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Edgar Dale theorized that learners retain more information by
what they “do” as opposed to what is “heard”, “read” or
“obs...
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1
Verbal symbols
Visual symbols
Still pictures, recordings, radio
Television and mot...
Projected aids require
audiovisual equipment in order to be presented properly.
Most nonprojected aids may be adapted fo...
•Used to display images onto a screen or wall.
•It consists of a large box containing a cooling fan and an
extremely brigh...
History
Overhead projectors were used during World War II
as a tool to train groups of servicemen. In the 1950s and
'60s, ...
Advantages of OverHead Projector
It is possible for the teacher to observe the reactions of the students
There is no need ...
Resolution Problems
Cost to Replace Bulbs
Transportation
Displaying Material
Outdated Technology
Sequence of materials
A slide is a small piece of transparent material on
which a single pictorial image or scene or
graphic image has been phot...
Advantages
•Easily handled, stored and re-arranged for various uses.
•May be adapted to group or individual use.
•They att...
It is the combination of episcope and diascope.
When it is used to project an opaque object
it works as episcope and when ...
Enlarged forms of images will be shown
Ability to directly project the non-transparent or opaque objects
Various types of ...
A slide projector is a specialized machine which
uses slides to project images onto a wall or
screen.
Slides are small tra...
An LCD projector is a type of video projector
for displaying video, images or computer data
on a screen or other flat surf...
Video signals are comprised of three colors: red, green, and
blue.
LCD projectors contain a separate glass panel for each....
These devices use dichroic mirrors to split the light from the
input source into red, green, and blue components. Each the...
LCD delivers better colour saturation than a DLP (Digital Light
Processing) projector.
LCD also delivers sharper image tha...
They require maintenance, as pixels can burn out and dust
particles can interfere with image quality.
They also support se...
•To strengthen teachers skills in making teaching-learning process more
effective
•To attract and retain learners’ attenti...
Importance of Audio Visual aids
Motivation
Principle of activity
Clarification
Meaningful experience
Discouragement to cra...
Non Projected Aids
1. Graphic Aids - A graphic aid is a text feature that
helps the reader better understand the text
visu...
Types of Graphic Aids
•Graphic organizers are among the most popular
graphic aid used.
•They can be teacher created, as we...
Purposes:
•To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain
only in words.
•To highlight important points.
•To p...
Flow chart
Tree Chart
Stream Chart
Tabulation chart
Strip chart
Flip chart
Pictorial Chart
Pie Chart
Narrative chart
The c...
Flash cards
“Flash cards are a set of pictured paper cards of
varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical
seque...
Purposes:
•To teach the students.
•Useful for small group.
•Used in group discussions.
Principles
•The messages can be brief, and the content will be
written in few lines at the back of the each card.
•10” X 1...
Using the flashcards
•Give brief introduction about the lesson to students.
•Give instructions to students about their act...
Advantages
•Flash cards can be used to introduce and present topics.
•It can be used to apply information already gained b...
Disadvantages
•Can not be used for a large group
•Prone to get spoiled soon
•Preparation is time consuming.
Printed materials
Printed materials include textbooks, fiction and
nonfiction books, booklets, as well as word-processed
d...
Advantages of Print Materials
Extremely portable
High comfort level
Cost effective
Readily available
Availability.
Flexibi...
Disadvantages of Print Materials
No interactions
No audio/visual elements
Require reading skills
Time delay
Reading level
...
Guidelines for Incorporating Print Materials
•Distribute print materials well in advance
•Include clear directions for use...
Integration
•Presenting information.
•Students are given reading assignments and are held
accountable for the material dur...
Using Printed Materials in the Classroom
•Get learners actively involved with the materials.
•Direct student reading with ...
Bulletin board
Bulletin board is used for displaying bulletin
related activities, i.e. news items announcements
of forthco...
Educational use of Bulletin Board
•Explains important events, reports special activities
•It can act as a source of motiva...
