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Nuclear power plant


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details about nuclear power plant and how it has been developing in India

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Nuclear power plant

  1. 1. Seminar Topic On NUCLEAR POWER PLANT AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN INDIA <ul><li>Tapas kumar Mishra </li></ul><ul><li>7 th sem,Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Under the able guidance of </li></ul><ul><li>Er. M.M. Patra </li></ul><ul><li>Prof J.K. Maharana(HOD) </li></ul>
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fission process </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear chain reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Constituents of Nuclear power plant </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Reactor(Main parts) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of power reactors commonly used </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy deal in India </li></ul>
  3. 3. World Production of Electricity by the Fuel in 2002:
  4. 4. Nuclear Power Plants in India
  5. 5. Nuclear Reaction:- <ul><li>A projectile is taken </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-Energy conversion acc. to Einstein’s equation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nuclear Fission process:- <ul><li>In this process heavy nucleus is splitted and release high energy </li></ul><ul><li>1 fission of U-235 causes 230 mev energy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nuclear chain Reaction <ul><li>When a neutron hits a U-235 3 neutrons produced </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chain reaction is defined as a fission reaction where neutron from the previous reaction continue to propagate and repeat the reaction” </li></ul>
  8. 9. Constituents of Nuclear power plant and layout
  9. 10. Nuclear Reactor <ul><li>Main parts:- </li></ul><ul><li>1.Reactor core </li></ul><ul><li>2.Moderator </li></ul><ul><li>3.Control rods </li></ul><ul><li>4.Coolant </li></ul><ul><li>5.Reflector </li></ul><ul><li>6.Thermal shielding </li></ul>
  10. 11. Power Reactors in common use <ul><li>Boiling water Reactor(BWR) </li></ul><ul><li>Pressurized water Reactor(PWR) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy water cooled and moderated(CANDU TYPE) Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Cooled Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid metal cooled Reactor </li></ul>
  11. 12. 1.Boiling Water Reactor <ul><li>Fuel used is rich in uranium oxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary water is used as both moderator and coolant. </li></ul><ul><li>Low thermal efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t meet sudden increase of load. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Basic Diagram of a BWR
  13. 14. A BWR in Practice
  14. 15. Boiling Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant <ul><li>A reactor behaves in a similar manner. As the reactor water is boiled, its volume increases, and the steam escapes at high speed through the outlet piping. The piping is designed so the steam strikes the cups on the turbine wheel; the wheel spins and its shaft turns the copper coil in the electrical generator. </li></ul>
  15. 16. 2: Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Compactness </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation of radio active system from main steam system </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap light water used as both moderator and coolant </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Strong pressure vessel is required </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of low temp. steam </li></ul><ul><li>High losses from heat exchanger </li></ul><ul><li>High power consumption from auxilarities </li></ul>
  16. 17. Basic Diagram of a PWR
  17. 18. A PWR in Practice
  18. 19. 3. Heavy Water Cooled and Moderated (CANDU Type) Reactor
  19. 20. Description of CANDU type reactor <ul><li>It makes use of heavy hydrogen isotope (H 1 2 ) as moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and secondary cicuits are similar to PWR </li></ul><ul><li>It’s very expensive to separate </li></ul><ul><li>Control rods are not required </li></ul><ul><li>It has high multiplication factor and low level fuel consumption </li></ul>
  20. 21. Advanced Reactor Designs Under Consideration <ul><li>GE-Hitachi ABWR – NRC Certified (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Westinghouse AP1000 – NRC Certified (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>GE-Hitachi ESBWR – Under NRC Review </li></ul><ul><li>AREVA US-EPR – Under NRC review </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi US-APWR – Under NRC Review </li></ul>
  21. 22. Benefits of Advanced Reactor Designs <ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler and Safer </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale power production </li></ul><ul><li>Operating or under construction elsewhere </li></ul>
  22. 23. Indian Nuclear Program: The Present Status <ul><li>12 PHWR & 2 BWR now under operation </li></ul><ul><li>4 PHWR and 2 LWR under commission </li></ul><ul><li>2950 MW generation & 3000 MW under commission </li></ul><ul><li>Successful experiments with Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) for 500MWe under construction </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) using (Pu-Th) O2 MOX for 300MWe: advanced stage of design approval; construction soon to begin. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Reactor Generations <ul><li>Gen I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototypes in 50’s & 60’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gen II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70’s & 80’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s Operational Reactors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BWR, PWR, CANDU, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gen III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABWR, APWR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved 90’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Built around the World </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gen III+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Advanced Designs in the Approval Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pebble Bed Reactor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gen IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploy in 2030 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Proliferation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. MAKING INDIA A NUCLEAR POWER <ul><li>India 1948:- It was pt. Jawaharlal Nehru initiated India’s Nuclear energy program </li></ul><ul><li>India 1967:- It was Indira Gandhi initiated India’s Nuclear weapons program </li></ul>
  25. 26. INDIA AFTER 2000 <ul><li>India 2005:- It was Dr. Manmohan Singh signed 123 agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>India 2009:- Manmohan Singh is again interested to increase India’s civilian Nuclear energy </li></ul><ul><li>India has signed “Civil Nuclear Trade Agreement”. </li></ul>
  26. 27. THANK YOU