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Effectiveness ofEffectiveness of
Freshman Seminars andFreshman Seminars and
First-Year Programs onFirst-Year Programs on
Student RetentionStudent Retention
Thesis DefenseThesis Defense
PRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSONPRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSON
ADVISOR: DR. DAVIDADVISOR: DR. DAVID
ROBINSONROBINSON
June 23, 2012June 23, 2012
Kaplan UniversityKaplan University
Desmoine, IowaDesmoine, Iowa
Statement of the ProblemStatement of the Problem
 Retaining a student is fundamental toRetaining a student is fundamental to
the ability of an institution to carrythe ability of an institution to carry
out its mission.out its mission.
 A high attrition rate is a fiscalA high attrition rate is a fiscal
problem for schools.problem for schools.
 Loss of tuitionLoss of tuition
 Loss of majors in some departmentsLoss of majors in some departments
MethodologyMethodology
Research QuestionResearch Question
““What are the correlation of freshmanWhat are the correlation of freshman
seminars and first-year experiences onseminars and first-year experiences on
student persistence and retention?”student persistence and retention?”
Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis
““Students who participate in freshmanStudents who participate in freshman
seminars and first-year experiences tend toseminars and first-year experiences tend to
persist to the sophomore year.”persist to the sophomore year.”
MethodologyMethodology
ParticipantsParticipants
Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students
atat
George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students
atat
George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
MethodologyMethodology
IndependentIndependent
Variables :Variables :
 Academic AdvisingAcademic Advising
 OrientationOrientation
 Financial AidFinancial Aid
 StudentStudent
InvolvementInvolvement
DependentDependent
VariablesVariables
Student RetentionStudent Retention
PersistencePersistence
Mediating VariablesMediating Variables
 AgeAge
 GenderGender
 Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity
 AttendanceAttendance
StatusStatus
 AttendanceAttendance
Status in FamilyStatus in Family
 FreshmanFreshman
seminarseminar
InstrumentationInstrumentation
Quantitative Online SurveyQuantitative Online Survey
5-Point Likert Scale5-Point Likert Scale
 1= Strongly disagree1= Strongly disagree
 2= Disagree2= Disagree
 3= Neither disagree nor agree3= Neither disagree nor agree
 4= Agree4= Agree
 5= Strongly Agree5= Strongly Agree
(Created within SurveyMonkey.com)(Created within SurveyMonkey.com)
DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS
DescriptiveDescriptive
StatisticsStatistics
InferentialInferential
StatisticsStatistics
Spearman Rho (RankSpearman Rho (Rank
Order) CorrelationOrder) Correlation
Pearson Moment (Pearson Moment (r)r)
One-tail test SignificantOne-tail test Significant
((p<p<0.01)0.01)
Hypothesis TestingHypothesis Testing
One Tail t TestOne Tail t Test
((pp < 0.05)< 0.05)
95%Conficence95%Conficence
IntervalInterval
meanmean
modemode
medianmedian
rangerange
Standard deviationStandard deviation
DATA ANALYSIS ANDDATA ANALYSIS AND
FINDINGSFINDINGS
DemographicsDemographics
Gender/Age (N=137)Gender/Age (N=137)
Missing (female 25) orMissing (female 25) or
olderolder
*Females 18-25 – 60.2%*Females 18-25 – 60.2%
Males 18-25 – 38.2%Males 18-25 – 38.2%
Males 25 or older – 1.5%Males 25 or older – 1.5%
Indicates more femalesIndicates more females
than males attendingthan males attending
college on a full-timecollege on a full-time
basisbasis
*Indicates large*Indicates large
percentage of studentspercentage of students
are traditional studentsare traditional students
attending full-time.attending full-time.
