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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATES.
  2. 2. WHAT ARE CARBOHYDRATES? <ul><li>Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, cellulose and glycogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are needed for storage and liberation of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>All carbohydrates contain the following elements: carbon </li></ul><ul><li>hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul>
  3. 3. The carbohydrate groups. <ul><li>Carbohydrates can be divided up into three groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide-”single sugars” eg glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides –”double sugars” eg sucrose. </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides-”multiple sugars” eg starch </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide and disaccharides are sugars that are sweet and soluble. </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides are polymers that are not sweet or soluble. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Monosaccharide. <ul><li>The commonest Monosaccharide is glucose which exists in two forms: α glucose and β glucose. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How glucose molecules join together. Two glucose molecules are linked by a condensation reaction. this results in the formation of a disaccharide called maltose. The two monosaccharides are linked by a glycosidic bond (c-o-c ) and the molecules share an oxygen atom. During the condensation reaction water is formed.
  6. 6. Disaccharides <ul><li>The common examples of these double sugars are maltose, sucrose and lactose. </li></ul><ul><li>Maltose is formed from two glucose molecules. It is found in germinating seeds when starch is broken down. </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose is formed from glucose and fructose molecules. It is found in the phloem tubes in plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose is formed from glucose and galactose. It is found in milk. </li></ul>
  7. 7. polysaccharides <ul><li>Polysaccharides are formed from thousands of glucose molecules and are classified as polymers. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three polysaccharides that need to be studied: </li></ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul><ul><li>glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>cellulose. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Starch. <ul><li>Starch is the main storage material in plants. starch is insoluble and compact , but it is easily available for use by the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch consists of two compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>1. amylose –this is made up of a single chain of α glucose molecules that form spirals. </li></ul><ul><li>2. amylopectin- this is made up of branched chains of α glucose. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structure of starch
  10. 10. Amylose.
  11. 11. amylose
  12. 12. Amylopectin.
  13. 14. Glycogen. <ul><li>Glycogen is the main storage carbohydrate in animals. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a similar structure to amylopectin, but it has more branches. </li></ul><ul><li>It structure allows it to be quickly built up or broken down , matching the animals needs. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Structure of glycogen.
  15. 17. Cellulose. <ul><li>Cellulose forms the main part of the cell wall in plants cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose is made up of β glucose molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>The slight difference between α and β glucose molecules means that instead of a spiral, β glucose molecules form chains that are long and straight. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Structure of cellulose. Hydrogen bonds Parallel chains of β glucose molecules.
  17. 19. <ul><li>The long straight chains lie parallel to each other and hydrogen bonds form along the length of the chain. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual cellulose chains are bound together to form strong fibrils. These fibrils are glued together to form cell walls. </li></ul>

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