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HISTORYOFPSYCHOLOGY6/15/2013 1
AncientHistory(B.C.E)6/15/2013 2
 ca. 1550 BCE -The Ebers Papyrus briefly mentionedclinical depression. ca. 600 BCE - Many cities had temples to Asklepio...
AncientHistory(C.E.)6/15/2013 4
First century • ca. 50 - Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving DeMedicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book 3 covers mentaldis...
Second century • ca. 130-200 - Galen "was schooled in allthe psychological systems of the day:Platonic, Aristotelian, Sto...
Third century • 205-270 . Plotinus wrote Enneads asystematic account of Neoplatonistphilosophy, also nature of visual per...
Fourth century ca. 323-403 - Oribasius compiled medical writings based onthe works of Aristotle, Asclepiades, and Soranus...
5TH CENTURY - CAELIUS AURELIANUSOPPOSED HARSH METHODS OF HANDLING THEINSANE, AND ADVOCATED HUMANETREATMENT.[2]CA. 423-529 ...
Seventh century 625-690 - Paul of Aegina suggested thathysteria should be treated by ligature of thelimbs, and mania by t...
Eight century • 705 -The first psychiatric hospital wasbuilt by Muslims in Baghdad, followed byCairo in 800, and Damascus...
Ninth centuryca. 850 – Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabarideveloped the idea of using clinicalpsychiatry to treat mentally ill p...
Tenth century • ca. 900 –The concept of mental health(mental hygiene) was introduced by Ahmedibn Sahl al-Balkhi. He also ...
Eleventh century • 1021 – Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) began to carryout experiments in areas related to body and thenafs. In...
Twelfth century • ca. 1200 – Maimonides wrote aboutneuropsychiatric disorders, and describedrabies and belladonna intoxic...
Thirteenth century • 1215 -1277 Peter Juliani taught in themedical faculty of the University of Siena,and wrote on medica...
Fourteenth century • 1347-50 -The Black Death devastatedEurope. • ca. 1375 - English authorities regardedmental illness ...
Fifteenth century • ca. 1400 - Renaissance Humanism caused areawakening of ancient knowledge of science andmedicine. • 1...
Sixteenth century • 1590 – Scholastic philosopher RudolphGoclenius coined the term "psychology";though usually regarded a...
Seventeenth century • 1650 - René Descartes died, leavingTreatise oftheWorld, containing his dualistic theory of reality,...
Eighteenth century • 1701 - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz publishedthe Law of Continuity, which he applied topsychology, beco...
Nineteenth century • ca. 1800 - Franz Joseph Gall developedCranioscopy, the measurement of the skull todetermine psycholo...
1810’s • 1812 - Benjamin Rush became one of theearliest advocates of humane treatment forthe mentally ill with the public...
1820 ’s • 1829 - John Stuart Mills father James Millpu blished Analysis of the Phenomena of theHuman Mind6/15/2013 24
1840’s • 1840 - FrederickAugustus Rauch (1806–1841)published Psychology, or aView of the Human Soul,including Anthropolog...
1850’s • 1852 - Hermann Lotze published MedicalPsychology or Physiology of the Soul. • 1855 -William James published Pri...
1860’s • 1860s - Franciscus Donders first used human reactiontime to infer differences in cognitive processing. • 1860 –...
1870’s • 1870 -William James published Principles ofPsychology (2 vols.). • 1872 - Douglas Spalding published hisdiscove...
1880’s • 1882 -The Society for Psychical Research wasfounded in England. • 1883 – G. Stanley Hall opened the first Ameri...
 • 1886 – John Dewey published the first Americantextbook on psychology, titled Psychology. • 1886 -Vladimir Bekhterev e...
 • 1887 – G. Stanley Hall founded the American Journal ofPsychology with a $500 contribution supplied by Robert PearsallS...
1890’s • 1890 - Christian von Ehrenfels published Onthe Qualities of Form, founding GestaltPsychology. • 1890 –William J...
 • 1890 – James McKeen Cattell left Pennsylvania for ColumbiaUniversity where he founded the United States 11thexperiment...
 • 1892–1893 – Charles A. Strong opened theexperimental psychology laboratory at theUniversity of Chicago, the 20th in th...
 • 1896 –The first psychological clinic was opened at theUniversity of Pennsylvania by LightnerWitmer; althoughoften cele...
Twentieth century 1900’s • 1901 - Sigmund Freud publishedThePsychopathology of Everyday Life. • 1903 – John B.Watson gr...
 • 1906 –The Journal of Abnormal Psychologywas founded by Morton Prince, for which BorisSidis was an associate editor and...
1910’s • 1910 - Sigmund Freud founded theInternational Psychoanalytical Association(IPA), with Carl Jung as the first pre...
 • 1911 -The American PsychoanalyticAssociation (APsaA) was founded. • 1911 -William McDougall, founder of HormicPsychol...
1920’s • 1920 – John B.Watson and his assistantRosalie Rayner conducted the Little Albertexperiment, using classical cond...