39% of nontraditional39% of nontraditional
students are malestudents are male
attending full-timeattending full-time
Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity (N=137)(N=137)
Hispanic/Latinos 3.7%Hispanic/Latinos 3.7%
American Indian/AlaskanAmerican Indian/Alaskan
Natives 1.5%Natives 1.5%
*Black or African American*Black or African American
1.5%1.5%
Asian 11.1%Asian 11.1%
*White 82.2%*White 82.2%
DemographicsDemographics
AttendanceAttendance (N=137)(N=137)
Total Responses 130Total Responses 130
*Full-time student*Full-time student
>Participated in first->Participated in first-
year seminar 89.2%year seminar 89.2%
Full- time student >DidFull- time student >Did
not participate in first-not participate in first-
year seminar 10.8%year seminar 10.8%
Part-time students (NoPart-time students (No
responses)responses)
Attendance Status inAttendance Status in
familyfamily (N=137)(N=137)
Total Responses 130Total Responses 130
First to attend college inFirst to attend college in
family -20.8%family -20.8%
*Not the first to attend*Not the first to attend
college in family 79.2%college in family 79.2%
Cumulative StatisticsCumulative Statistics
Mean 3.10-4.00Mean 3.10-4.00
Median 3.00-4.29Median 3.00-4.29
Mode 4.00-5.00Mode 4.00-5.00
Std. Deviation 0.82-1.17Std. Deviation 0.82-1.17
Range 4.00Range 4.00
Indicates that perceptions amongIndicates that perceptions among
all variables tested wereall variables tested were
normally distributed andnormally distributed and
clearly assumes a normalclearly assumes a normal
distribution as evidenced bydistribution as evidenced by
the 3 middle scores on the bellthe 3 middle scores on the bell
curve; the spread of scorescurve; the spread of scores
were not statisticallywere not statistically
significant.significant.
30%-40% or greater on all30%-40% or greater on all
responses indicated thatresponses indicated that
students were satisfied withstudents were satisfied with
the level of academic advising,the level of academic advising,
financial aid, Genesis, First-financial aid, Genesis, First-
Year seminar as well asYear seminar as well as
student involvementstudent involvement
experiences on campus. ofexperiences on campus. of
these responses, the lowestthese responses, the lowest
responses was 1.0%.responses was 1.0%.
CorrelationsCorrelations
Orientation/Genesis (Orientation/Genesis (p <p < 0.01)0.01)
Pearson CorrelationPearson Correlation
Perfect positive correlations ofPerfect positive correlations of
((r=r=1.00) indicate there is a1.00) indicate there is a
direct association betweendirect association between
variables, shows a strongvariables, shows a strong
linear relationship. andlinear relationship. and
suggests that Weakersuggests that Weaker
correlations (correlations (rr= 0.40)= 0.40)
indicated students who didindicated students who did
not participate in annot participate in an
orientation program.orientation program.
Alpha levels (Alpha levels (p<p<0.000)0.000)
indicated no difference.indicated no difference.
Spearman Rank OrderSpearman Rank Order
Triangulation of SpearmanTriangulation of Spearman
Rank Order with theRank Order with the
Pearson Correlation arePearson Correlation are
symmetricalsymmetrical and Alsoand Also
shows a strong linearshows a strong linear
relationship whichrelationship which
substantiates these results.substantiates these results.
Results suggests thatResults suggests that
orientation programsorientation programs
are effective.are effective.
FIRST-YEAR SEMINAR (FIRST-YEAR SEMINAR (p <p < 0.01)0.01)
Pearson CorrelationPearson Correlation
Correlations (r=0.50) orCorrelations (r=0.50) or
greater between variablesgreater between variables
indicate a strongindicate a strong
relationship; correlationsrelationship; correlations
((rr=1.00) shows a perfect=1.00) shows a perfect
positive relationship and apositive relationship and a
direct linear relationship.direct linear relationship.
These are indicated byThese are indicated by
students who participatedstudents who participated
in a first-year seminar.in a first-year seminar.
correlations (correlations (r=r=0.40) indicate0.40) indicate
a weak correlation, anda weak correlation, and
also indicate students whoalso indicate students who
did not participate in adid not participate in a
first-year seminar.first-year seminar.
Spearman Rank OrderSpearman Rank Order
Triangulation of SpearmanTriangulation of Spearman
Rank Order with the PearsonRank Order with the Pearson
Correlation are symmetricalCorrelation are symmetrical
and Also shows a strongand Also shows a strong
linear relationship whichlinear relationship which
substantiates these results.substantiates these results.
Results suggests that first-Results suggests that first-
year seminars areyear seminars are
effective.effective.