Materials displayed on a Bulletin Board
Current events and news stories
•Announcements
•Pictures/Photographs
•Students col...
Disadvantages
•Not effective for illiterate group.
•Takes lot of preplanning and preparation
•The task of organizing the d...
Flannel board - Advantages
•Permits numerous and varied arrangements of visual
materials.
•Permits the development of a co...
Disadvantages
•Transportation and storing of boards and materials is
a problem.
•Suitable tables to support boards must be...
Activity aids
Student participation through direct experiences
can be easily incorporated, these are called activity
aids....
Field trips
According to Hedger ken Field trip may be
defined as “an educational procedure by which
the student studies fi...
Types of field trips
Depending on the place of visit and its duration,
field trips are mainly of the following four types,...
Advantages of field trip
•It provides accurate information in their real life setting.
•It provides meaningful direct expe...
Limitations of field trip
•A field trip may be occasional activity.
•They can be expensive and out of reach for many
disad...
Demonstrations
•Demonstration method is a concrete visual aid.
•The demonstration method teaches by explanation
and exhibi...
Advantages of demonstration
•It activates several senses.
•It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating
the ‘wh...
Experiment
An experiment is a learning activity in which students
collect and interpret observations using measuring
instr...
Dramatization
Dramatization is a very powerful method of
keeping the class room instruction lively and
interesting.
When a...
Types of dramatizations suitable for class room
instruction:-
1) Role-play
2) Play lets
3) Pageant
4) Pantomime
5) Tableaux
Advantages of dramatization
•Dramatization gives an added advantage of students
working as both observers (spectators) and...
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
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DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS

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Edgar dale’s cone of experience - projected aids: OHP, slides, LCD projector, Audio Conference, Video Conference, Epidiascope and Slide Projector - Non Projected Aids: Charts, Flash Cards, Printed Materials, Bulletin Board, Magnetic Board and Flannel Board. Need and important of Audio Visual aids – Types of Audio Visual Aids – Graphic Aids, Activity Aids.

Published in: Education
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DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS

  1. 1. Edgar Dale theorized that learners retain more information by what they “do” as opposed to what is “heard”, “read” or “observed”. His research led to the development of the Cone of Experience. The Cone was originally developed in 1946 and was intended as a way to describe various learning experiences. The Cone shows the progression of experiences from the most concrete (real)(at the bottom of the cone) to the most abstract(theoretical) (at the top of the cone).
  2. 2. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1 Verbal symbols Visual symbols Still pictures, recordings, radio Television and motion pictures Exhibits Study trips Demonstrations Dramatized experience Contrived experience Direct purposeful experience
  3. 3. Projected aids require audiovisual equipment in order to be presented properly. Most nonprojected aids may be adapted for use as proje cted aids. A chart, for example, can be photographed and made into a slide. A projective aid is more effective than a non projected aid since bright image on the screen easily secures the attention of the audience.
  4. 4. •Used to display images onto a screen or wall. •It consists of a large box containing a cooling fan and an extremely bright light, with a long arm extended above it. At the end of the arm is a mirror that catches and redirects the light towards the screen. •This type of projector can be used to enlarge images onto the screen or wall for audiences to view. •Transparencies can be placed onto the base to be viewed by both the audience and the speaker.
  5. 5. History Overhead projectors were used during World War II as a tool to train groups of servicemen. In the 1950s and '60s, it crossed over into the classroom as an educational tool, and then into the business world as a training tool. The projector is best used when the screen is approximately 6 to 12 feet (about 2 to 4 meters) from the projector.
  6. 6. Advantages of OverHead Projector It is possible for the teacher to observe the reactions of the students There is no need of darkening the room for the appropriate visibility of the image on the screen The projection screen can be very well utilized by the teacher as a blackboard Liquid material can be made visible on the screen by placing a transparent disc containing the liquid material The operational task of this projector also doesn’t involve any difficulty
  7. 7. Resolution Problems Cost to Replace Bulbs Transportation Displaying Material Outdated Technology Sequence of materials
  8. 8. A slide is a small piece of transparent material on which a single pictorial image or scene or graphic image has been photographed or reproduced otherwise.