 • 1922 – Boris Sidis published Nervous Ills:Their Cause and a Cure, a popularization of hiswork concerning the subconsci...
 • 1927 – Ivan Pavlov publishedConditioned Reflexes, containing his theoryof classical conditioning. • 1928 – Jean Piage...
1930’s • 1930 - Edwin Boring discussed the BoringFigure. • 1931 - Gordon Allport et al. published theAllport-Vernon-Lind...
 • 1935 - Henry Murray and Christiana Morganof Harvard University published theThematicApperceptionTest (TAT). • 1936 - ...
1940’s • 1940 - Edwin Boring discussed the Moonillusion. • 1941 - Erich Fromm published Escape fromFreedom, founding Pol...
 • 1947 - Kurt Lewin coined the term "groupdynamics". • 1948 - Alfred Kinsey of Indiana Universitypublished Sexual Behav...
1950’s • 1950 - Karen Horney summarized herideas in her magnum opus Neurosis andHuman Growth:The StruggleToward Self-Real...
 • 1951 – Carl Rogers published his magnumopus Client-Centered Therapy. • 1952 –The Diagnostic and StatisticalManual of ...
 • 1955 – Lee Cronbach published ConstructValidity in PsychologicalTests, popularizing theconcept of construct alidity. ...
 • 1958 – Harry Harlow gave the speechTheNature of Love, summarizing his isolationstudies on infant monkeys and rejecting...
1960’s • 1960 – John L. Fuller and W. RobertThompsonpublished the seminal text Behavior Genetics.[36] • 1961 – Albert Ba...
 • 1967 - Edward E. Jones andVictor Harrispublished a paper defining fundamentalattribution error, underestimating the ef...
 • 1968 – DSM-II was published by the AmericanPsychiatric Association. • 1968 –The first Doctor of Psychology (Psy. D.)p...
1970’s • 1970 - At an APATown Hall Meeting, with the supportof the Association forWomen in Psychology, PhyllisChesler and...
 • 1972 - Robert E. Ornstein publishedThePsychology of Consciousness, about the use ofbiofeedback et al. to shift mood an...
 • 1974 – Robert Hinde published Biological Bases ofHuman Social Behavior, a main text in etological-oriented development...
 • 1976 - Michael Posner publishedChronometric Explorations of Mind, using thesubtractive method of Franciscus Donders to...
 • 1978 -The first Canadian Institute onWomen and Psychology pre-conventionconference was hosted at the CanadianPsycholog...
1980’s • 1980 – DSM-III was published by the AmericanPsychiatric Association (APA). • 1980 - George Mandler published Re...
 • 1984 – Jerome Kagan publishedThe Nature of theChild, a biological and socially oriented description of therole of temp...
 • 1986 - David Rumelhart and James McClellandpublished Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations inthe Microstructur...
1990’s • 1990 - On May 17 theWorld HealthOrganization (WHO) declassified homosexualityas a mental disorder,[56] launching...
 • 1992 –The American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) selected behavioral geneticsas one of two themes that best represent...
 • 1995 – Simon Baron-Cohen coined the termmental blindness to reflect the inability of childrenwith autism to properly r...
Twenty-first century2000’s• 2000 – Alan Baddeley updated his model of workingmemory from 1974 to include the episodic buff...
2010’s • 2010 -The draft of DSM-V by theAmerican Psychiatric Association (APA) wasthrown open for comment and critique. ...
2 CREATED BY : AALA, JONEL CHRISTOPHER AGONIA , EUNICE ARAO , RECA AVELINO , ANNE LORAINE BALDERAMA , CYRUS67
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History of psychology (powerpoint)

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History of psychology (powerpoint)

  1. 1. HISTORYOFPSYCHOLOGY6/15/2013 1
  2. 2. AncientHistory(B.C.E)6/15/2013 2
  3. 3.  ca. 1550 BCE -The Ebers Papyrus briefly mentionedclinical depression. ca. 600 BCE - Many cities had temples to Asklepios thatprovided cures for psychosomatic illnesses.[1] 460 BC - 370 BCE - Hippocrates introduced principles ofscientific medicine based upon observation and logic,and denied the influence of spirits and demons indiseases.[2][3] 387 BCE - Plato suggested that the brain is the seat ofmental processes. Platos view of the "soul" (self) is thatthe body exists to serve the soul: "God created the soulbefore the body and gave it precedence both in time andvalue, and made it the dominating and controllingpartner." fromTimaeus[4]6/15/2013 3
  4. 4. AncientHistory(C.E.)6/15/2013 4
  5. 5. First century • ca. 50 - Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving DeMedicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book 3 covers mentaldiseases.The term insania, insanity, was first used by him.The methods of treatment included bleeding, frighteningthe patient, emetics, enemas, total darkness, anddecoctions of poppy or henbane, and pleasant ones such asmusic . • ca. 100 - Rufus of Ephesus believed that the nervoussystem was instrumental in voluntary movement andsensation. He discovered the optic chiasma by anatomicalstudies of the brain. He stressed taking a history of bothphysical and mental disorders. He gave a detailed accountof melancholia, and was quoted by Galen.[2] • 93-138 - Soranus of Ephesus advised kind treatment inhealthy and comfortable conditions, including light, warmrooms.[2]6/15/2013 5
