PostulateThird Postulate
Involvement has both qualitative (whether theInvolvement has both qualitative (whether the
student reviews and comprehends readingstudent reviews and comprehends reading
assignments, or stares at books) andassignments, or stares at books) and
quantitative features (how many hours thequantitative features (how many hours the
student spends studying).student spends studying).
1616
Literature reviewLiterature review
 Fourth Postulate:Fourth Postulate:
The amount of student learning and personalThe amount of student learning and personal
development associated with any educationaldevelopment associated with any educational
program is directly proportionalprogram is directly proportional
Fifth PostulateFifth Postulate
The effectiveness of any educational policy orThe effectiveness of any educational policy or
practice is directly related to the capacity of thatpractice is directly related to the capacity of that
policy or practice to increase studentpolicy or practice to increase student
involvementinvolvement
(Astin, 1984)(Astin, 1984)
1717
Literature review
Student AttributesStudent Attributes
AffectingAffecting
PersistencePersistence
 NontraditionalNontraditional
StudentsStudents
 First GenerationFirst Generation
StudentsStudents
 GenderGender
 Full-time/Part-timeFull-time/Part-time
StudentsStudents
 Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity
Takes 12 orTakes 12 or
More hoursMore hours
Takes less thanTakes less than
12 hours12 hours
More womenMore women
attendingattending
CollegeCollege
than menthan men
25 Years25 Years
or olderor older
First in familyFirst in family
To attendTo attend
collegecollege
46% of total46% of total
Student populationStudent population
Will be students ofWill be students of
colorcolor
1818
Literature reviewLiterature review
Review of EmpiricalReview of Empirical
LiteratureLiterature
 Astin’s (1993) 4-yearAstin’s (1993) 4-year
longitudinal study found thelongitudinal study found the
only variable that hadonly variable that had
positive effects on studentpositive effects on student
outcome was a “true coreoutcome was a “true core
curriculum” where studentscurriculum” where students
took the same courses.took the same courses.
 Findings indicated thatFindings indicated that
particular courses whichparticular courses which
included different generalincluded different general
education courses had noeducation courses had no
significant effect on a widesignificant effect on a wide
range of educationalrange of educational
outcomes.outcomes.
 College experienceCollege experience
variable having the mostvariable having the most
significant impact onsignificant impact on
students’ educationalstudents’ educational
development was thedevelopment was the
frequency offrequency of student-student-
studentstudent andand student-student-
faculty interaction.faculty interaction.
(Astin, 1993).(Astin, 1993).
1919
Literature reviewLiterature review
Review of EmpiricalReview of Empirical
LiteratureLiterature
 Effective academicEffective academic
advising is anadvising is an
important institutionalimportant institutional
factor influencingfactor influencing
student retentionstudent retention
(Beal & Noel, 1980;(Beal & Noel, 1980;
Tinto, 2002).Tinto, 2002).
 High quality advisingHigh quality advising
had significant buthad significant but
indirect effect onindirect effect on
retention throughretention through
increased studentincreased student
satisfaction, highersatisfaction, higher
GPAs, and aGPAs, and a
decreased intent todecreased intent to
leave.leave.
(Metzer, 1989).(Metzer, 1989).
2020
Literature reviewLiterature review
Review of Empirical LiteratureReview of Empirical Literature
 Mohr, Eiche, and Sedlaeck (1989) found students’Mohr, Eiche, and Sedlaeck (1989) found students’
negative perceptions of advising and teaching tonegative perceptions of advising and teaching to
significant predictors of dropout among college students.significant predictors of dropout among college students.
 Direct impact of receiving aid toward a bachelor’s degreeDirect impact of receiving aid toward a bachelor’s degree
is marginal. When financial aid and work-study isis marginal. When financial aid and work-study is
combined with grant-aid, it has a positive and direct andcombined with grant-aid, it has a positive and direct and
positive impact on persistence (Perna, 1998) .positive impact on persistence (Perna, 1998) .
 Cabrea, Nora, and Castaneda (1992) found that havingCabrea, Nora, and Castaneda (1992) found that having
financial aid helps students fit into the academic andfinancial aid helps students fit into the academic and
social setting of the institution, thus influencing students’social setting of the institution, thus influencing students’
commitment to stay in college.commitment to stay in college.
