Thereare a ton of elements involved in life processes but thankfully, all of them can be divided into 4 main groups: 1. Carbohydrates ______________________ 2. Proteins ______________________ 3. Lipids ______________________ 4. Nucleic Acids ______________________ Don’t pretend you aren’t jealous of this sweet Tee.
What3 elements comprise all carbo- hydrates and in what arrangement? • It’s important that your remember this…especially if you plan to take the SAT!
Most carbohydrates have a common suffix. What is it? “-ose”
Can you name some carbs? • The group that can come up with the most will receive some carbs, too! (Just make sure you burn ‘em off, or they’ll end up on those hips!) Game on. Glucose Cellulose Fructose Ribose Maltose Deoxyribose Sucrose Starch Lactose Chitin
The scientific term for a carbohydrate is a saccharide ______________________, which literally translates to sugar. Carbs range from very simple molecules to very complex molecules. Name ‘em. Increasing complexityMonosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide
Thesimplest sugars are referred to as monosaccharides. What is a monosaccharide? A single-ringed carb. What does one look like? Pentagonal Hexagonal
Whatare some examples of monosaccharides?Glucose Dextrose Ribose
Asyou already know, the chemical formula of almost all carbs is a mix of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. Some sugars even have the same exact chemical formula but have different structural formulas.
Can you think of 2 monosaccharides that have the same chemical formula but a completely different structural formula? *This will be an exam question!
GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE C6H12O6 C6H12O6 Bland taste 70X sweeter Hexagonal than glucose Pentagonal CH2OH O C O OH CH2OH H OH H C C C C HO2HC H OH H H OH H OH C C C C H OH H OH
What is a disaccharide?A 2-ringed carb (AKA, carb made of 2 monosacc’s.) Sucrose Maltose Lactose
What is a polysaccharide? A carb made of many rings or monosacc’s.
Depending on their structure and the monosaccharides they’re comprised of, polysacchardies can have one of 2 functions… …storing energy or providing structure! FAMOUS POLYSACCHARIDES STORING ENERGY... PROVIDING STRUCTURE...In plants... In animals.... In plants... In animals...
Why is it so appropriate to differentiate betweenthe “road muffin” of a horse and the “cow pie” of acow? Because cows can break downcellulose…horses cannot! (Hence, the consistency of the dung…)
How are disaccharides built? By removing water! What is this process called?“Dehydration Synthesis”or “Condensation”
The human body cannot utilize most complex carbohydrates. Instead, they have to be broken down into smaller monosaccharides. How does this work? By adding water! (“Hydrolysis”)
Over 50 _________% of all the organic compounds in your body are composed of protein. What is the main function of protein? To make us 3D!
Because proteins are so numerous, there’s no way you’re going to be able to memorize all the different types. However, most proteins can be lumped into 3 categories… 1. Membranous proteins _____________________________________ 2. Enzymes _____________________________________ 3. Hormones _____________________________________
Since there are such a large number of proteins, the number of functions are also unending. Can you name at least 5 basic functions of protein? 1.) Building muscle
Since there are such a large number of proteins, the number of functions are also unending. Can you name at least 5 basic functions of protein?2.) Catalyzing rxns (using enzymes)
Since there are such a large number of proteins, the number of functions are also unending. Can you name at least 5 basic functions of protein?3.) Signaling responses (hormones)
Since there are such a large number of proteins, the number of functions are also unending. Can you name at least 5 basic functions of protein?4.) Helping with cellular interactions
Since there are such a large number of proteins, the number of functions are also unending. Can you name at least 5 basic functions of protein? 5.) Provide structure/support
Likecarbs, proteins also have a basic subunit or monomer. It is called an amino acid _______________. Similarly,just as almost all carbs have the suffix “-ose,” almost all amino acids have the suffix ______________ with the -“ine” exception of 3.
