Module - Narratives. Media Formats and Consumer Experience

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Module - Narratives. Media Formats and Consumer Experience

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Module - Narratives. Media Formats and Consumer Experience

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. NARRATIVES: MEDIA FORMATS AND CONSUMER EXPERIENCE Module: [Insert module name here] Lecturer: [Insert lecturer name] Date: [Add date here] COURSE CONTENT SUPPORTED BY [REPLACE BY YOUR UNIVERSITY LOGO]
  3. 3. 3 Table of Contents 1 CREATIVITY AND IDEA GENERATION PROCESS 2 CREATIVITY AT PIXAR 3 AUDIENCE SEGMENTATION 4 AUDIENCE AS INDIVIDUALS 5 RESEARCH: WHO‘S WATCHING 6 STORYTELLING: CONNECTING WITH AUDIENCES 7 GENRE AND STORY 8 ENTERTAINMENT DIGITAL MARKETING 9 ENTERTAINMENT BRANDS 10 FILM AND TV CONSUMPTION 11 MEDIA CONVERGENCE 12 HOW DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES TRANSFORMED CINEMA: PRE-PRODUCTION, PRODUCTION, POST-PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND EXHIBITION 13 CONSUMPTION EXPERIENCES
  4. 4. 4 CREATIVITY AND IDEA GENERATION PROCESS
  5. 5. 5 Idea From idea generation to product concept • Research and/or rights acquisition • Script • Cast (producer, director, stars) • Financing • The marketing concept • Production, post production • International sales, licensing (national, international) • Distribution platforms (theatrical, broadcast TV, pay TV, streaming, tablet/smartphone Script Target audience/s Genre Segmentation
  6. 6. 6 Models of creativity The classical early model of creativity (Wallas) Four distinct phases • Preparation: gathering knowledge and understanding the problem • Incubation: the subconscious takes over, mulling over the problem without deliberate concentration • Illumination: a sudden flash of light, when the solution has been discovered • Verification: valuation of the newly formed idea The synthetic model: The generic Creative Process Model (Warr and O’Neill) • Idea Generation • Problem Preparation • Idea Evaluation Another model: The five stages model (Amabile) • Problem and Task Presentation • Preparation • Response • Generation • Response Validation • Outcome Problem preparation Idea generation Idea evaluation Generic Creative Process Model Adapted from Warr and O’Neill
  7. 7. 7 Three idea generation processes Hybrid idea generation process Individually produced ideas for a fraction of time and colectively after that. • Produces three times as many ideas than a group process (brain storming) • Is better at identifying the best ideas from the set of ideas previously generated, but just as the group process it is weak at discerning the quality of ideas • Idea generation in groups lead to ideas that develop on each other and does not improve the quality of ideas but worsens them 1 Individual idea generation process 2 Team (or group or brain storm) idea 3 Hybrid idea generation processes Source: Insead
  8. 8. 8 Brainstorming is one of the most used idea generation processes Brainstorming Source: Insead However, studies suggest that brainstorming leads to: Production blocking: inability to articulate ideas when others in the team are speaking, impedes the number of ideas generated Evaluation aprehension: leading to censoring of potentially good ideas Free riding: collective performance measures impeding individual incentives to perform IdE@ IDEAI D E A I D E A Idea idea
  9. 9. 9 Overcoming difficulties in the creative process Difficulties The most difficult part of the process individuals are likely to experience is during idea generation In part due to the fact that it is difficult for individuals to suspend judgment when formulating ideas Individuals tend to focus more on the quality of the idea and the practicality, as opposed to focusing on generating as many ideas as possible The creative process is also inhibited by people's inability to entertain ideas that violate previously held assumptions, rules, and conventions How to overcome the difficulties Individuals must be able to break associations and patterns of thoughts in order to create new relationships that didn’t previously exist Additionally, the idea generation process is heavily influenced by intrinsic motivation This implies that the creative professional must be given both the tools and the incentives to produce creative works
  10. 10. 10 Thinking on the edge of the box Source: Nuno Cintra Torres
  11. 11. 11 Idea generation techniques 1. Role Playing: acting out scenarios.. 2. Active Search: Hunting for a particular solution. 3. Attribute List: Taking an existing product or system, breaking it into parts and then recombining these to identify new forms of the product or system. 4. Brainstorm: Generating a large number of solutions to a problem (idea) with a focus on the quantity of ideas. 5. Collaborate: Two or more people working together towards a common goal. 6. Concrete Stimuli: To gain new perspectives on a problem by manipulating physical materials. 7. Critique: Receiving input on current ideas. 8. Documenting: Writing down ideas (physically or electronically). This includes journaling, writing stories, and taking notes. 9. Expert Opinion: To elicit opinions from experts to identify potential problems with products or services before more comprehensive evaluations. 10. Empathy/User Research: To observe people in everyday situations in order to develop empathy for them. Ethnographic research. 11. Encompass: Creators immerse themselves in information relevant to the current project. 12. Forced Analogy: Comparing the current problem with something else that has little or nothing in common in order to gain new insights and results. 13. Incubate: Stepping back from the problem to let the subconscious mind work. 14. Passive Searching: Looking through material (web, magazines, books) for inspiration without searching for a particular solution to a problem. 15. Prototyping: Creating a model of an idea. 16. Reflect: To review previous work. 17. Sketching: Sketching refers to a rough drawing of an idea. 18. Socializing: Socializing refers to talking with others about topics unrelated to the current project. 19. Storyboards: To represent information gained in the research phase of the process.