  6. 6. Second century • ca. 130-200 - Galen "was schooled in allthe psychological systems of the day:Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, andEpicurean"[3] • ca. 150-200 - Aretaeus of Cappadocia [3]6/15/2013 6
  7. 7. Third century • 205-270 . Plotinus wrote Enneads asystematic account of Neoplatonistphilosophy, also nature of visual perceptionand how memory might work6/15/2013 7
  8. 8. Fourth century ca. 323-403 - Oribasius compiled medical writings based onthe works of Aristotle, Asclepiades, and Soranus ofEphesus, and wrote on melancholia in Galenic terms.[2] ca. 390 - Nemesius wrote De Natura Hominis (On HumanNature); large sections were incorporated in Saint JohnDamascenes De Fide Orthodoxia in the eighth century.Nemesius book De Placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (On theDoctrines of Hippocrates and Plato) contains manypassages concerning Galens anatomy and physiology,believing that different cavities of the brain wereresponsible for different functions.[2][4] 397-398 – St. Augustine of Hippo published Confessions,which anticipated Freud by near-discovery of thesubconscious.[5] Augustines most complete account of thesoul is in De Quantitate Animae (The Greatness of the Soul).The work assumes a Platonic model of the soul.[4]6/15/2013 8
  9. 9. 5TH CENTURY - CAELIUS AURELIANUSOPPOSED HARSH METHODS OF HANDLING THEINSANE, AND ADVOCATED HUMANETREATMENT.[2]CA. 423-529 - THEODOSIUS THECENOBIARCH FOUNDED A MONASTERY ATKATHISMUS, NEAR BETHLEHEM. THREEHOSPITALS WERE BUILT BY THE SIDE OFTHE MONASTERY: ONE FOR THE SICK, ONEFOR THE AGED, AND ONE FOR THEINSANE.[2]Fifth century6/15/2013 9
  10. 10. Seventh century 625-690 - Paul of Aegina suggested thathysteria should be treated by ligature of thelimbs, and mania by tying the patient to amattress placed inside a wicker basket andsuspended from the ceiling. He alsorecommended baths, wine, special diets,and sedatives for the mentally ill. Hedescribed the following mental disorders:phrenitis, delirium, lethargus, melancholia,mania, incubus, lycanthropy, and epilepsy.6/15/2013 10
  11. 11. Eight century • 705 -The first psychiatric hospital wasbuilt by Muslims in Baghdad, followed byCairo in 800, and Damascus in 12706/15/2013 11
  12. 12. Ninth centuryca. 850 – Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabarideveloped the idea of using clinicalpsychiatry to treat mentally ill patients.6/15/2013 12
  13. 13. Tenth century • ca. 900 –The concept of mental health(mental hygiene) was introduced by Ahmedibn Sahl al-Balkhi. He also recognized thatillnesses can have both psychological and/orphysiological causes.[7] • ca. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) recognized theconcept of "psychotherapy" and referred to itas al-‘ilaj al-nafs.[8]6/15/2013 13
  14. 14. Eleventh century • 1021 – Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) began to carryout experiments in areas related to body and thenafs. In his Book of Optics, for example, he examinedvisual perception and what we now call sensation,including variations in sensitivity, sensation of touch,perception of colors, perception of darkness, thepsychological explanation of the moon illusion, andbinocular vision. ca. 1030 – Al-Biruni employed an experimentalmethod in examining the concept of reactiontime.[10]6/15/2013 14
  15. 15. Twelfth century • ca. 1200 – Maimonides wrote aboutneuropsychiatric disorders, and describedrabies and belladonna intoxication.6/15/2013 15
  16. 16. Thirteenth century • 1215 -1277 Peter Juliani taught in themedical faculty of the University of Siena,and wrote on medical, philosophical andpsychological topics. He personal physicianto Pope Gregory X and later becamearchbishop and cardinal. He was electedpope under the name John XXI in1276.[4][11]6/15/2013 16
  17. 17. Fourteenth century • 1347-50 -The Black Death devastatedEurope. • ca. 1375 - English authorities regardedmental illness as demonic possession,treating it with exorcism and torture6/15/2013 17
  18. 18. Fifteenth century • ca. 1400 - Renaissance Humanism caused areawakening of ancient knowledge of science andmedicine. • 1433-1499 Marsilio Ficino was a renowned figureof the Italian Renaissance, a Neoplatonist humanist,a translator of Greek philosophical writing, and themost influential exponent of Platonism in Italy in thefifteenth century.[3] • ca. 1450 -The pendulum in Europe swings,bringingWitch Mania, causing thousands of womento be executed for witchcraft until the late 17thcentury.6/15/2013 18
  19. 19. Sixteenth century • 1590 – Scholastic philosopher RudolphGoclenius coined the term "psychology";though usually regarded as the origin of theterm, there is evidence that it was used atleast six decades earlier by Marko Marulić.6/15/2013 19