How many total amino acids are there on the 20 planet? ____ How many amino acids are 9 essential to human life? ____
There are 3 components to an amino acid: carboxyl group amino group “R-group”
In order to build a house, you need to stack some bricks. Think of amino acids as “bricks” and the complete protein as the “house.”Amino Acid House Protein Amino Bricks Acids Complete Protein
Howdoes one build a protein? (i.e., how are amino acids linked?) Dehydration synthesis! • Draw a diagram to show how proteins are built! peptide bond AA AA OH HO AA AA AA dipeptide polypeptide H2O removed (complete protein)
Depending on how the polypeptides are arranged, they can form 4 basic structures of proteins (which, of course, have different functions): 1. Primary protein 2. Secondary protein 3. Tertiary protein 4. Quaternary
PROTEIN SHAPE ROLE Linear Nonfunctional(simple chain) Folded Nonfunctional; or structural only! Spiraled Makes up hair. Functional Coiled Ball (e.g., enzymes) Group of Functional coiled balls (e.g., hemoglobin)
Just as proteins are built through dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis they are broken down by ______________________. protein This disassembling of proteins is called _________________ denaturation _____________________ and can be caused by a number of factors, including…1.) heat2.) acids/bases3.) heavy metals4.) alcohol5.) excessive sodium
What is a lipid?Any hydrophobic substance…anything that repels water. Howcan you distinguish lipids from other molecules? “Hydrocarbon” chains.
Technically, lipids are not synonymous with fats. Lipids≠ Fats What is a lipid then? A CATEGORY that includes fats, among other substances.
LIPIDS Fat-solubleFats Waxes Steroids Vitamins Triglycerides (in food) Chol- Vitamins A, D, E & K esterol Adipose (in human body)
Sincethere are 4 main types of lipids, lipids also perform a variety of functions, including, but not limited to… 1. Energy storage ___________________________________________ 2. Cushion/Insulation ___________________________________________ 3. Makes ear drum pliable ___________________________________________ 4. Adds strength/fluidity to PM ___________________________________________ 5. Maintains homeostasis! ___________________________________________
Fats are, by far, the most notable of all the lipids. “Fat” goes by many names. Fat tissue in the adipose human body is actually called ________________, wherein, the fat that’s crammed into the food you triglycerides eat is called _________________________.
Label the components of a triglyceride… fatty acid (notice, there are 3 of them)Glycerol
Whatis the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? SATURATED FATS UNSATURATED FATS
…but with the help ofOlestra, you can literallymake a hobby out it!
Asyou may have already guessed, fats (and all other lipid hydrocarbon chains) are built by dehydration synthesis ___________________________________________.
How do you think they’re broken down? (Is there a special name for this?) By adding water…Duh! However, this time it’s called “Lipolysis.”
Steroidsare, by far, the most diverse of all lipids. The most important of all steroids cholesterol in humans is _________________________.
Steroids are also the primary structure in many lipid hormones, such as testosterone _______________________________.
What are the 2 main functions of cholesterol?1. To add strength or fluidity to PMs ________________________________________
What are the 2 main functions of cholesterol?2. To serve as a “template” for ________________________________________ hormones and vitamins ________________________________________
Regardless of a steroid’s function, all steroids have one thing in common... …what is it? They’re made of 4 ester rings.
Recallthat some vitamins (A, D, E & K) are fat-soluble lipids. What exactly is a vitamin, anyway? Any necessary nutrient that your body cannot make in sufficient quantities.