  12. 12. 12 Tools to enhance the creative process  The use of technology that emphasizes free association, that helps the user understand previous work and orients the user to visual techniques.  Standard software packages that allow for the organization and structuring of existing ideas and benefit from repositories of previous work.  Advanced communication mechanisms, allowing creatives to share ideas and design documents freely.
  13. 13. 13 CREATIVITY AT PIXAR
  14. 14. 14 Creativity at Pixar People working together developing “the high concept” People tend to think of creativity as a mysterious solo act, and they typically reduce products to a single idea: This is a movie about toys, or dinosaurs, or love, they’ll say. However, in filmmaking and many other kinds of complex product development, creativity involves a large number of people from different disciplines working effectively together to solve a great many problems. The initial idea for the movie—what people in the movie business call “the high concept”—is merely one step in a long, arduous process that takes four to five years. Source: Catmull, E. (2008) How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity, Harvard Business Review High concept of “Up”: Fly away
  15. 15. 15 Creativity at Pixar Source: Catmull, E. (2008) How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity, Harvard Business Review Creativity at Pixar: Leading the creative process A movie contains tens of thousands of ideas. In the form of every sentence; in the performance of each line; in the design of characters, sets, and backgrounds; in the locations of the camera; in the colors, the lighting, the pacing. The director and the other creative leaders of a production do not come up with all the ideas on their own; rather, every single member of the 200- to 250-person production group makes suggestions. Creativity must be present at every level of every artistic and technical part of the organization. The leaders sort through a mass of ideas to find the ones that fit into a coherent whole—that support the story—which is a very difficult task. It’s like an archaeological dig where you don’t know what you’re looking for or whether you will even find anything.
  16. 16. 16 Creativity at Pixar Source: Catmull, E. (2008) How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity, Harvard Business Review Technology + Art = Magic Getting people in different disciplines to treat one another as peers is just as important as getting people within disciplines to do so. Barriers include the natural class structures that arise in organizations: There always seems to be one function that considers itself and is perceived by others to be the one the organization values the most. Then there’s the different languages spoken by different disciplines and even the physical distance between offices. In a creative business like [film], these barriers are impediments to producing great work, and therefore we must do everything we can to tear them down.
  17. 17. 17 Creativity at Pixar Source: Catmull, E. (2008) How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity, Harvard Business Review «If you give a good idea to a mediocre team, they’ll screw it up. But if you give a mediocre idea to a great team, they’ll make it work.»
  18. 18. 18 AUDIENCE SEGMENTATION
  19. 19. 19 Why is audience segmentation important? Market segmentation analysis and the selection of the particular audience segments you will target are essential parts of the film project development. When you analyze your potential audience to identify key segments, you consciously select groups of people you will try to attract to your film. Your marketing goal is no longer just filling seats or getting people to walk in the door, but attracting the right people with the right message through the right media at the right time with the right product at the right price. The right product The crucial question is Who? Who is target audience? Who am I trying to reach with my film? Who will be attracted to the plot? Who is willing to pay to see my film? The right message Market segmentation is also an indispensable element of the film’s marketing concept and plan.