One-Tail t Test Genesis (One-Tail t Test Genesis (pp < 0.05)< 0.05)
Test Value +1.65 (95%Test Value +1.65 (95%
probability)probability)
Result indicated there is aResult indicated there is a
significant difference insignificant difference in
students who participatedstudents who participated
in Genesis and student notin Genesis and student not
participating.participating.
95% Confidence Interval of95% Confidence Interval of
the Difference in the Upperthe Difference in the Upper
TailTail
Lowest to HighestLowest to Highest
2.10-2.482.10-2.48
Mean Difference – Lowest toMean Difference – Lowest to
HighestHighest
1.88-2.301.88-2.30
Assumes a Normal DistributionAssumes a Normal Distribution
The null hypothesis (The null hypothesis (Ho)Ho)
Rejected; the test statisticRejected; the test statistic
falls within the criticalfalls within the critical
region. (Type I Error)region. (Type I Error)
One-Tail t Test First-Year Seminar (One-Tail t Test First-Year Seminar (pp < 0.05< 0.05))
Test Value +1.65 (95% probability)Test Value +1.65 (95% probability)
95% Confidence Interval of the95% Confidence Interval of the
Difference in the Upper TailDifference in the Upper Tail
Lowest to Highest:Lowest to Highest:
1.86-2.261.86-2.26
Mean Difference – Lowest toMean Difference – Lowest to
Highest:Highest:
1.66-2.091.66-2.09
Results indicate a statisticallyResults indicate a statistically
significant difference insignificant difference in
students participating instudents participating in
First-Year Seminars andFirst-Year Seminars and
students not participating instudents not participating in
First-Year Seminars.First-Year Seminars.
Assumes a normal distribution;Assumes a normal distribution;
the (the (HoHo) null hypothesis) null hypothesis
rejected.rejected.
Test statistic falls within theTest statistic falls within the
critical region (Type I Error)critical region (Type I Error)
95% Probability Rule95% Probability Rule
Assumptions and LimitationsAssumptions and Limitations
 Research corresponded with the statistical analyses used toResearch corresponded with the statistical analyses used to
analyze the data.analyze the data.
 Relationships between the independent variables and theRelationships between the independent variables and the
dependent variables are bivariately normally distributed.dependent variables are bivariately normally distributed.
 Primary limitation relates to sample size and measurementPrimary limitation relates to sample size and measurement
of attributes such as gender, race and ethnicity, age,of attributes such as gender, race and ethnicity, age,
attendance, attendance status due to sample size.attendance, attendance status due to sample size.
 Possible primary limitation is range of the data throughPossible primary limitation is range of the data through
exclusion of missing values; this could have skewed resultsexclusion of missing values; this could have skewed results
significantly in either direction.significantly in either direction.
 Other variables not used in the study that may predictOther variables not used in the study that may predict
retention and persistence could have been statisticallyretention and persistence could have been statistically
significant.significant.
 Amount of variance unaccounted for suggests othersAmount of variance unaccounted for suggests others
variables not outlined in the literature review may bevariables not outlined in the literature review may be
significant in predicting persistence and retention.significant in predicting persistence and retention.
Recommendations For Future ResearchRecommendations For Future Research
Conduct surveys in class to ensure 100% student participation.Conduct surveys in class to ensure 100% student participation.
Conduct surveys that disaggregate the population into groups.Conduct surveys that disaggregate the population into groups.
Conduct a quantitative-qualitative survey that would produceConduct a quantitative-qualitative survey that would produce
data about :data about :
 GenderGender
 MajorsMajors
 RaceRace
 EthnicityEthnicity
 Residential StatusResidential Status
Advantages:Advantages:
 Obtaining a larger sample sizeObtaining a larger sample size
 Allows for some subjectivityAllows for some subjectivity
 Better determine the specific needs of each groupBetter determine the specific needs of each group
Disadvantage:Disadvantage:
Coding of responsesCoding of responses
Future ImplicationsFuture Implications
 Results shows that participating in first-year initiatives is aResults shows that participating in first-year initiatives is a
potentially significant factor when it comes to studentpotentially significant factor when it comes to student
attrition, but in combination with other factors.attrition, but in combination with other factors.