  20. 20. Seventeenth century • 1650 - René Descartes died, leavingTreatise oftheWorld, containing his dualistic theory of reality,mind vs. matter. • 1672 –ThomasWillis published the anatomicaltreatise De Anima Brutorum, describing psychologyin terms of brain function • 1677 - Baruch Spinoza died, leaving Ethics,Demonstrated in GeometricalOrder, Pt. 2 focusingon the human mind and body, disputing Descartesand arguing that they are one, and Pt. 3 attemptingto show that moral concepts such as good and evil,virtue, and perfection have a basis in humanpsychology.6/15/2013 20
  21. 21. Eighteenth century • 1701 - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz publishedthe Law of Continuity, which he applied topsychology, becoming the first to postulate anunconscious mind; he also introduced theconcept of threshold.[14] • 1710 - George Berkeley publishedTreatiseConcerning the Principles of Human Knowledge,which claims that the outside world is composedsolely of ideas. • 1732 - Christian Wolff published PsychologiaEmpirica, followed in 1734 by PsychologiaRationalis, popularizing the term "psychology".6/15/2013 21
  22. 22. Nineteenth century • ca. 1800 - Franz Joseph Gall developedCranioscopy, the measurement of the skull todetermine psychological characteristics, which waslater renamed Phrenology; it is now discredited. • 1807 - GeorgWilhelm Friedrich Hegel publishedPhenomenology of Spirit (Mind), which describes hisThesis-Antithesis-Synthesis dialectical method,according to which knowledge pushes forwards togreater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledgeof the noumenal world. • 1808 - Johann Christian Reil coined the term"psychiatry".6/15/2013 22
  23. 23. 1810’s • 1812 - Benjamin Rush became one of theearliest advocates of humane treatment forthe mentally ill with the publication ofMedical Inquiries and Observations UponDiseases of the Mind,[15] the first Americantextbook on psychiatry.[16]6/15/2013 23
  24. 24. 1820 ’s • 1829 - John Stuart Mills father James Millpu blished Analysis of the Phenomena of theHuman Mind6/15/2013 24
  25. 25. 1840’s • 1840 - FrederickAugustus Rauch (1806–1841)published Psychology, or aView of the Human Soul,including Anthropology • 1844 – Søren Kierkegaard publishedThe Conceptof Anxiety, the first exposition on anxiety. • 1848 -Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gagehad a 3-foot rod driven through his brain and jaw inan explosives accident, permanently changing hispersonality, revolutionizing scientific opinion aboutbrain functions being localizable. • 1849 – Søren Kierkegaard publishedThe SicknessUnto Death6/15/2013 25
  26. 26. 1850’s • 1852 - Hermann Lotze published MedicalPsychology or Physiology of the Soul. • 1855 -William James published Principles ofPsychology. • 1856 - Hermann Lotze began publishing his 3-volume magnum opus Mikrokosmos (1856–64),arguing that natural laws of inanimate objectsapply to human minds and bodies but have thefunction of enabling us to aim for the values setby the deity, thus making room for aesthetics. • 1859 - Josef Breuer publishedTraite CliniqueetTherapeutique de LHysterie.6/15/2013 26
  27. 27. 1860’s • 1860s - Franciscus Donders first used human reactiontime to infer differences in cognitive processing. • 1860 – GustavTheodor Fechner published Elementsof Psychophysics, founding the subject ofPsychophysics. • 1861 – Paul Broca discovered an area in the leftcerebral hemisphere that is important for speechproduction, now known as Brocas Area, foundingNeuropsychology. • 1869 - Francis Galton published Hereditary Genius,arguing for Eugenics. He went on to foundPsychometrics, Differential Psychology, and the LexicalHypothesis of personality.6/15/2013 27
  28. 28. 1870’s • 1870 -William James published Principles ofPsychology (2 vols.). • 1872 - Douglas Spalding published hisdiscovery of psychological Imprinting. • 1874 –Wilhelm Wundt published Grundzügeder physiologischen Psychologie (Principles ofPhysiological Psychology), the first textbook ofexperimental psychology. • ca. 1875 –William James opened the firstexperimental psychology laboratory in theUnited States; it was intended for classroomdemonstration rather than original research.6/15/2013 28
  29. 29. 1880’s • 1882 -The Society for Psychical Research wasfounded in England. • 1883 – G. Stanley Hall opened the first Americanexperimental psychology research laboratory atJohns Hopkins University. • 1883 - Emil Kraepelin publishedCompendium derPsychiatrie. • 1884 - Ivan Pavlov began studying the digestivesecretion of animals. • 1884 -Tourettes Syndrome was first described. • 1885 – Hermann Ebbinghaus published Über dasGedächtnis (On Memory), a6/15/2013 29