  20. 20. 20 Segmentation starts right at the beginning of the creative process with the development of the creative idea The purpose of audience segmentation analysis is to identify those in the over-all population who will be most likely to appreciate and value the film so that you can develop a film for that specific audience segment and later to target he work directly to the segment you have chosen to target with your film. The goal of segmentation is to find audience members that you will target with your product, those who will be most satisfied by the artistic product you have to offer. In order to find those individuals you have to research or to commission research to a specialized agency. Segmentation starts at the beginning
  21. 21. 21 When you look for segments of your overall audience, or your potential audience, you are searching for groups of people who are similar in some way to each other, and different from everybody else. For a segment to be meaningful for your product and for the marketing strategy, the ways the individuals are similar should relate to your artistic product. Segments: people with similarities with each other Examples of audience segments Age related: people of the same age group Cultural preferences: people with similar cultural taste
  22. 22. 22 Group interests The goal in market segmentation is to appeal to each group’s particular needs and interests Much the same way you would if you were meeting and talking to one person at a time. Market segmentation lets you see and know your audience members as individuals, so you can identify their needs and more effectively communicate the ways they can benefit from what you have to offer. Armed with this knowledge, you’ll find it easier to develop creative strategies and marketing strategies that reach and motivate your target, making the most of your always too- scarce promotional resources.
  23. 23. 23 AUDIENCE AS INDIVIDUALS
  24. 24. 24 Audience as individuals
  25. 25. 25 Usage/Behavior Frequent/Infrequent Subscriber/single ticket Plan-ahead/impulse Stated Intentions Plan to come more, less, the same Will/will not renew Attitude/Belief/Opinion Likes/Dislikes Preferences Values Checklist of identifying characteristics Demographics Age Gender Race/ethnicity Income Education Family Status Geography Residence location Work location Place of origin Choice of recreation area Identifying Characteristics Divides the total universe of people you could potentially attract into segments with more or less potential for success
  26. 26. 26 Sophisticated data-driven means of subdividing the market Subdivide into distinct, non-overlapping groups that share similar characteristics Segmentations are used to inform market strategy and design uniquely appealing products and services that best address the real needs of specific consumer groups, and extract maximum value from both high- and low-profit customers. • Divide the market into meaningful, measurable segments according to customer needs, past behaviors, and demographic profiles • Tailor resource assignments to specific product, service, marketing, and distribution efforts to best suit the needs of specific segments • Measure strategic and tactical performance among individual segments, and adjusting these elements as segmentations evolve over time and as market conditions change
  27. 27. 27 To get beyond demographics, you need to think about what makes one person different from another. For the most part, the demographic facts are not what really distinguish us. What makes each of us an individual is what goes on below the surface in our hearts and in our minds. That’s where you’ll find the most powerful information about your present audience and the groups you can target to develop new audiences. For real insight reach inside to identify needs
  28. 28. 28 Mining for underlying needs To begin your journey below the demographic surface, think about other “facts” you know or can find out about your audience or your prospects What are their behaviour patterns relative to cinema going overall? Are they frequent movie watchers, or people who are not interested in film in general? What genre do they prefer? Action? Comedy? Sci-Fi? Family? Animation? What are their favourite actors? Directors? What is the last movie they saw? Do you have a core audience that never misses your films? Does your audience also watch films on TV, PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone? Maslow formulated a model to illustrate a hierarchy of needs, whereby higher order aspirations cannot be attained unless the individual's underlying basic needs are intact. So, for example, children will need to have had their care needs met, feel safe, settled, valued and feel that they belong to the class before they are able to engage in social communication or learning.
  29. 29. 29 Enriching Characteristics The kinds of characteristics or traits that help visualize the individuals in your target audience • Once you have identified a target segment, your next task is to find ways to separate people who fit into that segment from people who do not. • If you are in the pay TV business and your primary target for special subscription renewal efforts is first-year subscribers, your own database will provide the information you need to identify those who fit within your target audience definition. • If you are in the social media business the huge amounts of data (“big data”) generated by usage will help you identify trends and even individual user preferences • In many instances, social media and apps usage allows the operators of those services to identify target prospects on an individual name basis and to target specific advertising messages to those individuals. Richly detailed prospects help with targeting Also: Email / texts Verbal conversations Physical movement of data Credit card records Motorway tolls Etc
  30. 30. 30 Sources of population, cultural, recreational data, market and audience data • General Population Statistics • Census • New Research • Internal databases and other records • Current audience surveys • Surveys of the general public • Informal one-on-one interviews • Focus group interviews • Observation • Etc, etc Enriching characteristics include whatever you can find out about people in a particular audience segment. These can include their interests, their behavior related to your organization or to arts participation overall, their personal values, psychological characteristics, or stage of life. You can gather this information from formal audience surveys, from discussions in focus groups, or from systematically asking a few key questions when you have an opportunity to meet and talk with prospects.