 No one factor is a sole predictor of potential attrition, but itNo one factor is a sole predictor of potential attrition, but it
is a mixture of variables that the propensity for attrition.is a mixture of variables that the propensity for attrition.
 Further investigation would benefit students as well asFurther investigation would benefit students as well as
encourage them to persist; thus, decreasing drop-out ratesencourage them to persist; thus, decreasing drop-out rates
of colleges and universities.of colleges and universities.
 Research adds to the growing body of knowledge in thatResearch adds to the growing body of knowledge in that
student perception is a great indication of how effective first-student perception is a great indication of how effective first-
year initiatives areyear initiatives are
ConclusionConclusion Higher persistence rates areHigher persistence rates are
associated with high responseassociated with high response
rates on the Likert Scale, andrates on the Likert Scale, and
strong correlation coefficients.strong correlation coefficients.
 Wide gaps in responses andWide gaps in responses and
weak correlations indicate aweak correlations indicate a
need to examine specific areasneed to examine specific areas
closer.closer.
 There is a need for all “first-There is a need for all “first-
time in college” students totime in college” students to
participate in freshmanparticipate in freshman
seminars and first-yearseminars and first-year
programsprograms
 Research hypothesis wasResearch hypothesis was
validated:validated: “Students who“Students who
participate in freshmanparticipate in freshman
seminars and first-yearseminars and first-year
programs will tend to persistprograms will tend to persist
to the sophomore year.”to the sophomore year.”
 Research question wasResearch question was
answered:answered: “What are the“What are the
correlations betweencorrelations between
freshman seminars andfreshman seminars and
first-year initiatives?”first-year initiatives?”
 Correlations showed thatCorrelations showed that
there is a positive linearthere is a positive linear
relationship in studentsrelationship in students
who participate in freshmanwho participate in freshman
seminars and first-yearseminars and first-year
programsprograms..
 Hypothesis testingHypothesis testing
demonstrated that there is ademonstrated that there is a
statistical significance instatistical significance in
students who participate instudents who participate in
first-year initiatives and afirst-year initiatives and a
difference in nonparticipantsdifference in nonparticipants
as evidenced by a 95%as evidenced by a 95%
probability confidence intervalprobability confidence interval

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Effectiveness of freshman seminars and first year programs on[1]

  • 1. Effectiveness ofEffectiveness of Freshman Seminars andFreshman Seminars and First-Year Programs onFirst-Year Programs on Student RetentionStudent Retention Thesis DefenseThesis Defense PRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSONPRESENTER: DEBRA JOHNSON ADVISOR: DR. DAVIDADVISOR: DR. DAVID ROBINSONROBINSON June 23, 2012June 23, 2012 Kaplan UniversityKaplan University Desmoine, IowaDesmoine, Iowa
  • 2. Statement of the ProblemStatement of the Problem  Retaining a student is fundamental toRetaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carrythe ability of an institution to carry out its mission.out its mission.  A high attrition rate is a fiscalA high attrition rate is a fiscal problem for schools.problem for schools.  Loss of tuitionLoss of tuition  Loss of majors in some departmentsLoss of majors in some departments
  • 3. MethodologyMethodology Research QuestionResearch Question ““What are the correlation of freshmanWhat are the correlation of freshman seminars and first-year experiences onseminars and first-year experiences on student persistence and retention?”student persistence and retention?” Research HypothesisResearch Hypothesis ““Students who participate in freshmanStudents who participate in freshman seminars and first-year experiences tend toseminars and first-year experiences tend to persist to the sophomore year.”persist to the sophomore year.”