  30. 30.  • 1886 – John Dewey published the first Americantextbook on psychology, titled Psychology. • 1886 -Vladimir Bekhterev established the firstlaboratory of experimental psychology in Russia at KazanUniversity. • 1886 – Sigmund Freud began private practice inVienna. • 1887 – Georg Elias Müller opened the 2nd Germanexperimental psychology research laboratory inGöttingen. • 1887 – GeorgeTrumbull Ladd (Yale) publishedElements of Physiological Psychology, the first Americantextbook to include a substantial amount of informationon the new experimental form of the discipline. • 1887 – James McKeen Cattell founded anexperimental psychology laboratory at the University ofPennsylvania, the 3rd in the United States.6/15/2013 30
  31. 31.  • 1887 – G. Stanley Hall founded the American Journal ofPsychology with a $500 contribution supplied by Robert PearsallSmith of the American Society for Psychical Research. • 1888 –William Lowe Bryan founded the United States 4thexperimental psychology laboratory at Indiana University. • 1888 – Joseph Jastrow founded the United States 5thexperimental psychology laboratory at the University ofWisconsin–Madison. • 1888 – G. Stanley Hall left Johns Hopkins for the presidency ofthe newly-founded Clark University inWorcester, Mass. • 1889 – James Mark Baldwin publisheed the first volume of hisHandbook of Psychology, titled "Sense and Intellect". • 1889 – Edmund Sanford, a former student of G. Stanley Hallfounded the United States 6th experimental psychology laboratoryat Clark University. • 1889 –William Noyes founded the United States 7thexperimental psychology laboratory at the McLeanAsylum inWaverley, Mass.6/15/2013 31
  32. 32. 1890’s • 1890 - Christian von Ehrenfels published Onthe Qualities of Form, founding GestaltPsychology. • 1890 –William James published Principles ofPsychology. • 1890 – James HaydenTufts founded theUnited States 9th experimental psychologylaboratory at the University of Michigan. • 1890 – G.T.W. Patrick founded the UnitedStates 10th experimental psychology laboratoryat the University of Iowa.6/15/2013 32
  33. 33.  • 1890 – James McKeen Cattell left Pennsylvania for ColumbiaUniversity where he founded the United States 11thexperimental psychology laboratory. • 1890 – James Mark Baldwin founded the first permanentexperimental psychology laboratory in the British Empire at theUniversity ofToronto. • 1891 – Frank Angell founded the United States 12thexperimental psychology laboratory at the Cornell University. • 1891 - EdvardWestermarck described theWestermarckEffect, where people raised early in life in close domesticproximity later become desensitized to close sexual attraction,raising theories about the incest taboo. • 1892 – G. Stanley Hall et al. founded the AmericanPsychological Association (APA). • 1892 – Edward BradfordTitchener took a professorship atCornell University, replacing Frank Angell who left for StanfordUniversity. • 1892 – EdwardWheeler Scripture founded the experimentalpsychology laboratory atYale University, the 19th in UnitedStates.6/15/2013 33
  34. 34.  • 1892–1893 – Charles A. Strong opened theexperimental psychology laboratory at theUniversity of Chicago, the 20th in the United States,at which James Rowland Angell conducted the firstexperiments of functionalism in 1896. • 1894 – James McKeen Cattell and James MarkBaldwin founded the Psychological Review tocompete with Halls American Journal of Psychology. • 1895 - Gustave Le Bon publishedThe Crowd: AStudy of the Popular Mind. • 1896 - John Dewey published the paperTheReflexArc Concept in Psychology,[18] foundingSocial Behaviorism.6/15/2013 34
  35. 35.  • 1896 –The first psychological clinic was opened at theUniversity of Pennsylvania by LightnerWitmer; althoughoften celebrated as marking the birth of clinical psychology,it was focused primarily on educational matters. • 1896 – Edward B.Titchener, student ofWilhelmWundtand originator of the terms "structuralism" and"functionalism" published An Outline of Psychology. • 1897 - Havelock Ellis published Sexual Inversion. • 1898 – Boris Sidis publishedThe Psychology ofSuggestion:A Research into the Subconscious Nature ofMan and Society. • 1899 – On November 4 Sigmund Freud publishedTheInterpretation of Dreams (DieTraumdeutung), marking thebeginning of psychoanalysis, which attempts to deal withthe Oedipal complex.6/15/2013 35
  36. 36. Twentieth century 1900’s • 1901 - Sigmund Freud publishedThePsychopathology of Everyday Life. • 1903 – John B.Watson graduated from theUniversity of Chicago; his dissertation on ratbehavior has been described as a "classic ofdevelopmental psychobiology" by historian ofpsychology Donald Dewsbury. • 1903 – HelenThompson Woolley publishedthe first dissertation on sex differences,TheMentalTraits of Sex6/15/2013 36
  37. 37.  • 1906 –The Journal of Abnormal Psychologywas founded by Morton Prince, for which BorisSidis was an associate editor and significantcontributor. • 1908 - Sigmund Freud published the paperOn the Sex-alTheories of Children, introducingthe concept of penis envy; he also published thepaper Civilized Sex-al Morality and ModernNervous Illness. • 1908 -WilfredTrotter published the firstpaper explaining the herd instinct.6/15/2013 37
