Psychological Perspectives


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Psychological Perspectives

  1. 1. Criminal Psychology – The Five Psychological Perspectives
  2. 2. Behaviourism <ul><li>Emerged through the belief that for psychology to be a science it must deal with what is OBSERVABLE and MEASURABLE – Human behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of behaviourism is the prediction and control of behaviour. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Behaviourism <ul><li>No fundamental distinction between human and animal behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted experiments on rats, cats, dogs, pigeons, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>PAVLOV’S DOGS </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a technique where dogs’ saliva could be collected in a tube outside its cheek – could be easily measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered dogs salivated before seeing food, eg, if they saw feeding bucket or heard staff’s footsteps. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pavlov’s Dogs <ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Food Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>( unconditioned stimulus) (unconditioned response) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Food Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>(Conditioned stimulus) (unconditioned stimulus) (unconditioned response) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>( Conditioned stimulus) (conditioned Response) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning (Skinner) <ul><li>Believed learning more active than classical conditioning determined. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed behaviour more voluntary- likelihood of behaviour being repeated is a function of past consequences of behaviour. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Thorndike Box Experiment <ul><li>Cats were deprived of food before experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Each time cat opened door – given piece of fish and then put back in box. </li></ul><ul><li>More cats returned to box the less time it took them to operate latch. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning essentially random – a gradual reduction in number of errors made reduced the escape time. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Behaviourism <ul><li>Popular until 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses that bring about pleasure are likely to be repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses that bring about discomfort are likely not to be repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of criminal behaviour – result of learning maladaptive responses or the failure of learning adaptive ones in first place. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Psychoanalytic Psychology <ul><li>Freud - most influential psychologist of all time. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious mind – central concept – individuals are unaware of many factors that cause their behaviour and emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual instinct known as the libido. </li></ul><ul><li>ID, EGO, SUPEREGO. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>Oral phase </li></ul><ul><li>Sadistic anal phase </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic phase </li></ul><ul><li>Genital phase </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed criminals had disturbances of the ego which resulted in inability to be honest. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Psychodynamic Theories of Crime <ul><li>Proposed two different models of criminal behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by particular mental disturbance/illness, neuroses due to disruption at stage of psychosexual development, childhood trauma, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal possesses weak conscience. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Psychodynamic theories of Crime <ul><li>Aichorn (1925) </li></ul><ul><li>Offenders have underdeveloped ego – caused by absent or problematic attachment with parents in childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of criminal: </li></ul><ul><li>Those with fully developed consciences but identified with criminal parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who had been able to do whatever they liked by over-indulgent parents. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Humanistic Psychology - Carl Rogers (1902-1987) <ul><li>Founder of person-centred therapy (1947) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Basic assumptions <ul><li>People are naturally trustworthy & good </li></ul><ul><li>People are able to understand their own problems. </li></ul><ul><li>People are capable of self-growth. </li></ul><ul><li>People are capable of living effective and productive lives. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Positive regard <ul><li>Rogers believed that humans NEED: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive regard </li></ul><ul><li>Positive self-regard . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Person centred therapy <ul><li>Therapist must show these three qualities: </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Congruence </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard : </li></ul>
  17. 17. Humanism cont/d Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  18. 18. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Interested in the physical basis for human behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>How the functions of the nervous system, endocrine system, etc affect behaviour and mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsychology inc. – neuro-anatomy, developmental neurobiology, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, etc. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Includes study of localisation of brain function, sleep studies & physical changes in brain associated with learning, memory, motivation and stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Also relevant to area of head injuries. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Biological Theories <ul><li>Crime – biological theorists might try to identify particular characteristics of offender, eg. Genetic make-up, brain activity, hormonal imbalances, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Looks at the mind like a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive processes – our thoughts, including ideas, beliefs and mental images. </li></ul><ul><li>Examines internal mental processes like memory, problem solving, language. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at the way people understand, diagnose and solve problems . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cognitive Psychology Within criminal psychology v. important for things such as understanding the memory processes in eyewitness testimony.
  23. 23. Cognitive Therapy <ul><li>Negative thinking can trigger certain health problems – eg anxiety, depression, phobias, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapist to help you to understand your current thought patterns – to identify any “false” ideas or thoughts which can trigger your health problem or make it worse. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Behaviour therapy <ul><li>Aims to change any unhealthy behaviours. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Teaches someone to avoid situations that can make them anxious, or encourage them to engage in unhealthy behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure therapy for treatment of phobias. Therapist teaches you to control and cope with anxiety, eg deep breathing, etc. </li></ul>