  • 4. MethodologyMethodology ParticipantsParticipants Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students atat George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University Sophomore StudentsSophomore Students atat George Fox UniversityGeorge Fox University
  • 5. MethodologyMethodology IndependentIndependent Variables :Variables :  Academic AdvisingAcademic Advising  OrientationOrientation  Financial AidFinancial Aid  StudentStudent InvolvementInvolvement DependentDependent VariablesVariables Student RetentionStudent Retention PersistencePersistence
  • 6. Mediating VariablesMediating Variables  AgeAge  GenderGender  Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity  AttendanceAttendance StatusStatus  AttendanceAttendance Status in FamilyStatus in Family  FreshmanFreshman seminarseminar
  • 7. InstrumentationInstrumentation Quantitative Online SurveyQuantitative Online Survey 5-Point Likert Scale5-Point Likert Scale  1= Strongly disagree1= Strongly disagree  2= Disagree2= Disagree  3= Neither disagree nor agree3= Neither disagree nor agree  4= Agree4= Agree  5= Strongly Agree5= Strongly Agree (Created within SurveyMonkey.com)(Created within SurveyMonkey.com)
  • 8. DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS DescriptiveDescriptive StatisticsStatistics InferentialInferential StatisticsStatistics Spearman Rho (RankSpearman Rho (Rank Order) CorrelationOrder) Correlation Pearson Moment (Pearson Moment (r)r) One-tail test SignificantOne-tail test Significant ((p<p<0.01)0.01) Hypothesis TestingHypothesis Testing One Tail t TestOne Tail t Test ((pp < 0.05)< 0.05) 95%Conficence95%Conficence IntervalInterval meanmean modemode medianmedian rangerange Standard deviationStandard deviation
  • 9. DATA ANALYSIS ANDDATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGSFINDINGS
  • 10. DemographicsDemographics Gender/Age (N=137)Gender/Age (N=137) Missing (female 25) orMissing (female 25) or olderolder *Females 18-25 – 60.2%*Females 18-25 – 60.2% Males 18-25 – 38.2%Males 18-25 – 38.2% Males 25 or older – 1.5%Males 25 or older – 1.5% Indicates more femalesIndicates more females than males attendingthan males attending college on a full-timecollege on a full-time basisbasis *Indicates large*Indicates large percentage of studentspercentage of students are traditional studentsare traditional students attending full-time.attending full-time. 39% of nontraditional39% of nontraditional students are malestudents are male attending full-timeattending full-time Race/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity (N=137)(N=137) Hispanic/Latinos 3.7%Hispanic/Latinos 3.7% American Indian/AlaskanAmerican Indian/Alaskan Natives 1.5%Natives 1.5% *Black or African American*Black or African American 1.5%1.5% Asian 11.1%Asian 11.1% *White 82.2%*White 82.2%
  • 11. DemographicsDemographics AttendanceAttendance (N=137)(N=137) Total Responses 130Total Responses 130 *Full-time student*Full-time student >Participated in first->Participated in first- year seminar 89.2%year seminar 89.2% Full- time student >DidFull- time student >Did not participate in first-not participate in first- year seminar 10.8%year seminar 10.8% Part-time students (NoPart-time students (No responses)responses) Attendance Status inAttendance Status in familyfamily (N=137)(N=137) Total Responses 130Total Responses 130 First to attend college inFirst to attend college in family -20.8%family -20.8% *Not the first to attend*Not the first to attend college in family 79.2%college in family 79.2%
  • 12. Cumulative StatisticsCumulative Statistics Mean 3.10-4.00Mean 3.10-4.00 Median 3.00-4.29Median 3.00-4.29 Mode 4.00-5.00Mode 4.00-5.00 Std. Deviation 0.82-1.17Std. Deviation 0.82-1.17 Range 4.00Range 4.00 Indicates that perceptions amongIndicates that perceptions among all variables tested wereall variables tested were normally distributed andnormally distributed and clearly assumes a normalclearly assumes a normal distribution as evidenced bydistribution as evidenced by the 3 middle scores on the bellthe 3 middle scores on the bell curve; the spread of scorescurve; the spread of scores were not statisticallywere not statistically significant.significant. 30%-40% or greater on all30%-40% or greater on all responses indicated thatresponses indicated that students were satisfied withstudents were satisfied with the level of academic advising,the level of academic advising, financial aid, Genesis, First-financial aid, Genesis, First- Year seminar as well asYear seminar as well as student involvementstudent involvement experiences on campus. ofexperiences on campus. of these responses, the lowestthese responses, the lowest responses was 1.0%.responses was 1.0%.