  9. 9. Advantages •Easily handled, stored and re-arranged for various uses. •May be adapted to group or individual use. •They attract attention. •They arouse interest. •They assist in lesson development. •They test students understanding. •They help in reviewing instruction. •They facilitate student-teacher participation.
  10. 10. It is the combination of episcope and diascope. When it is used to project an opaque object it works as episcope and when it is used to project slides, then it serves as diascope. A strong light from the lamp falls on the opaque object. A plane mirror placed at an angle of 45 over the object reflects the light so that it passes through the projection lens forming a magnified image on the screen.
  11. 11. Enlarged forms of images will be shown Ability to directly project the non-transparent or opaque objects Various types of useful material related to teaching contents may be successfully presented Graphic and pictorial materials like pictures, charts, maps, diagrams, timelines, cartoons, posters, graphs, etc. All types of printed material. Handwritten material, drawing and sketches. Stamps, coins, stone materials, remain of historical or cultural interests, fossils, bones, etc. Specimen of living and nonliving objects. Models, dioramas, pieces of arts, figures, etc.
  12. 12. A slide projector is a specialized machine which uses slides to project images onto a wall or screen. Slides are small transparencies mounted in sturdy frames which are ideally suited to magnification and projectionMany slide projectors are designed to work with ccircular racks of slides which can be rotated to allow a sequential projection of images which may be automatic, or controlled with a button or remote operated by the user. The rack for slides is surrounded by a light source and focusing lenses which ensure that the light passes through the slide Slide projectors can be adjusted to project at a variety of distances slide projectors can be difficult to work with, especially in the case of carousel projectors Part Use Base unit Houses the motor and moving parts Lamp Illuminates the slide Projector carousel Holds the slides Remote control Advance, pause, or reverse the slides Power cord Provide power to the
  13. 13. An LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface. LCD stands for liquid crystal display, the technology used to project images.
  14. 14. Video signals are comprised of three colors: red, green, and blue. LCD projectors contain a separate glass panel for each. Each panel consists of two plates of glass with a layer of liquid crystal between them. When a charge is applied, the crystals open to allow light through or close to block it. This opening and closing of pixels is what forms the image.
  15. 15. These devices use dichroic mirrors to split the light from the input source into red, green, and blue components. Each then passes through the corresponding panel, where pixels form an image. The three colours are then recombined in a prism before being projected through a lens. LCD projectors use separate panels for each colour because it results in better colour saturation than using a single panel for all three.
  16. 16. LCD delivers better colour saturation than a DLP (Digital Light Processing) projector. LCD also delivers sharper image than DLP at any given resolution. LCD projectors have been around since the 1980s, and the technology is more reliable than film projectors. It is more light-efficient. LCD projectors have no moving parts, as DLP projectors do, and they are generally less expensive than their DLP counterparts. Video Webcasts and Webinars Demonstrations Lectures
  17. 17. They require maintenance, as pixels can burn out and dust particles can interfere with image quality. They also support setups in larger rooms where a greater projection distance is needed, because they are compatible with zoom lenses and lens shifts.
  18. 18. •To strengthen teachers skills in making teaching-learning process more effective •To attract and retain learners’ attention •To generate interest across different levels of students •To develop lesson plans that are simple and easy to follow •To make class more interactive and interesting •To focus on student-centered approach •These help in developing perception •These help in developing understanding. Its use enables the pupils to acquire correct knowledge. •These help in transfer of training •These are helpful in acquiring knowledge and providing reinforcement •These help in developing retention.
