A growing crop, such as clover or grass, that
is plowed under the soil to improve fertility
Nitrogen and phosphorus are deficient in
Pakistani soils and there is hardly any soil
from which high yields can be obtained
without any fertilization.
The production of high inorganic fertilizers
requires energy and it is estimated that
fertilizer production accounts for about 45%
of the energy; used in agriculture worldwide;
73% of which is used for the manufacture of
The current energy crisis in the world has
enhanced the prices of mineral fertilizers. So
it has revived the interests in the use of green
manures. The rising interest had led to the
identification of some legumes that have high
green manuring potential
1. Green manuring in-situ:
When green manure crops are grown in the
field itself either as a pure crop or as
intercrop with the main crop and buried in
the same field, it is known as Green manuring
In-situ. E.g.: Sunhemp, Dhancha, Urd, Mung,
Cowpea, Berseem, Senji, etc.
2. Green leaf manuring: It refers to turning
into the soil green leaves and tender green
twigs collected from shrubs and tress grown
on bunds, waste lands and nearby forest
area. E.g.: Glyricidia, wild Dhancha, Karanj.
These crops are sown as:
i) Main crop,
ii) Inter row sown crop,
iii) On bare fallow, depending upon the soil
and climatic conditions of the region.
Yield a large quantity of green material within
a short period.
Be quick growing especially in the beginning,
so as to suppress weeds.
More Leafy Growth
Be succulent and have more leafy growth than
woody growth, so that its decomposition will
Preferably is a legume, so that atm. ‘N’ will be
Have deep and fibrous root system so that it
will absorb nutrients from lower zone and
add them to the surface soil and also improve
Grow In Poor Soil
Be able to grow even on poor soils.
A green manuring crop may be turned in at
the flowering stage or just before the
flowering. The majority of the G.M. crops
require 6 to 8 weeks after sowing at which
there is maximum green matter production
and most succulent
When the crop reach full bloom than With the
help of sohaga fall all the green manure crop
in the field,Then mix the crop with the help of
rotavator and disc harrow and give irrigation
to start the process of decomposition
Improve soil Structure
Has positive influence on the physical and
chemical properties of soil.
Helps to maintain the organic matter status of
Source of Food and Energy
Serves as source of food and energy for the
microbes multiplies rapidly, not only decompose
the GM and result in release of plant nutrients in
available forms for use by the crops.
Improve Soil Aeration
Improves aeration in soils by stimulating
activities of surface film of algae and bacteria
Water Holding Capacity
It improve water holding capacity of poor soil.
Green manuring builds up soil structure and
Promotes formation of crumbs in heavy soils
leading to aeration and drainage
Increases the water holding capacity of light
Form a canopy cover over the soil, reduce the
soil temperature and prevents from erosive
action of rain and water
Absorb nutrients from the lower layer and
leave them in surface when ploughed
Prevent leaching of nutrients to lower layers.
Harbour N fixing bacteria, rhizobia in root
nodules and fix atmospheric N
(60 to 100 kg N/ha)
Increase the solubility of lime phosphates,
trace elements etc., through the activity of
the soil microorganisms and by producing
organic acids during decomposition.
Sesbania aculeata (daincha) applied to sodic
soils continuously for four or five seasons
improves the permeability and helps to
Tamarindus indica has a buffering effect
when applied to sodic soils.
Increases the yield of crops to 15 to 20 %
Vitamin and protein content of crop increased
It also control the pests.
i) Under rain fed conditions, the germination
and growth of succeeding crop may be
affected due to depletion of moisture for the
growth and decomposition of G.M.
ii) G.M. crop inclusive of decomposition
period occupies the field least 75-80 days
which means a loss of one crop.
iii) Incidence of pests and diseases may
increases if the G.M. is not kept free from