2121
Literature review
First-YearFirst-Year
ExperiencesExperiences
Freshman
Orientation
Primary Purpose ofPrimary Purpose of
Orientation:Orientation:
 To ease the transition toTo ease the transition to
college and to the componentscollege and to the components
of the environmentof the environment
 Give them informationGive them information
necessary to explore thenecessary to explore the
environment and discover howenvironment and discover how
it can meet their needsit can meet their needs
(Titley, 1985)(Titley, 1985)
 Orientation programs prior toOrientation programs prior to
enrolling and during the first yearenrolling and during the first year
of college, prepares students,of college, prepares students,
meets their needs for adjustmentmeets their needs for adjustment
to college life (Brophy, 1984)to college life (Brophy, 1984)
 Retention rates of studentsRetention rates of students
enrolled in an orientation course isenrolled in an orientation course is
higher than for students who dohigher than for students who do
not enroll in the course.not enroll in the course.
 Dropout rates for freshmanDropout rates for freshman
seminar participants wereseminar participants were
significantly lower than non-significantly lower than non-
participantsparticipants
(Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone,(Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone,
1991)1991)
2222
Literature reviewLiterature reviewFirst Year Experiences
Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars
 Major Purpose:Major Purpose: To connect studentsTo connect students
to the institution, its keyto the institution, its key
educational agents, supporteducational agents, support
services, and co-curricularservices, and co-curricular
opportunities.opportunities.
 First introduced by John GardnerFirst introduced by John Gardner
(1989) at the University of South(1989) at the University of South
Carolina as “University 101”Carolina as “University 101”
 Gardner’ study found thatGardner’ study found that
students who participated in first-students who participated in first-
year seminars tended to persist toyear seminars tended to persist to
their sophomore year in college;their sophomore year in college;
There were differences noted inThere were differences noted in
students who did not participate instudents who did not participate in
first-year seminars.first-year seminars.
 Most cited goals of first-Most cited goals of first-
year seminars are toyear seminars are to
increase student use ofincrease student use of
campus resources andcampus resources and
facilities.facilities.
(Barefoot & Fidler, 1996).(Barefoot & Fidler, 1996).
 Dropout rates forDropout rates for
freshman seminarfreshman seminar
participants wereparticipants were
significantly lower thansignificantly lower than
non-participants.non-participants.
(Shanley & Witten, 1990;(Shanley & Witten, 1990;
Cone, 1991).Cone, 1991).
2323
LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW
4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges
and Universitiesand Universities
Attrition is attributedAttrition is attributed
more to studentmore to student
characteristics thancharacteristics than
they are tothey are to
institutionalinstitutional
characteristicscharacteristics
(Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan,
2004)2004)
StudentStudent
CharacteristicsCharacteristics
Amount ofAmount of
FinancialFinancial
AidAid
availableavailable
StudentStudent
InstitutionInstitution
FitFit
SocialSocial
EnvironmentEnvironment
2424
LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW
4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges
and Universitiesand Universities
Retention PracticesRetention Practices
responsible for theresponsible for the
greatest contribution togreatest contribution to
persistencepersistence
(Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan,
2004)2004)
RetentionRetention
PracticesPractices
First-yearFirst-year
ProgramsPrograms
FreshmanFreshman
SeminarsSeminars
UniversityUniversity
101101
CreditCredit
OrOr
noncreditnoncredit
2525
Literature reviewLiterature review
4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges
and Universitiesand Universities
Retention Practices thatRetention Practices that
had the greatesthad the greatest
impactimpact
(Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan,
2004)2004)
FreshmanFreshman
Seminar/UniversitySeminar/University
101101
16%16%
AdvisingAdvising
InterventionsInterventions
16.2%16.2%
InternshipsInternships
13.5%13.5%
Integration ofIntegration of
AcademicAcademic
Advising withAdvising with
First-yearFirst-year
ProgramsPrograms
12.7%12.7%
Pre-enrollmentPre-enrollment
OrientationOrientation
2626
Literature reviewLiterature review
4-Year Private Colleges and Universities
 69% of full-time freshman at private for-profit69% of full-time freshman at private for-profit
two year colleges return for the sophomore yeartwo year colleges return for the sophomore year
Most recent estimate (2008).Most recent estimate (2008).
 79% of full-time freshmen at private not for-profit79% of full-time freshmen at private not for-profit
four-year colleges return for the sophomore yearfour-year colleges return for the sophomore year
(2008).(2008).