  38. 38. 1910’s • 1910 - Sigmund Freud founded theInternational Psychoanalytical Association(IPA), with Carl Jung as the first president, andOtto Rank as the first secretary. • 1911 – AlfredAdler left FreudsPsychoanalytic Group to form his own schoolof thought, accusing Freud ofoveremphasizing sexuality and basing histheory on his own childhood.6/15/2013 38
  39. 39.  • 1911 -The American PsychoanalyticAssociation (APsaA) was founded. • 1911 -William McDougall, founder of HormicPsychology published Body and Mind: A Historyand Defence of Animism, claiming that there isan animating principle in Nature and that themind guides evolution. • 1912 – Max Wertheimer publishedExperimental Studies of the Perception ofMovement, helping found Gestalt Psychology • 1913 – Citing Freuds inability to acknowledgereligion and spirituality, Carl Jung split anddeveloped his own theories, which becameknown as Analytical Psychology.6/15/2013 39
  40. 40. 1920’s • 1920 – John B.Watson and his assistantRosalie Rayner conducted the Little Albertexperiment, using classical conditioning to makea young boy afraid of white rats. • 1921 - Sigmund Freud published GroupPsychology and the Analysis of the Ego. • 1921 – Jacob L. Moreno conducted the firstlarge scale public psychodrama session at theKomedienhaus inVienna; he moved to NewYorkin 1925. • 1921 - Melanie Klein began to develop hertechnique of analyzing children.[22]6/15/2013 40
  41. 41.  • 1922 – Boris Sidis published Nervous Ills:Their Cause and a Cure, a popularization of hiswork concerning the subconscious and thetreatment of psychopathic disease. • 1923 - Sigmund Freud publishedThe Ego andthe Id. • 1924 - Jacob Robert Kantor foundedInterbehavioral Psychology based on JohnDeweys psychology and Albert Einsteinsrelativity theory. • 1924 - Otto Rank publishedTheTrauma ofBirth, coining the term "pre-Oedipal", causingFreud to break with him.6/15/2013 41
  42. 42.  • 1927 – Ivan Pavlov publishedConditioned Reflexes, containing his theoryof classical conditioning. • 1928 – Jean Piaget published Judgmentand Reasoning in the Child. • 1929 - Edwin Boring published A Historyof Experimental Psychology, pioneeringthe history of psychology. • 1929 - LevVygotsky founded Cultural-Historical Psychology.6/15/2013 42
  43. 43. 1930’s • 1930 - Edwin Boring discussed the BoringFigure. • 1931 - Gordon Allport et al. published theAllport-Vernon-Lindzey Study ofValues, whichdefines six major value types. • 1933 – Pyotr Gannushkin publishedManifestations of Psychopathies.[23] • 1933 - Clark L. Hull published Hypnosis andSuggestibility, proving that hypnosis is not sleepand founding the modern study of hypnosis.6/15/2013 43
  44. 44.  • 1935 - Henry Murray and Christiana Morganof Harvard University published theThematicApperceptionTest (TAT). • 1936 - Kenneth Spence published an analysisof discrimination learning in terms of gradientsof excitation and inhibition, showing thatmathematical deductions from a quantitativetheory could generate interesting andempirically testable predictions. • 1939 – Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxleypublished a classic report in the journal Nature ofthe first recording of an action potential6/15/2013 44
  45. 45. 1940’s • 1940 - Edwin Boring discussed the Moonillusion. • 1941 - Erich Fromm published Escape fromFreedom, founding Political Psychology. • 1941 - B.F. Skinner andWilliam Kaye Estesintroduced the Conditioned Emotional Response(CER) • 1945 –The Journal of Clinical Psychology wasfounded. • 1946 - Kurt Lewin founded action research.6/15/2013 45
  46. 46.  • 1947 - Kurt Lewin coined the term "groupdynamics". • 1948 - Alfred Kinsey of Indiana Universitypublished Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. • 1949 – Donald Hebb publishedTheOrganization of Behavior: A NeuropsychologicalTheory, in which he provided a detailed, testabletheory of how the brain could support cognitiveprocesses, revolutionizing neuropsychology andmaking McGill University a center of research.6/15/2013 46
  47. 47. 1950’s • 1950 - Karen Horney summarized herideas in her magnum opus Neurosis andHuman Growth:The StruggleToward Self-Realization.[31] • 1950 – Rollo May publishedThe MeaningofAnxiety. • 1951 – Solomon Asch published the Aschconformity experiments, demonstrating thepower of conformity in groups.6/15/2013 47
  48. 48.  • 1951 – Carl Rogers published his magnumopus Client-Centered Therapy. • 1952 –The Diagnostic and StatisticalManual of Mental Disorders (DSM) waspublished by the American PsychiatricAssociation (APA), marking the beginning ofmodern mental illness classification; • 1953 - Nathaniel Kleitman of the U. ofChicago discovered rapid eye movement sleep(REM), founding modern Sleep Research. • 1954 - James Olds and Peter Milner ofMcGill University discovered the brain rewardsystem, involving the brains pleasure center. • 1954 - Julian Rotter published SocialLearning and Clinical Psychology, foundingsocial learning theory.6/15/2013 48
