Green manure


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Green Manure
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Green manure

  1. 1. Green manure Cover crops “ Feed the soil, not the plants”
  2. 2. <ul><li>Taking care of soil – </li></ul><ul><li>organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>green manures </li></ul><ul><li>mulching </li></ul><ul><li>Usually means plants have all they need </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is it? <ul><li>Rapidly growing plants sown in spring or fall </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated into soil before planting </li></ul><ul><li>peas </li></ul>
  4. 4. What does it do? <ul><li>Can supply nutrients to plant </li></ul><ul><li>Build productive soil </li></ul><ul><li>Protect from erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent weed growth </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Easy to plant </li></ul><ul><li>Requires only basic </li></ul><ul><li>care to thrive </li></ul><ul><li>green manure in cut flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Proper selection - grow well everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited to all gardens, whether big or small </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. Planting <ul><li>Fall planting </li></ul><ul><li>allow plenty of time to become established </li></ul><ul><li>four weeks before killing frosts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Care <ul><li>Low-maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Mowing keeps manageable, keeps from competing with vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Water during drought </li></ul>
  9. 9. Turning under <ul><li>must till cover </li></ul><ul><li>crops before </li></ul><ul><li>set seed, top </li></ul><ul><li>growth gets </li></ul><ul><li>out of control tilling in oats </li></ul><ul><li>Timing – flowering or when seed heads emerge </li></ul>
  10. 10. Turning under <ul><li>Mow or use weed trimmer </li></ul><ul><li>Wait day or two until leaves </li></ul><ul><li>and stems dry down </li></ul><ul><li>Dig under with tiller (or by hand) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Planting crops <ul><li>Wait two to three </li></ul><ul><li>weeks before planting </li></ul><ul><li>beans in rye </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition can tie up nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Rye is allelopathic - inhibits seed germination </li></ul>
  12. 12. Finding space in garden <ul><li>Fit cover crops right into garden plan </li></ul>
  13. 13. Succession cropping <ul><li>After spring crops harvested, plant fast-growing cover crop such as buckwheat </li></ul><ul><li>Allow buckwheat to flower, turn under, plant fall crops </li></ul><ul><li>Planted in fall after main season crops finished </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interplanting <ul><li>Trickier </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide water, </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients to cover crops </li></ul><ul><li>and vegetable crops </li></ul><ul><li>Must controlling growth of cover crop </li></ul><ul><li>Delay planting of cover crop - one-third of the way through vegetable's growing cycle </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interplanting <ul><li>Transplant young tomato and pepper plants into mowed mulch of hairy vetch, rye </li></ul><ul><li>mulch reduces weeds, maintains moisture, provides nitrogen </li></ul>
  16. 16. Which cover crop? <ul><li>Time of year </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Cereal rye very cold-tolerant - late-season plantings </li></ul><ul><li>Buckwheat very frost-tender </li></ul>
  17. 17. Legumes <ul><ul><li>Nodules on roots contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria convert nitrogen in air into form plants can use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as fertilizer source before synthetic fertilizers were widely available </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Rye, oats <ul><li>annual rye, cereal rye </li></ul><ul><li>Cereal rye – planted late summer, early fall </li></ul><ul><li>grows until late in fall, resumes in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rye – dies in winter, don’t have to wait three weeks to plant </li></ul>
  19. 19. Field peas,oats <ul><li>legume to fix nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>grain for organic </li></ul><ul><li>matter </li></ul><ul><li>peas climb oats </li></ul><ul><li>Both crops cold-tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>good for late summer, early fall </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sorghum-sudangrass <ul><li>Cross between sorghum and sudangrass </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of </li></ul><ul><li>organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>5 to 12 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>Mow to 6 inches </li></ul><ul><li>when reaches 3 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Frost-tender </li></ul>
  21. 21. Buckwheat <ul><li>Broadleaf plant </li></ul><ul><li>smother crop - shades </li></ul><ul><li>weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Must not let go to seed </li></ul><ul><li>Matures in 6-8 weeks- can be planted between spring and fall vegetable plantings </li></ul><ul><li>white flowers good cut flowers; attract beneficial insects </li></ul>
  22. 22. Clover <ul><li>living mulch </li></ul><ul><li>tolerates shade, traffic </li></ul><ul><li>attracts beneficials </li></ul><ul><li>attractive </li></ul><ul><li>Many kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>White Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow sweet </li></ul><ul><li>Crimson </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sources <ul><li>Check with local farm supply store for seed - may be willing to order varieties they don't normally carry, split into smaller batches Peaceful Valley Farm & Garden Supply , Grass Valley, California, 888-784-1722 Johnny's Selected Seeds , Winslow, Maine, 877-564-6697 Seven Springs Farm , Check, Virginia, 540-651-3228 </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li> </li></ul>