 No change from 2007-2008.No change from 2007-2008.
(College Board Advocacy Center, 2008)(College Board Advocacy Center, 2008)
2727
LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW
 Retention rates depict a complex interactionRetention rates depict a complex interaction
between both the characteristics of a school andbetween both the characteristics of a school and
the students attending school (Bean, 1990).the students attending school (Bean, 1990).
 Retention rates change as the demographics,Retention rates change as the demographics,
student experiences, academic, social andstudent experiences, academic, social and
psychological changes occur (Bean, 1990).psychological changes occur (Bean, 1990).
2828
LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW
 Retention rates are as individual as theRetention rates are as individual as the
institutions themselves (Bean, 1990).institutions themselves (Bean, 1990).
 Retention and persistence studies oftenRetention and persistence studies often
examine one institution and should not beexamine one institution and should not be
generalized to a larger population (Bean,generalized to a larger population (Bean,
1990).1990).
2929
Literature reviewLiterature review
 It is important to know the student’s goalIt is important to know the student’s goal
before retention can effectively be measuredbefore retention can effectively be measured
(Bean, 1990).(Bean, 1990).
3030
methodologymethodology
Research
design instrument procedure
3131
methodologymethodology
QUANTITATIVE STUDY
Survey ResearchSurvey Research
 Utilizes surveys and questionnaires
to collect numerical data
(Creswell, 2009)
3232
methodologymethodology
 ParticipantsParticipants
Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students
atat
George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
3333
methodologymethodology
 ParticipantsParticipants
Sophomore studentsSophomore students
George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
DemographicDemographic
informationinformation
 AgeAge
 GenderGender
 Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity
 Attendance StatusAttendance Status
 Attendance Status inAttendance Status in
FamilyFamily
 Freshman seminarFreshman seminar
3434
methodologymethodology
 InstrumentInstrument On-line SurveyOn-line Survey
5-Point Likert Scale5-Point Likert Scale
1= Strongly disagree1= Strongly disagree
2= Disagree2= Disagree
3= Neither disagree nor agree3= Neither disagree nor agree
4= Agree4= Agree
5= Strongly Agree5= Strongly Agree
SophomoreSophomore
StudentsStudents
George FoxGeorge Fox
UniversityUniversity
3535
methodologymethodology
Procedure
Online SurveyOnline Survey
created oncreated on
SurveyMonkey.comSurveyMonkey.com
Data AnalysisData Analysis
3636
DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS
 Research QuestionResearch Question
““What are theWhat are the
correlation ofcorrelation of
Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars
and First-Yearand First-Year
Programs on StudentPrograms on Student
Retention?”Retention?”
 Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis
““Students whoStudents who
participate inparticipate in
Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars
and First-Yearand First-Year
programs tend toprograms tend to
persist to thepersist to the
sophomore year”sophomore year”
3737
Data analysisData analysis
IndependentIndependent
VariablesVariables
 StudentStudent
InvolvementInvolvement
 Academic AdvisingAcademic Advising
 OrientationOrientation
 Financial AidFinancial Aid
DependentDependent
VariablesVariables
 RetentionRetention
 PersistencePersistence
3838
methodologymethodology
 Data AnalysisData Analysis
Descriptive StatisticsDescriptive Statistics Inferential StatisticsInferential Statistics
Spearman RSpearman R
One-tail test 0.05One-tail test 0.05
(Alpha)95%(Alpha)95%
ConfidenceConfidence
intervalinterval
(Healey, 2002)(Healey, 2002)
modemode
medianmedian
meanmean
Standard deviationStandard deviation
rangerange
3939
Thank
you !

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Effectiveness of freshman seminars

  • 1. 11 EFFECTIVENESS OFEFFECTIVENESS OF FRESHMAN SEMINARSFRESHMAN SEMINARS AND FIRST-YEARAND FIRST-YEAR PROGRAMSPROGRAMS ON STUDENTON STUDENT RETENTIONRETENTION Thesis Proposal DefenseThesis Proposal Defense PRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSONPRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSON ADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSONADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSON
  • 2. 22 CONTENTSCONTENTS I.I. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION II.II. PURPOSES OF THE STUDYPURPOSES OF THE STUDY III.III. RESEARCH QUESTION &RESEARCH QUESTION & IV.IV. RESEARCH HYPOTHESISRESEARCH HYPOTHESIS V.V. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW VI.VI. METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY
  • 3. 33 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  Background of the StudyBackground of the Study Retaining students has always been importantRetaining students has always been important to institutions of higher educationto institutions of higher education (Henderson, 1998; Rudolph, 1990/1962;(Henderson, 1998; Rudolph, 1990/1962; Thelin, 2004).Thelin, 2004).