  • 13. CorrelationsCorrelations Orientation/Genesis (Orientation/Genesis (p <p < 0.01)0.01) Pearson CorrelationPearson Correlation Perfect positive correlations ofPerfect positive correlations of ((r=r=1.00) indicate there is a1.00) indicate there is a direct association betweendirect association between variables, shows a strongvariables, shows a strong linear relationship. andlinear relationship. and suggests that Weakersuggests that Weaker correlations (correlations (rr= 0.40)= 0.40) indicated students who didindicated students who did not participate in annot participate in an orientation program.orientation program. Alpha levels (Alpha levels (p<p<0.000)0.000) indicated no difference.indicated no difference. Spearman Rank OrderSpearman Rank Order Triangulation of SpearmanTriangulation of Spearman Rank Order with theRank Order with the Pearson Correlation arePearson Correlation are symmetricalsymmetrical and Alsoand Also shows a strong linearshows a strong linear relationship whichrelationship which substantiates these results.substantiates these results. Results suggests thatResults suggests that orientation programsorientation programs are effective.are effective.
  • 14. FIRST-YEAR SEMINAR (FIRST-YEAR SEMINAR (p <p < 0.01)0.01) Pearson CorrelationPearson Correlation Correlations (r=0.50) orCorrelations (r=0.50) or greater between variablesgreater between variables indicate a strongindicate a strong relationship; correlationsrelationship; correlations ((rr=1.00) shows a perfect=1.00) shows a perfect positive relationship and apositive relationship and a direct linear relationship.direct linear relationship. These are indicated byThese are indicated by students who participatedstudents who participated in a first-year seminar.in a first-year seminar. correlations (correlations (r=r=0.40) indicate0.40) indicate a weak correlation, anda weak correlation, and also indicate students whoalso indicate students who did not participate in adid not participate in a first-year seminar.first-year seminar. Spearman Rank OrderSpearman Rank Order Triangulation of SpearmanTriangulation of Spearman Rank Order with the PearsonRank Order with the Pearson Correlation are symmetricalCorrelation are symmetrical and Also shows a strongand Also shows a strong linear relationship whichlinear relationship which substantiates these results.substantiates these results. Results suggests that first-Results suggests that first- year seminars areyear seminars are effective.effective.
  • 15. One-Tail t Test Genesis (One-Tail t Test Genesis (pp < 0.05)< 0.05) Test Value +1.65 (95%Test Value +1.65 (95% probability)probability) Result indicated there is aResult indicated there is a significant difference insignificant difference in students who participatedstudents who participated in Genesis and student notin Genesis and student not participating.participating. 95% Confidence Interval of95% Confidence Interval of the Difference in the Upperthe Difference in the Upper TailTail Lowest to HighestLowest to Highest 2.10-2.482.10-2.48 Mean Difference – Lowest toMean Difference – Lowest to HighestHighest 1.88-2.301.88-2.30 Assumes a Normal DistributionAssumes a Normal Distribution The null hypothesis (The null hypothesis (Ho)Ho) Rejected; the test statisticRejected; the test statistic falls within the criticalfalls within the critical region. (Type I Error)region. (Type I Error)
  • 16. One-Tail t Test First-Year Seminar (One-Tail t Test First-Year Seminar (pp < 0.05< 0.05)) Test Value +1.65 (95% probability)Test Value +1.65 (95% probability) 95% Confidence Interval of the95% Confidence Interval of the Difference in the Upper TailDifference in the Upper Tail Lowest to Highest:Lowest to Highest: 1.86-2.261.86-2.26 Mean Difference – Lowest toMean Difference – Lowest to Highest:Highest: 1.66-2.091.66-2.09 Results indicate a statisticallyResults indicate a statistically significant difference insignificant difference in students participating instudents participating in First-Year Seminars andFirst-Year Seminars and students not participating instudents not participating in First-Year Seminars.First-Year Seminars. Assumes a normal distribution;Assumes a normal distribution; the (the (HoHo) null hypothesis) null hypothesis rejected.rejected. Test statistic falls within theTest statistic falls within the critical region (Type I Error)critical region (Type I Error)
  • 17. 95% Probability Rule95% Probability Rule
  • 18. Assumptions and LimitationsAssumptions and Limitations  Research corresponded with the statistical analyses used toResearch corresponded with the statistical analyses used to analyze the data.analyze the data.  Relationships between the independent variables and theRelationships between the independent variables and the dependent variables are bivariately normally distributed.dependent variables are bivariately normally distributed.  Primary limitation relates to sample size and measurementPrimary limitation relates to sample size and measurement of attributes such as gender, race and ethnicity, age,of attributes such as gender, race and ethnicity, age, attendance, attendance status due to sample size.attendance, attendance status due to sample size.  Possible primary limitation is range of the data throughPossible primary limitation is range of the data through exclusion of missing values; this could have skewed resultsexclusion of missing values; this could have skewed results significantly in either direction.significantly in either direction.  Other variables not used in the study that may predictOther variables not used in the study that may predict retention and persistence could have been statisticallyretention and persistence could have been statistically significant.significant.  Amount of variance unaccounted for suggests othersAmount of variance unaccounted for suggests others variables not outlined in the literature review may bevariables not outlined in the literature review may be significant in predicting persistence and retention.significant in predicting persistence and retention.