  19. 19. Importance of Audio Visual aids Motivation Principle of activity Clarification Meaningful experience Discouragement to cramming Increase in vocabulary Efficiency in teaching
  20. 20. Non Projected Aids 1. Graphic Aids - A graphic aid is a text feature that helps the reader better understand the text visually. 2. Graphics can be considered as the shorthand language of the ideas presented. 3. Good graphics should be simple, bold, legible, brief and having adequate margins. 4. These are non projective aids.
  21. 21. Types of Graphic Aids •Graphic organizers are among the most popular graphic aid used. •They can be teacher created, as well as, found on the internet. •Videos are also another great resource •And finally, Smartboards •These high-tech graphic aids provide students with the opportunity to interact as a whole class or individually with course content.
  22. 22. Purposes: •To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words. •To highlight important points. •To provide outline for materials covered in presentation. •To show continuity in process. •For creating problems and stimulating thinking. •For showing development of structure.
  23. 23. Flow chart Tree Chart Stream Chart Tabulation chart Strip chart Flip chart Pictorial Chart Pie Chart Narrative chart The chain chart The evolution chart/Timeline
  24. 24. Flash cards “Flash cards are a set of pictured paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence.” ‘’Flash cards can be self made or commercially prepared and are made up of chart or drawing paper, plane paper using colours or ink on them for drawings.’’
  25. 25. Purposes: •To teach the students. •Useful for small group. •Used in group discussions.
  26. 26. Principles •The messages can be brief, and the content will be written in few lines at the back of the each card. •10” X 12” or 22” X 28” is commonly used size. •10-12 cards for one talk can be used. It should not be less than 3 and more than 20. •Prepare a picture for each idea which will give visual impact to the idea. •The height of writing on the flash card is to be approximately 5cm for better visualization.
  27. 27. Using the flashcards •Give brief introduction about the lesson to students. •Give instructions to students about their actions while flashing the cards. •Flash the card in front of the class by holding it high with both hands so that all the students can see it. •Let the student respond as per instructions already given. •Review the lesson by selectively using flash cards.
  28. 28. Advantages •Flash cards can be used to introduce and present topics. •It can be used to apply information already gained by students to new situation •It can be used to review a topic. •Can be used for drill and practice in elementary classes •To develop the cognitive abilities of recognition and recall of students. •It can work as a useful supplementary aid and can be effectively used with other material.
  29. 29. Disadvantages •Can not be used for a large group •Prone to get spoiled soon •Preparation is time consuming.
  30. 30. Printed materials Printed materials include textbooks, fiction and nonfiction books, booklets, as well as word-processed documents prepared by students and teachers. Textbooks have long been the foundation of classroom instruction.
  31. 31. Advantages of Print Materials Extremely portable High comfort level Cost effective Readily available Availability. Flexibility Portability User friendly Economical
  32. 32. Disadvantages of Print Materials No interactions No audio/visual elements Require reading skills Time delay Reading level Memorization Vocabulary One-way presentation Cursory appraisal Curriculum determination
  33. 33. Guidelines for Incorporating Print Materials •Distribute print materials well in advance •Include clear directions for use •Require interactions. •Specify a timeline
  34. 34. Integration •Presenting information. •Students are given reading assignments and are held accountable for the material during class discussions and on tests. •Teacher-made handouts can be used by students to study independently. •Printed materials are used in all subject areas and with students of all ages.
  35. 35. Using Printed Materials in the Classroom •Get learners actively involved with the materials. •Direct student reading with objectives or questions, and provide a worksheet if one is not included with the materials.
  36. 36. Bulletin board Bulletin board is used for displaying bulletin related activities, i.e. news items announcements of forthcoming events, rules and regulations and other general information.
  37. 37. Educational use of Bulletin Board •Explains important events, reports special activities •It can act as a source of motivation and means of arousing interest and curiosity •It acts as a platform for the display of all types of creative work of the students •The specific announcements concerning the school’s curricular and co-curricular activities may be carried out through it. •It is helpful in presenting the current classroom work in a visualized form. •It may help the parents to get insight into the progress of their wards and working of the institution.
