Grafting budding


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Grafting Budding
Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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Grafting budding

  1. 1. Budding
  2. 2. <ul><li>T-bud graft most common budding method for fruits, ornamental plants </li></ul><ul><li>Single bud inserted into </li></ul><ul><li>T-shaped opening in bark of actively growing rootstock </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>T-budding fast by experienced propagators--2,000 to 3,000 roses in day </li></ul><ul><li>Because T-budding uses single bud, makes best use of propagation materials </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>grafting knife </li></ul><ul><li>budsticks </li></ul><ul><li>grafting strips </li></ul>
  5. 5. Budsticks <ul><li>Source of buds that will be scions (shoot of new tree) </li></ul><ul><li>Branches that developed in last growing season </li></ul>
  6. 6. Budsticks <ul><li>should be healthy </li></ul><ul><li>diameter of pencil   </li></ul><ul><li>collected when fully dormant --no later than February in the Midwest. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rootstock <ul><li>Root system of grafted tree </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstocks selected for traits such as dwarfing </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal rootstock – </li></ul><ul><li>stem diameter 1/2 to 3/4 inch </li></ul>
  8. 8. Method- indoors <ul><li>Rootstocks planted in pots </li></ul><ul><li>Watered, grown in greenhouse 4 to 6 weeks </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>At time of budding, rootstocks must be actively growing so bark “slips” </li></ul><ul><li>Slipping - rapidly dividing, thin walled cambium under bark easily separated from wood </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>To prepare rootstock for budding, remove side shoots in lower stem area </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Holding grafting knife and budstick correctly takes practice </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: make smooth, clean cut </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cut should begin below bud to be removed </li></ul><ul><li>Bud should be in center of resulting &quot;shield.&quot; </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Sharp knife </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Budstick held close to body </li></ul><ul><li>Budstick between you and knife </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Shield about 3/4 inch long </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 2 mm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Bud in middle of shield </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Bottom view of shield bud </li></ul><ul><li>Cambium layer greenish line between dark brown bark and the white wood </li></ul>
  16. 17. Rootstock <ul><li>On lower stem of rootstock choose smooth region free of axillary buds </li></ul><ul><li>Push knife into stem until resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Rock knife back and forth to cut line about 1/3 the way around stem </li></ul><ul><li>This is top or bottom of &quot;T&quot; cut </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Cut straight downward from middle of cut about 1 inch to form &quot;T“ </li></ul><ul><li>Use grafting knife to open flaps created by cutting T in stem </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Slip lower, rounded end of shield bud into top of T. </li></ul><ul><li>Push in shield bud until top of shield is flush with top of T.   </li></ul><ul><li>Push shield firmly against rootstock, close flaps, wrap with grafting strip </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Start above bud and wrap grafting strip tightly around stem to cover all parts of shield except bud </li></ul><ul><li>Tie off strip with knot </li></ul><ul><li>Wrapping keeps bud in close contact with stock and prevents drying of exposed tissue </li></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>Return grafted tree to greenhouse bench </li></ul><ul><li>In 2 to 3 weeks graft union will form between scion and rootstock </li></ul><ul><li>When graft union is complete, scion will begin to produce new leaves and use rootstock's root system to obtain water and nutrients </li></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>Once bud begins to grow, remove upper part of tree by cutting through the stem about 1/2 inch above scion </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>Graft union on tree will be evident for several years as &quot;dogleg&quot; </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>Tree should flower and bear fruit in 3 to 4 years </li></ul>
  24. 32. Chip budding <ul><li>Used when bark is not slipping – any time </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually replacing T-bud – ornamentals, fruits </li></ul>
  25. 33. <ul><li>Better take, more uniform growth </li></ul><ul><li>Takes little scion wood – dormant or active </li></ul><ul><li>Water status not as big an issue </li></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><li>Small diameter stems </li></ul><ul><li>Plants with thin bark – doesn’t slip easily </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare rootstock same as for T-budding </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>Usually take in 3-4 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Remove tape and allow bud to swell </li></ul><ul><li>Winter – cut rootstock close to bud </li></ul>
  28. 37. Patch budding <ul><li>Rectangular patch of bark taken off rootstock and replaced with patch of same shape </li></ul><ul><li>Done on trees with thick bark that don't t-bud well - walnuts, pecans </li></ul><ul><li>Special knives with double blades so accurate with cuts </li></ul>
  29. 38. Topworking <ul><li>Several shoots are budded on same tree </li></ul><ul><li>Done in midsummer when everything active </li></ul>
  30. 39. Microbudding <ul><li>T-budding method - done on citrus </li></ul><ul><li>Everything cut away except bud and tiny bit of wood </li></ul><ul><li>T-budding done as usual. </li></ul>
  31. 40. Aftercare of budded plants <ul><li>Hot-pipe callusing system for bench grafting - graft inserted in pipe where warm water circulates around graft. Rest of plant kept cool and dormant. </li></ul><ul><li>May bury graft in slightly most peat moss or bark and bottom heat added </li></ul>
  32. 41. <ul><li>Planted out in nursery as soon as weather permits, before any growth starts </li></ul><ul><li>Usually established enough after first year to be transplanted or sold. </li></ul>
  33. 42. Planting <ul><li>Bud union just below soil for most ornamentals </li></ul><ul><li>If rootstock is for dwarfing or disease resistance, put union just above soil because want absolutely no roots from scion </li></ul>
  34. 43. Timing for budding <ul><li>Late summer or fall preferred in Wisconsin when done outdoors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wood of good size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weather good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no storage needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stock and scion not succulent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scion – current season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock – current season </li></ul></ul>