  • 4. 44 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION BackgroundBackground  With the development of enrollmentWith the development of enrollment management as a distinct discipline overmanagement as a distinct discipline over the past 30 years, scholarly contributionsthe past 30 years, scholarly contributions to understanding retention have grown.to understanding retention have grown. (Henderson, 2001)(Henderson, 2001)
  • 5. 55 introductionintroduction BackgroundBackground  One approach to increasing retention is the first-One approach to increasing retention is the first- year seminar.year seminar.  Introduced by John Gardner at the University ofIntroduced by John Gardner at the University of South Carolina in 1972 as “University 101”South Carolina in 1972 as “University 101”  Adopted by 95% of America’s colleges andAdopted by 95% of America’s colleges and universities (Barefoot, 2002) (Cited byuniversities (Barefoot, 2002) (Cited by Pascarella & TerenziniPascarella & Terenzini, 2005), 2005)
  • 6. 66 introductionintroduction  BackgroundBackground During the same time, external and internalDuring the same time, external and internal pressures have intensified the need forpressures have intensified the need for practical ideas for improving retentionpractical ideas for improving retention rates (Hossler, Ziskin, Moore, &rates (Hossler, Ziskin, Moore, & Wakhungu, 2008).Wakhungu, 2008).
  • 7. 77 Statement of the problemStatement of the problem  Studies of college studentStudies of college student retention/attrition are based on data fromretention/attrition are based on data from four-year residential colleges orfour-year residential colleges or universities (Web, 1988).universities (Web, 1988).  Retaining a student is fundamental to theRetaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out itsability of an institution to carry out its missionmission
  • 8. 88 Statement of the problemStatement of the problem There is a significant fiscal impact:There is a significant fiscal impact:  Loss of tuitionLoss of tuition  Loss of majors in some departmentsLoss of majors in some departments  Loss of highly trained individuals to enterLoss of highly trained individuals to enter the workforce or perform civic dutiesthe workforce or perform civic duties  Symbolic failure of an institution toSymbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose (National Center forachieve its purpose (National Center for Education Statistics,2001) .Education Statistics,2001) .
  • 9. 99 Purpose for the studyPurpose for the study  To examine theTo examine the effectivenesseffectiveness of freshmanof freshman seminars and first-year programs on theseminars and first-year programs on the persistencepersistence andand retentionretention of freshman studentsof freshman students to their sophomore yearto their sophomore year To determine if there is aTo determine if there is a correlationcorrelation betweenbetween freshman seminars and first-year programs onfreshman seminars and first-year programs on student retention and persistencestudent retention and persistence
  • 10. 1010 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Research QuestionResearch Question ““What are the correlation of freshmanWhat are the correlation of freshman seminars and first-year experiences onseminars and first-year experiences on student persistence and retention?”student persistence and retention?” Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis ““Students who participate in freshmanStudents who participate in freshman seminars and first-year experiences tend toseminars and first-year experiences tend to persist to the sophomore year.”persist to the sophomore year.”
  • 11. 1111 Literature reviewLiterature review Theoretical Framework Student Attributes ffecting Persistence Review of Empirical Literature First-Year Experiences
  • 12. 1212 Literature reviewLiterature review Tinto’s Theory of Student DepartureTinto’s Theory of Student Departure The “failure to negotiate the rites of passage”The “failure to negotiate the rites of passage” (Cited in Braxton, Elkin, & James, 2000, p. 251)(Cited in Braxton, Elkin, & James, 2000, p. 251) Unsuccessful negotiation:Unsuccessful negotiation: the individual failsthe individual fails to become integrated into the intellectual and/orto become integrated into the intellectual and/or social structure of the institution (Boyle, 1989)social structure of the institution (Boyle, 1989)
  • 13. 1313 Literature reviewLiterature review Tinto (1993) states students must go throughTinto (1993) states students must go through Three stages as they enter college:Three stages as they enter college:  SeparationSeparation -occurs prior to and at the outset of the college experience in both the academic and social system. Students must separate themselves from membership in communities of the past, such as family, friends, high school, and local areas of residence.  Transition –Students must pass through or transition themselves into the social environment.  Incorporation –The process of student persistence Students is similar to becoming incorporated into the life of human communities. This stage ultimately influences the student departure decision
  • 14. 1414 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW Astin’s Theory of Student Involvement First PostulateFirst Postulate::  The amount of physical and psychologicalThe amount of physical and psychological energy that the student devotes to theenergy that the student devotes to the academic experience (Astin, 1984).academic experience (Astin, 1984).  Refers to what the student actually does,Refers to what the student actually does, rather than he student’s feelings orrather than he student’s feelings or thoughts.thoughts.
