Substituted Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbons that is changed byreplacing one or more hydrogen atoms with another atom(s). The hydrogen can be replaced by various molecules/atoms, one example is a halogen group (Cl, F, etc).
toxic chemicalChloromethane paint remover Dichloromethane non stick frying panTrichloromethane toxic chemical Carbon tetrachloride
Alcohols The hydroxyl group is ______. -OH An alcohol is formed when a hydroxylgroup replaces a hydrogen atom in ahydrocarbon.
Ethanol is an alcohol producednaturally when sugar in corn, grains, andfruit ferments.
Carboxylic Acid A carboxyl group consists of a carbonatom that has a double bond with oneoxygen atom and a single bond with ahydroxyl group. Its formula is COOH. When a carboxyl group is substituted in ahydrocarbon, the substance formed iscalled a carboxylic acid.
Carboxylic Acid Many carboxylic acids occur infoods. Citric acid is found in citrus fruitssuch as oranges and grapefruit. Lactic acid is present in sour milk. Acetic acid dissolved in water, thisis also known as vinegar.
Amines Amines are a group of substitutedhydrocarbons formed when anamino group (NH2) replaces ahydrogen atom. Methylamine is formed when one ofthe hydrogens in methane is replacedwith an amino group.
Amines A more complex amine is thenovocaine dentists once used tonumb your mouth during dentalwork.
Amino Acids When BOTH an amino group (NH2)and a carboxyl acid group (COOH)replace hydrogens on the samecarbon atom in a molecule, anamino acid is formed. Amino acids are essential forhuman life.
Amino AcidsThere are 20 amino acids that are needed in thebody.They are formed by replacing the yellowhighlighted hydrogen atom with different groups.For example, in alanine,one hydrogen atom is replaced by a methyl (CH3)group.
Proteins The 20 different amino acids bond in differentcombinations to form a large variety ofproteins. These are needed in the human body. Some amino acids are made in our bodiesand are called nonessential. The essential amino acids, must beconsumed by eating protein-rich foods. The human body stores fat and starches forlater use, but it does not store excess aminoacids for later use—these amino acids musteaten every day.
Proteins Proteins can be as long as approximately25,000 amino acids long. WOW!! That’s long!