  38. 38. Materials displayed on a Bulletin Board Current events and news stories •Announcements •Pictures/Photographs •Students collection Opinion on some current topics •Book reviews •Assignments •Maps and Graphs •Student’s work Featured Articles •Bibliographies •Future Topics/Projects •Cartoons and Posters •Subjects’ club activities
  39. 39. Disadvantages •Not effective for illiterate group. •Takes lot of preplanning and preparation •The task of organizing the display in a Bulletin board is difficult •There may be crowding of display materials on a bulletin board •It should be updated often
  40. 40. Flannel board - Advantages •Permits numerous and varied arrangements of visual materials. •Permits the development of a complete story. •Promotes thorough planning. •Challenges one to develop abstractions. •Easier to construct materials for flannel board than to make slides or movies.
  41. 41. Disadvantages •Transportation and storing of boards and materials is a problem. •Suitable tables to support boards must be available. •Time and cost present a problem. •Cost of boards themselves can't be overlooked. •Presentation is limited •A new idea involves a lapse of time before the new material can be added •Might tend to prevent one from using other more effective methods and techniques. •To tell a complete story it often takes either too much board space.
  42. 42. Activity aids Student participation through direct experiences can be easily incorporated, these are called activity aids. There are five important activity teaching aids, which are listed below:- 1) Field trips 2) Demonstrations 3) Experiments 4) Dramatizations
  43. 43. Field trips According to Hedger ken Field trip may be defined as “an educational procedure by which the student studies firsthand objects and materials in their natural environment.”
  44. 44. Types of field trips Depending on the place of visit and its duration, field trips are mainly of the following four types, namely:- a) Local school trips b) Community trip c) Educational trips d) The natural hunt
  45. 45. Advantages of field trip •It provides accurate information in their real life setting. •It provides meaningful direct experience. •The students learning diverted towards effective learning. •Field trips are valuable aids to what students are curious about the natural and man-made process and objects. •Field trips can effectively supplement the classroom learning through application and reviewing the experiences of student.
  46. 46. Limitations of field trip •A field trip may be occasional activity. •They can be expensive and out of reach for many disadvantaged and poor students. •Field trips require proper and detailed planning to make them meaningful otherwise the trip leads to confusion, and fails to fulfill the requirement
  47. 47. Demonstrations •Demonstration method is a concrete visual aid. •The demonstration method teaches by explanation and exhibition. •In short, it is a performance to show a process or activity to others. •When a teacher demonstrates, students observe and imitate to learn.
  48. 48. Advantages of demonstration •It activates several senses. •It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the ‘why’ or ‘how’ of the procedure. •It provokes interest by use of concrete illustrations. •It correlates theory with practice. •It encourages student’s participation in learning through questions and answers as the teacher performs.
  49. 49. Experiment An experiment is a learning activity in which students collect and interpret observations using measuring instruments to reach some conclusions. •Objectives of the experiments •Apparatus required •Procedure or methodology •Observations of data •Computation (totaling) of the observations made. •Results or conclusion •Precautions •Ideas for future work The student performs the experiment and writes a report on it by showing the cause and effect relationship.
  50. 50. Dramatization Dramatization is a very powerful method of keeping the class room instruction lively and interesting. When a teacher dramatizes a lesson, the students become both the spectators and participants. T his makes learning easy and permanents.
  51. 51. Types of dramatizations suitable for class room instruction:- 1) Role-play 2) Play lets 3) Pageant 4) Pantomime 5) Tableaux
  52. 52. Advantages of dramatization •Dramatization gives an added advantage of students working as both observers (spectators) and doers (participants) unlike in experiment where there are just doers and in demonstration where there are just observers. •Dramatization makes learning a pleasure. •Dramatization involves students totally •Dramatization develops the social skills. •Dramatization makes students creative, sensitive, and alert.

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