  • 15. 1515 Literature reviewLiterature review  Second PostulateSecond Postulate Involvement occurs along a continuumInvolvement occurs along a continuum Different students manifest different degrees ofDifferent students manifest different degrees of involvement in a given objectinvolvement in a given object  Third PostulateThird Postulate Involvement has both qualitative (whether theInvolvement has both qualitative (whether the student reviews and comprehends readingstudent reviews and comprehends reading assignments, or stares at books) andassignments, or stares at books) and quantitative features (how many hours thequantitative features (how many hours the student spends studying).student spends studying).
  • 16. 1616 Literature reviewLiterature review  Fourth Postulate:Fourth Postulate: The amount of student learning and personalThe amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educationaldevelopment associated with any educational program is directly proportionalprogram is directly proportional Fifth PostulateFifth Postulate The effectiveness of any educational policy orThe effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of thatpractice is directly related to the capacity of that policy or practice to increase studentpolicy or practice to increase student involvementinvolvement (Astin, 1984)(Astin, 1984)
  • 17. 1717 Literature review Student AttributesStudent Attributes AffectingAffecting PersistencePersistence  NontraditionalNontraditional StudentsStudents  First GenerationFirst Generation StudentsStudents  GenderGender  Full-time/Part-timeFull-time/Part-time StudentsStudents  Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity Takes 12 orTakes 12 or More hoursMore hours Takes less thanTakes less than 12 hours12 hours More womenMore women attendingattending CollegeCollege than menthan men 25 Years25 Years or olderor older First in familyFirst in family To attendTo attend collegecollege 46% of total46% of total Student populationStudent population Will be students ofWill be students of colorcolor
  • 18. 1818 Literature reviewLiterature review Review of EmpiricalReview of Empirical LiteratureLiterature  Astin’s (1993) 4-yearAstin’s (1993) 4-year longitudinal study found thelongitudinal study found the only variable that hadonly variable that had positive effects on studentpositive effects on student outcome was a “true coreoutcome was a “true core curriculum” where studentscurriculum” where students took the same courses.took the same courses.  Findings indicated thatFindings indicated that particular courses whichparticular courses which included different generalincluded different general education courses had noeducation courses had no significant effect on a widesignificant effect on a wide range of educationalrange of educational outcomes.outcomes.  College experienceCollege experience variable having the mostvariable having the most significant impact onsignificant impact on students’ educationalstudents’ educational development was thedevelopment was the frequency offrequency of student-student- studentstudent andand student-student- faculty interaction.faculty interaction. (Astin, 1993).(Astin, 1993).
  • 19. 1919 Literature reviewLiterature review Review of EmpiricalReview of Empirical LiteratureLiterature  Effective academicEffective academic advising is anadvising is an important institutionalimportant institutional factor influencingfactor influencing student retentionstudent retention (Beal & Noel, 1980;(Beal & Noel, 1980; Tinto, 2002).Tinto, 2002).  High quality advisingHigh quality advising had significant buthad significant but indirect effect onindirect effect on retention throughretention through increased studentincreased student satisfaction, highersatisfaction, higher GPAs, and aGPAs, and a decreased intent todecreased intent to leave.leave. (Metzer, 1989).(Metzer, 1989).
