Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATES
  2. 2. What is a Carbohydrate? <ul><li>Carbohydrates are made of only three elements – carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio will ALWAYS be 1C : 2H : 1O – [ C H 2 O ] (the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Are often soluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Usually end in “-ose” (e.g. glucOSE) </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main types of carbohydrates… </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Monosaccharides <ul><li>“ Simple sugars” – used by the cells for ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>Mono saccharide – ‘single sugar’ </li></ul><ul><li>5 carbon monosaccharide: ribose ( ATP/DNA ) </li></ul><ul><li>6 carbon monosaccharides: glucose plus several other simple sugars (fructose) </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Glucose subunits are the monomers for carbohydrate macromolecule polymers. </li></ul>
  5. 7. 2. Disaccharides <ul><li>“ double sugar” - Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Two monosaccharides that are put together (dehydration synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>For example..sucrose (common table sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose (monomer) + Fructose (monomer) </li></ul>
  6. 8. So, what’s the chemical formula for sucrose? <ul><li>Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) + fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>= sucrose (C 12 H 24 O 12 ) – Right? </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG!! </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule of water is removed (dehydrated) every time monomers are put together – you must subtract H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Your answer should be… </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose – C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul>
  7. 9. Other disaccharide examples… <ul><li>2 glucose subunits </li></ul>
  8. 10. 3. Polysaccharides <ul><li>“ many sugars” </li></ul><ul><li>All polysaccharides are macromolecules. </li></ul><ul><li>All polysaccharides are polymers of anywhere from several hundred to several thousand glucose monomers </li></ul><ul><li>(Remember dehydration synthesis?...) </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the chemical formula for a polysaccharide of 15 glucose molecules? </li></ul>
  9. 11. 15 glucose molecules <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 x 15 = C 90 H 180 O 90 </li></ul><ul><li>(14 bonds) minus H 28 O 14 </li></ul><ul><li> C 90 H 152 O 76 </li></ul>
  10. 12. There are two types of polysaccharides <ul><li>Storage Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>A. In plants – STARCH </li></ul><ul><li>B. In Animals – GLYCOGEN (“animal starch”) </li></ul><ul><li>it’s found in liver and muscle tissue…. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Structural Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>A. In plants – CELLULOSE – the most abundant organic compound on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose can’t be digested by most animals so it passes through our digestive tract undigested. What’s it called?... </li></ul><ul><li>FIBER </li></ul><ul><li>We lack the correct enzyme in our intestines…therefore, cellulose is NOT considered a nutrient. </li></ul>
  12. 15. What’s the difference between starch and cellulose? <ul><li>We can digest starch but we can’t digest cellulose. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>It has to do with the structure of the polysaccharides… </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating pattern vs a non-alternating pattern of the glucose monomers </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Cellulose is found in all plant cell walls…that’s why it’s considered a structural polysaccharide (as opposed to a storage polysaccharide) </li></ul><ul><li>But cellulose is not the only structural polysaccharide. There is another one found only in animals…it’s called… </li></ul><ul><li>B. CHITIN </li></ul><ul><li>Chitin is the main chemical found in the exoskeletons of lobsters, insects, etc… </li></ul>

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