  31. 31. 31 RESEARCH: WHO‘S WATCHING
  32. 32. 32 Sources of population, cultural, recreational data, market and audience data Facebook, Twitter and the iPhone have rapidly changed the way consumers communicate, making word-of-mouth a key factor in determining weekend box-office sales and diminishing the value of traditional research techniques. «The audience is a moving target» Dick Cook Former Walt Disney Studios chairman
  33. 33. 33 Surveys: Quantitatiive, Qualitative, Observational How many? A quantitative survey may be less appropriate than a qualitative exploration of the audience. How do they feel? A formal qualitative survey uses a questionnaire that asks structured questions on issues. Includes checklists of Identifying Characteristics and Enriching Characteristics. Classical Methods Focus Groups Individual in Depth Interviews Photo/Video Etnography Be attentive to conversations Buzz Hearsay Hype Word of Mouth Observational Research Observational research or talk informally with members of your audience, either on a one-on- one basis or in small groups. Informal interviews with audience members. . Leading Edge Methods Online Focus Groups Online Forums Online Communities
  34. 34. 34 Market research: the power of the right mix RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To find the right mix of pedigree, quality, entertainment value, emotion, etc. that casts the widest net of appeal for each movie. Some finds Baby boomers are still going to the movies, shifting what for decades has been a youth-dominated business. Before, company didn't sample moviegoers older than 49. Now, up to those in their mid-60s. Steven Spielberg was concerned that the 2011 period film, "War Horse" might not have universal appeal. The studio enlisted market research to target a specific audience: a sophisticated, older, white moviegoer who lived in the middle of the country, enjoyed Broadway plays and shopped at Target, not Sears. Capstone screens movies before they hit theaters and sometimes they are fine-tune edited based on moviegoer input. Works with studio executives and filmmakers to evaluate the interest generating potential of movie previews before they are seen in movie theaters and does the same for television commercials before they are seen on national TV. To move the needle and to make a difference in how a movie performs at the box office.
  35. 35. 35 Research: anticipate human behaviour Capsotone clients include Warner Bros., Sony Pictures, DreamWorks Studios and Relativity Media Research-driven approach to marketing started in 1978 Capstone’s introduced the revolutionary concepts of market testing to Hollywood, originating what continues to be the cornerstone of today’s movie and television marketing. They are marketing strategists who understand and can anticipate human behavior, consumer savvy and client centric. Capstone is expert at reaching consumers at the moments, or touch points, that influence their purchasing behavior, to understand how consumers interact with products and services during the purchase decision.
  36. 36. 36 Combine facts and insights into meaningful analysis To create a meaningful picture of the target audience Consider how the individual findings fit together into an overall pattern—a larger picture that is both consistent and meaningful. Project a New Reality To attract a new audience segment, you may have to make changes in your programs, your marketing, or your support efforts. Use your research to anticipate what might happen if you make these changes. Janne Parviainen, Late Night Show
  37. 37. 37 The movie marketing and distribution plan 1. Genre 2. Film length 3. Target audience (age group/s) 4. Positioning (to reach the target audience, genre, main messages) 5. Communication channels (advertsing, social media, etc) e the media plan 6. Distribution channels (distributors, quantity and type of screens, relationship with distributors) 7. Marketing ideas and materials (trailer, posters, pormotions, première, website, distribuition, etc)
  38. 38. 38 STORYTELLING: CONNECTING WITH AUDIENCES
  39. 39. 39 Understand culture to connect with audiences Culture is a learned set of assumptions that shape our perceptions of the world, and of appropriate values, norms, attitudes, and behaviours We learn our culture. Perceptions about gender, age, and social class are culturally based, as are our ideas about • race • ethnicity • religious practices • sexual orientation • physical appearance and ability, and • regional and national characteristics interactions.acm.org
  40. 40. 40 To create and develop local connections To connect with the audiences, to win hearts and minds and to build loyal relationships that transcend cultural or language differences. To recognise local needs and demonstrate an understanding of specific markets’ taste, values and culture, language has to resonate with the specific market. To aligns with their values and connects to their stories, experiences and aspirations. Stories must anticipate local needs and bond with their cultural archetypes and mythologies and be in position to align language and concepts with the understanding of the market rather than expect them assimilate a singular western ideal.