  • 20. 2020 Literature reviewLiterature review Review of Empirical LiteratureReview of Empirical Literature  Mohr, Eiche, and Sedlaeck (1989) found students’Mohr, Eiche, and Sedlaeck (1989) found students’ negative perceptions of advising and teaching tonegative perceptions of advising and teaching to significant predictors of dropout among college students.significant predictors of dropout among college students.  Direct impact of receiving aid toward a bachelor’s degreeDirect impact of receiving aid toward a bachelor’s degree is marginal. When financial aid and work-study isis marginal. When financial aid and work-study is combined with grant-aid, it has a positive and direct andcombined with grant-aid, it has a positive and direct and positive impact on persistence (Perna, 1998) .positive impact on persistence (Perna, 1998) .  Cabrea, Nora, and Castaneda (1992) found that havingCabrea, Nora, and Castaneda (1992) found that having financial aid helps students fit into the academic andfinancial aid helps students fit into the academic and social setting of the institution, thus influencing students’social setting of the institution, thus influencing students’ commitment to stay in college.commitment to stay in college.
  • 21. 2121 Literature review First-YearFirst-Year ExperiencesExperiences Freshman Orientation Primary Purpose ofPrimary Purpose of Orientation:Orientation:  To ease the transition toTo ease the transition to college and to the componentscollege and to the components of the environmentof the environment  Give them informationGive them information necessary to explore thenecessary to explore the environment and discover howenvironment and discover how it can meet their needsit can meet their needs (Titley, 1985)(Titley, 1985)  Orientation programs prior toOrientation programs prior to enrolling and during the first yearenrolling and during the first year of college, prepares students,of college, prepares students, meets their needs for adjustmentmeets their needs for adjustment to college life (Brophy, 1984)to college life (Brophy, 1984)  Retention rates of studentsRetention rates of students enrolled in an orientation course isenrolled in an orientation course is higher than for students who dohigher than for students who do not enroll in the course.not enroll in the course.  Dropout rates for freshmanDropout rates for freshman seminar participants wereseminar participants were significantly lower than non-significantly lower than non- participantsparticipants (Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone,(Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone, 1991)1991)
  • 22. 2222 Literature reviewLiterature reviewFirst Year Experiences Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars  Major Purpose:Major Purpose: To connect studentsTo connect students to the institution, its keyto the institution, its key educational agents, supporteducational agents, support services, and co-curricularservices, and co-curricular opportunities.opportunities.  First introduced by John GardnerFirst introduced by John Gardner (1989) at the University of South(1989) at the University of South Carolina as “University 101”Carolina as “University 101”  Gardner’ study found thatGardner’ study found that students who participated in first-students who participated in first- year seminars tended to persist toyear seminars tended to persist to their sophomore year in college;their sophomore year in college; There were differences noted inThere were differences noted in students who did not participate instudents who did not participate in first-year seminars.first-year seminars.  Most cited goals of first-Most cited goals of first- year seminars are toyear seminars are to increase student use ofincrease student use of campus resources andcampus resources and facilities.facilities. (Barefoot & Fidler, 1996).(Barefoot & Fidler, 1996).  Dropout rates forDropout rates for freshman seminarfreshman seminar participants wereparticipants were significantly lower thansignificantly lower than non-participants.non-participants. (Shanley & Witten, 1990;(Shanley & Witten, 1990; Cone, 1991).Cone, 1991).