  49. 49.  • 1955 – Lee Cronbach published ConstructValidity in PsychologicalTests, popularizing theconcept of construct alidity. • 1956 – George Armitage Miller published thepaperThe Magical Number Seven, Plus or MinusTwo, in which he showed that there is a limit onthe amount of information that can bememorized at one time. • 1957 – Leon Festinger published his theory ofcognitive dissonance. • 1957 - Stanley Smith Stevens publishedStevens power law.6/15/2013 49
  50. 50.  • 1958 – Harry Harlow gave the speechTheNature of Love, summarizing his isolationstudies on infant monkeys and rejectingbehavioristic and psychoanalytic theories ofattachment. • 1959 - George Mandler and WilliamKessen publishedThe Language ofPsychology. • 1959 – Lawrence Kohlberg wrote hisdoctoral dissertation, outlining his Kohlbergsstages of moral development.6/15/2013 50
  51. 51. 1960’s • 1960 – John L. Fuller and W. RobertThompsonpublished the seminal text Behavior Genetics.[36] • 1961 – Albert Bandura published the Bobo dollexperiment, a study of behavioral patterns ofaggression. • 1961 - Neal E. Miller proposed the use ofbiofeedback to control involuntary functions. • 1962 – Abraham Maslow publishedToward aPsychology of Being, presenting his ideas of self-actualization and the hierarchy of human needs. • 1963 – Stanley Milgram published his study ofobedience to authority, now known as the Milgramexperiment.6/15/2013 51
  52. 52.  • 1967 - Edward E. Jones andVictor Harrispublished a paper defining fundamentalattribution error, underestimating the effect ofthe situation in explaining social behavior. • 1967 - Ulric Neisser founded cognitivepsychology. • 1968 - George Cotzias developed the L-Dopatreatment for Parkinsons Disease. • 1968 - Mary Main published her hypothesis ofa fourth attachment style in children, theinsecure disorganized attachment style.[42]6/15/2013 52
  53. 53.  • 1968 – DSM-II was published by the AmericanPsychiatric Association. • 1968 –The first Doctor of Psychology (Psy. D.)professional degree program in Clinical Psychology wasestablished in the Department of Psychology at theUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. • 1969 – JosephWolpe published the Subjective Unitsof Distress (Disturbance) Scale (SUDS). • 1969 - Elisabeth Kübler-Ross published On Death andDying, presenting the Kübler-Ross model, commonlyreferred to as the Five Stages of Grief. • 1969 -The Association forWomen in Psychology(AWP) was founded, with Joann Evansgardner as the first(temporary) president.[41]6/15/2013 53
  54. 54. 1970’s • 1970 - At an APATown Hall Meeting, with the supportof the Association forWomen in Psychology, PhyllisChesler and Nancy Henley prepared a statement onAPAs obligations to women and demanded one milliondollars in reparation for the damage psychology hadperpetrated against womens minds and bodies.[41] • 1970 - Masters and Johnson published Human SexualInadequacy. • 1971 –The Stanford prison experiment, conducted byPhilip Zimbardo et al. at Stanford University studied thehuman response to captivity; the experiment quickly gotout of hand and was ended early.6/15/2013 54
  55. 55.  • 1972 - Robert E. Ornstein publishedThePsychology of Consciousness, about the use ofbiofeedback et al. to shift mood and awareness. • 1972 - EndelTulving first made the distinctionbetween episodic and semantic memory. • 1973 -The American Psychiatric Associationdeclassified homosexuality as a mentaldisorder.[43] • 1973 - Nancy Friday published My SecretGarden:Women’s Sexual Fantasies • 1973 -Timothy Leary publishedNeurologic,[45] describing the Eight-CircuitModel of Consciousness.6/15/2013 55
  56. 56.  • 1974 – Robert Hinde published Biological Bases ofHuman Social Behavior, a main text in etological-oriented developmental psychology. • 1974 – Arnold Sameroff published Reproductive Riskand the Continuum of Caretaking Causality, introducingtheTransactional Model of Psychology, which becameinfluential. • 1975 - Georgia Babladelis became the first editor of thePsychology ofWomen Quarterly.[41] • 1975 - George Mandler published Mind and Emotion • 1976 - Stanislav Grof founded the InternationalTranspersonal Association to promote hisTranspersonalPsychology.6/15/2013 56
  57. 57.  • 1976 - Michael Posner publishedChronometric Explorations of Mind, using thesubtractive method of Franciscus Donders tostudy attention and memory. • 1976 -The Psychology of Women Quarterlywas founded.[41] • 1977 - Ernest Hilgard proposed the dividedconsciousness theory of hypnosis • 1978 – Child psychologist Mary Ainsworthpublished her book Patterns of Attachmentabout her work on attachment theory and theStrange Situation Experiment (Protocol).6/15/2013 57