Nucleic acids are the least diverse group of organic compounds in the human body. In fact, there are only 2 types of naturally- occurring nucleic acids on the planet: 1. DNA ________________________________ 2. RNA ________________________________
What is DNA? Your “genetic blueprints” What is the shape of DNA? Double Helix (“winding ladder”)
What are the 2 primary functions of DNA? 1. Code for traits ____________________________ (physical characteristics) ____________________________ ____________________________ 2. Code for RNA (the recipe for protein) ____________________________
All nucleic acids have basic building blocks (or monomers) called ___________________________. nucleotides What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? 1) a nitrogenous base _____________________________ deoxyribose sugar 2) _____________________________ a phosphate 3) _____________________________
Let’s think of DNA as a ladder… • What are the “rungs” or “steps” of the DNA ladder? the bases • What makes up the “side railing” of the DNA ladder?sugars and phosphates • Do we have a better term for this “side railing?” The “sugar-phosphate backbone”
All of the DNA in your body is made of around 6 billion total nucleotides. Just to give you a refer- ence of how huge 6 billion is…if you were to try to count to 6,000,000,000 (1 number/second) you would finish by roughly your 208th birthday The craziest thing is…the majority of the 6 billion nucleotides are exactly the same. Every single nucleotide is made up of an identical molecule of deoxyribose sugar and an identical molecule of phosphate
Sowhat, then, makes one human being different from another? The arrangement (or sequencing) of the nitrogenous bases! Let’s take a look.
How many different nitrogenous bases are there in DNA? ________ 4 We can divide these 4 bases into 2 main categories based on structure. What are they, what is their shape, and which bases are included in each? VS.
How are you going to remember which bases belong to which category for the test?“Angels and God are PURE of heart.” “Cool Tombs belong in PYRAMIDS.”
Inorder to make DNA, the 2 nitrogenous bases of nucleotides must be paired. What bases pair with each other? A—T C—G We call bases that pair with one another complementary ________________________________ bases.
Why does always pair with ? Why does always pair with ? Well, there are 3 reasons actually… 1.) A purine must always pair with a pyrmidine.
Why does always pair with ? Why does always pair with ? Well, there are 3 reasons actually… 2.) Hydrogen bonding… and
Why does always pair with ? Why does always pair with ? Well, there are 3 reasons actually… 3.) “Chargaff’s Rule”...the # of As matched the # of Ts, and so forth.30% 30% 20% 20%
DNA is really long. Even the Y chromosome, the smallest in the entire human genome, is more than 30 million base pairs long. From end to end, DNA is about a meter long…and we have to cram it into our tiny, tiny nucleus. That’s like trying to cram a 300-meter long rope into a backpack!
So, the question remains… *How the heck do we fit all of this DNA into a tiny little nucleus? The answer…By wrapping around histone proteins and coiling, and super-coiling into chromosomes!
WHEN DOES IT EXIST DNA “FORM” PICTURE DESCRIPTION IN THIS FORM? Loosely Interphase Chromatin packed (when the cell DNA isn’t dividing) Densely Mitosis orChromosomes packed Meiosis DNA (during cell division)
What are genes? What do genes code for? Sequences of nitrogenous bases. They code for… 1. Traits 2. RNA Whatdo you call the part of a chromo- some where genes are located? The gene locus.
Unfortunately,genes can also code for , which is nothing more than an abnormality in the base sequence of genes.
DNA is so complex that it cannot just be “made” by your body from scratch. Instead, each cell is responsible for copying its DNA before dividing. • DNA replication is very complex, but let’s simplify… DNA replication requires several enzymes, but you’re required to remember the 2 most important. ENZYME FUNCTION DNA (1) unwinds and Helicase (2) unzips DNA Adds complementary DNA bases to “parent” Polymerase strand
We call the process of “copying” DNA semiconservative replication __________________________________________________ because each “daughter” strand of DNA has half of the “parent” DNA strand. In other words, we’ve conserved the parent strand—half went to one daughter strand and the other half went to the other!
Recall that one of the functions of DNA is to code for proteins. However, DNA can’t do it alone. Proteins are made outside of the nucleus, and as we’ve discussed in class, DNA never leaves the nucleus. So, how does DNA code for proteins? By making a copy of the protein recipe = RNA!
DNA RNA Single- “-stranded” Double-stranded stranded Sugar Deoxyribose RiboseNitrogenous Bases A,T, C, G A, U, C, G
The process of “copying” DNA to make a strand of RNA transcription (recipe for protein) is called ___________________________. What enzyme is used? 1) RNA Polymerase ______________________________________