  • 19. Recommendations For Future ResearchRecommendations For Future Research Conduct surveys in class to ensure 100% student participation.Conduct surveys in class to ensure 100% student participation. Conduct surveys that disaggregate the population into groups.Conduct surveys that disaggregate the population into groups. Conduct a quantitative-qualitative survey that would produceConduct a quantitative-qualitative survey that would produce data about :data about :  GenderGender  MajorsMajors  RaceRace  EthnicityEthnicity  Residential StatusResidential Status Advantages:Advantages:  Obtaining a larger sample sizeObtaining a larger sample size  Allows for some subjectivityAllows for some subjectivity  Better determine the specific needs of each groupBetter determine the specific needs of each group Disadvantage:Disadvantage: Coding of responsesCoding of responses
  • 20. Future ImplicationsFuture Implications  Results shows that participating in first-year initiatives is aResults shows that participating in first-year initiatives is a potentially significant factor when it comes to studentpotentially significant factor when it comes to student attrition, but in combination with other factors.attrition, but in combination with other factors.  No one factor is a sole predictor of potential attrition, but itNo one factor is a sole predictor of potential attrition, but it is a mixture of variables that the propensity for attrition.is a mixture of variables that the propensity for attrition.  Further investigation would benefit students as well asFurther investigation would benefit students as well as encourage them to persist; thus, decreasing drop-out ratesencourage them to persist; thus, decreasing drop-out rates of colleges and universities.of colleges and universities.  Research adds to the growing body of knowledge in thatResearch adds to the growing body of knowledge in that student perception is a great indication of how effective first-student perception is a great indication of how effective first- year initiatives areyear initiatives are
  • 21. ConclusionConclusion Higher persistence rates areHigher persistence rates are associated with high responseassociated with high response rates on the Likert Scale, andrates on the Likert Scale, and strong correlation coefficients.strong correlation coefficients.  Wide gaps in responses andWide gaps in responses and weak correlations indicate aweak correlations indicate a need to examine specific areasneed to examine specific areas closer.closer.  There is a need for all “first-There is a need for all “first- time in college” students totime in college” students to participate in freshmanparticipate in freshman seminars and first-yearseminars and first-year programsprograms  Research hypothesis wasResearch hypothesis was validated:validated: “Students who“Students who participate in freshmanparticipate in freshman seminars and first-yearseminars and first-year programs will tend to persistprograms will tend to persist to the sophomore year.”to the sophomore year.”  Research question wasResearch question was answered:answered: “What are the“What are the correlations betweencorrelations between freshman seminars andfreshman seminars and first-year initiatives?”first-year initiatives?”  Correlations showed thatCorrelations showed that there is a positive linearthere is a positive linear relationship in studentsrelationship in students who participate in freshmanwho participate in freshman seminars and first-yearseminars and first-year programsprograms..  Hypothesis testingHypothesis testing demonstrated that there is ademonstrated that there is a statistical significance instatistical significance in students who participate instudents who participate in first-year initiatives and afirst-year initiatives and a difference in nonparticipantsdifference in nonparticipants as evidenced by a 95%as evidenced by a 95% probability confidence intervalprobability confidence interval