  • 23. 2323 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW 4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges and Universitiesand Universities Attrition is attributedAttrition is attributed more to studentmore to student characteristics thancharacteristics than they are tothey are to institutionalinstitutional characteristicscharacteristics (Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan, 2004)2004) StudentStudent CharacteristicsCharacteristics Amount ofAmount of FinancialFinancial AidAid availableavailable StudentStudent InstitutionInstitution FitFit SocialSocial EnvironmentEnvironment
  • 24. 2424 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW 4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges and Universitiesand Universities Retention PracticesRetention Practices responsible for theresponsible for the greatest contribution togreatest contribution to persistencepersistence (Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan, 2004)2004) RetentionRetention PracticesPractices First-yearFirst-year ProgramsPrograms FreshmanFreshman SeminarsSeminars UniversityUniversity 101101 CreditCredit OrOr noncreditnoncredit
  • 25. 2525 Literature reviewLiterature review 4-Year Private Colleges4-Year Private Colleges and Universitiesand Universities Retention Practices thatRetention Practices that had the greatesthad the greatest impactimpact (Habley & McClanahan,(Habley & McClanahan, 2004)2004) FreshmanFreshman Seminar/UniversitySeminar/University 101101 16%16% AdvisingAdvising InterventionsInterventions 16.2%16.2% InternshipsInternships 13.5%13.5% Integration ofIntegration of AcademicAcademic Advising withAdvising with First-yearFirst-year ProgramsPrograms 12.7%12.7% Pre-enrollmentPre-enrollment OrientationOrientation
  • 26. 2626 Literature reviewLiterature review 4-Year Private Colleges and Universities  69% of full-time freshman at private for-profit69% of full-time freshman at private for-profit two year colleges return for the sophomore yeartwo year colleges return for the sophomore year Most recent estimate (2008).Most recent estimate (2008).  79% of full-time freshmen at private not for-profit79% of full-time freshmen at private not for-profit four-year colleges return for the sophomore yearfour-year colleges return for the sophomore year (2008).(2008).  No change from 2007-2008.No change from 2007-2008. (College Board Advocacy Center, 2008)(College Board Advocacy Center, 2008)
  • 27. 2727 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW  Retention rates depict a complex interactionRetention rates depict a complex interaction between both the characteristics of a school andbetween both the characteristics of a school and the students attending school (Bean, 1990).the students attending school (Bean, 1990).  Retention rates change as the demographics,Retention rates change as the demographics, student experiences, academic, social andstudent experiences, academic, social and psychological changes occur (Bean, 1990).psychological changes occur (Bean, 1990).
  • 28. 2828 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW  Retention rates are as individual as theRetention rates are as individual as the institutions themselves (Bean, 1990).institutions themselves (Bean, 1990).  Retention and persistence studies oftenRetention and persistence studies often examine one institution and should not beexamine one institution and should not be generalized to a larger population (Bean,generalized to a larger population (Bean, 1990).1990).
  • 29. 2929 Literature reviewLiterature review  It is important to know the student’s goalIt is important to know the student’s goal before retention can effectively be measuredbefore retention can effectively be measured (Bean, 1990).(Bean, 1990).
  • 31. 3131 methodologymethodology QUANTITATIVE STUDY Survey ResearchSurvey Research  Utilizes surveys and questionnaires to collect numerical data (Creswell, 2009)
  • 32. 3232 methodologymethodology  ParticipantsParticipants Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students atat George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
  • 33. 3333 methodologymethodology  ParticipantsParticipants Sophomore studentsSophomore students George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University DemographicDemographic informationinformation  AgeAge  GenderGender  Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity  Attendance StatusAttendance Status  Attendance Status inAttendance Status in FamilyFamily  Freshman seminarFreshman seminar
  • 34. 3434 methodologymethodology  InstrumentInstrument On-line SurveyOn-line Survey 5-Point Likert Scale5-Point Likert Scale 1= Strongly disagree1= Strongly disagree 2= Disagree2= Disagree 3= Neither disagree nor agree3= Neither disagree nor agree 4= Agree4= Agree 5= Strongly Agree5= Strongly Agree SophomoreSophomore StudentsStudents George FoxGeorge Fox UniversityUniversity
  • 35. 3535 methodologymethodology Procedure Online SurveyOnline Survey created oncreated on SurveyMonkey.comSurveyMonkey.com Data AnalysisData Analysis
  • 36. 3636 DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS  Research QuestionResearch Question ““What are theWhat are the correlation ofcorrelation of Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars and First-Yearand First-Year Programs on StudentPrograms on Student Retention?”Retention?”  Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis ““Students whoStudents who participate inparticipate in Freshman SeminarsFreshman Seminars and First-Yearand First-Year programs tend toprograms tend to persist to thepersist to the sophomore year”sophomore year”
  • 37. 3737 Data analysisData analysis IndependentIndependent VariablesVariables  StudentStudent InvolvementInvolvement  Academic AdvisingAcademic Advising  OrientationOrientation  Financial AidFinancial Aid DependentDependent VariablesVariables  RetentionRetention  PersistencePersistence
  • 38. 3838 methodologymethodology  Data AnalysisData Analysis Descriptive StatisticsDescriptive Statistics Inferential StatisticsInferential Statistics Spearman RSpearman R One-tail test 0.05One-tail test 0.05 (Alpha)95%(Alpha)95% ConfidenceConfidence intervalinterval (Healey, 2002)(Healey, 2002) modemode medianmedian meanmean Standard deviationStandard deviation rangerange