  58. 58.  • 1978 -The first Canadian Institute onWomen and Psychology pre-conventionconference was hosted at the CanadianPsychological Association by IGWAP (InterestGroup onWomen and Psychology). • 1978 -The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, andBisexual Members of the AmericanPsychiatricAssociation (APA) successfullypetitioned the American PsychiatricAssociation (APA) to create a task force onlesbian and gay issues; it was elevated to afull standing committee in the APA in1988.[44]6/15/2013 58
  59. 59. 1980’s • 1980 – DSM-III was published by the AmericanPsychiatric Association (APA). • 1980 - George Mandler published Recognizing:TheJudgment of Previous Occurrence,[52] claiming a dualprocess basis of recognition, prior occurrence andidentification. • 1982 -The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, and BisexualMembers of the American Psychiatric Association (APA)was recognized as a representative in the APA assembly,speaking directly on matters of special concern to lesbianand gay members.[44] • 1983 – Howard Gardner published Frames of Mind,introducing hisTheory of Multiple Intelligences.6/15/2013 59
  60. 60.  • 1984 – Jerome Kagan publishedThe Nature of theChild, a biological and socially oriented description of therole of temperament in human development. • 1984 – Peter Saville published the OPQ Pentagonquestionnaire, a psychological • 1985 – Reuben Baron and David A. Kenny publishedthe articleThe Moderator-MediatorVariable Distinctionin Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic,and Statistical Considerations in the Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology proposing adistinction of moderating in mediating variables inpsychological research.6/15/2013 60
  61. 61.  • 1986 - David Rumelhart and James McClellandpublished Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations inthe Microstructure of Cognition. • 1987 – Erik Erikson publishedThe Life Cycle Completed,expanding on Eriksons stages of psychosocialdevelopment. • 1987 - Roger Shepard published the Universal Law ofGeneralization for Psychological Science • 1988 – Michael M. Merzenich et al. showed thatsensory and motor maps in the cortex can be modified withexperience, a process called neural plasticity.[55] • 1988 - Claude Steele proposed the theory of self-affirmation6/15/2013 61
  62. 62. 1990’s • 1990 - On May 17 theWorld HealthOrganization (WHO) declassified homosexualityas a mental disorder,[56] launching theInternational Day Against Homophobia andTransphobia.’ • 1991 – Steven Pinker proposed his theory onhow children acquire language in Science,[57]later popularized in the bookThe LanguageInstinct • 1992 -The American PsychoanalyticAssociation (APA) extended the provisions of its1991 resolution (see above) to trainingcandidates at its affiliated institutes6/15/2013 62
  63. 63.  • 1992 –The American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) selected behavioral geneticsas one of two themes that best represented thepast, present, and future of psychology.[62] • 1994 – DSM-IV was published by theAmerican Psychiatric Association (APA). • 1994 – Antonio Damasio published DescartesError, presenting the somatic marker hypothesis(SMH) by which emotional processes can guide(or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making.6/15/2013 63
  64. 64.  • 1995 – Simon Baron-Cohen coined the termmental blindness to reflect the inability of childrenwith autism to properly represent the mental statesof others.[63] • 1996 – Giacomo Rizzolatti published hisdiscovery of mirror neurons.[64] • 1996 - AmosTversky defined ambiguity aversion,the idea that people dont like ambiguous choices,relating it to comparative ignorance. • 1997 -The American Psychoanalytic Association(APsaA) became the first U.S. national mental healthorganization to support same-sex marriage.[65] • 1999 - George Botterill publishedThe Philosophyof Psychology,[66] about how modern cognitivescience challenges our common sense self-image.6/15/2013 64
  65. 65. Twenty-first century2000’s• 2000 – Alan Baddeley updated his model of workingmemory from 1974 to include the episodic buffer as a thirdslave system alongside the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad[67]• 2000 - MaxVelmans published UnderstandingConsciousness, arguing for reflexive monism.• 2002 – Steven Pinker publishedThe Blank Slate:TheModern Denial of Human Nature, arguing against tabularasa models of the social sciences.[70][71]• 2007 - George Mandler published A History ofModern Experimental Psychology6/15/2013 65
  66. 66. 2010’s • 2010 -The draft of DSM-V by theAmerican Psychiatric Association (APA) wasthrown open for comment and critique. • 2013 - On April 2 U.S. President BarackObama announced the 10-year BRAINInitiative to map the activity of every neuronin the human brain. • 2013- DSM-V was published by theAmerican Psychiatric Association (APA).6/15/2013 66
  67. 67. 2 CREATED BY : AALA, JONEL CHRISTOPHER AGONIA , EUNICE ARAO , RECA AVELINO , ANNE LORAINE BALDERAMA , CYRUS67
  68. 68. GE-1A6/15/2013 68
  69. 69. THANK YOU 6/15/2013 69

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