  41. 41. 41 Stories are a core human trait. But there are few storylines. So maintaining audiences requires to relenlessly improve the ability to realy the same tale. The allure of power, a centuries- old story, House of Cards, produced by Media Rights capital, Netflix original channel, based in Washington: based on Michael Dobbs book, set in London, adpated by the BBC, Shakespearean themes, particularly the characters of Lady Macbeth and Richard III, the technique of “the breaking of the fourth wall”, actors speaking to the audience, exemple how the same theme can be made compelling. Rags-to-riches, immoratlised by Cinderella, reality shows convey the same theme: Susan Boyle winner of 2009 Britain’s Got Talent: 47, single, unemployed; Liu Wei, first prize playing pian in China’s Got Talent, had no arms used his toes; Sung-Bong Choi, winner of 2011’s Korea’s Got Talent was abandoned by parents when three, ran away from orphanage at five, lived in a container for tem years, was once buried alive. Wealth, a constant in TV stories: Dallas in the 70’s, Keep up with the Kardashians which has aired nine series The TV advert, the mainstay of TV, generates $200 billion global per year, some of the most compelling content on television, the best ones are unlikely to be fast forwarded
  42. 42. 42 GENRE AND STORY
  43. 43. 43 Genre and story: the two top criteria for choosing a film in Europe Genre and story: enable audiences to weigh up the film’s premise and potential benefits (relaxation, emotion, entertainment, etc.). • 92% of film viewers think film genre is important for their choice. • 88% think story is important. This is also very consistent across countries. There are slightly fewer film viewers to consider it 'very important' than for 'genre' (48% vs. 53%). • 72% think actors and cast are important (only 25% think this is 'very important'). • 52% think a prequel/sequel is important (only 13% think this is 'very important'). Source:A profile of current and future audiovisual audience, European Commission, 2014
  44. 44. 44 Top-Grossing Story Sources and Production Methods Top-Grossing Sources 1995 to 2015 Movies Total Gross Average Gross Market Share 1 Original Screenplay 5,752 $84,479,713,729 $14,687,016 45.95% 2 Based on Fiction Book/Short Story 1,608 $40,068,457,921 $24,918,195 21.79% 3 Based on Comic/Graphic Novel 154 $13,185,032,841 $85,617,096 7.17% 4 Remake 276 $10,230,933,730 $37,068,600 5.56% 5 Based on TV 197 $9,930,220,389 $50,407,210 5.40% 6 Based on Real Life Events 2,132 $9,226,507,902 $4,327,630 5.02% 7 Based on Factual Book/Article 125 $4,433,263,097 $35,466,105 2.41% 8 Based on Folk Tale/Legend/Fairytale 55 $2,414,345,379 $43,897,189 1.31% 9 Spin-Off 27 $1,962,254,583 $72,676,096 1.07% 10 Based on Play 214 $1,891,986,396 $8,841,058 1.03% Top-Grossing Production Methods 1995 to 2015 Movies Total Gross Average Gross Market Share 1 Live Action 10,492 $148,117,633,974$14,117,197 80.56% 2 Animation/Live Action 135 $16,097,838,466 $119,243,248 8.76% 3 Digital Animation 203 $15,902,436,074 $78,337,124 8.65% 4 Hand Animation 132 $2,905,306,899 $22,009,901 1.58% 5 Stop-Motion Animation 30 $563,984,536 $18,799,485 0.31% 6 Multiple Production Methods 17 $21,597,179 $1,270,422 0.01% 7 Rotoscoping 3 $8,393,627 $2,797,876 0.00% http://www.the-numbers.com/market/sources
  45. 45. 45 Top-grossing Distributors and Movie Genres Top-Grossing Distributors 1995to 2015 Movies Total Gross Average Gross Market Share 1 Warner Bros. 621 $27,761,127,082 $44,703,908 15.10% 2 Walt Disney 510 $26,371,511,135 $51,708,845 14.34% 3 Sony Pictures 603 $23,395,568,140 $38,798,620 12.72% 4 Paramount Pictures 407 $21,207,592,063 $52,107,106 11.53% 5 20th Century Fox 436 $20,897,940,691 $47,931,057 11.37% 6 Universal 400 $20,833,712,934 $52,084,282 11.33% 7 Lionsgate 303 $6,361,693,057 $20,995,687 3.46% 8 New Line 206 $6,187,505,981 $30,036,437 3.37% 9 Dreamworks SKG 75 $4,083,551,613 $54,447,355 2.22% 10 Miramax 376 $3,829,456,960 $10,184,726 2.08% Top-Grossing Genres 1995to 2015 Movies Total Gross Average Gross Market Share 1 Comedy 2,149 $40,738,293,630 $18,956,861 22.16% 2 Adventure 641 $39,835,889,227 $62,146,473 21.67% 3 Action 732 $32,957,399,261 $45,023,769 17.93% 4 Drama 3,969 $30,921,323,307 $7,790,709 16.82% 5 Thriller/Suspense 784 $15,451,583,759 $19,708,653 8.40% 6 Romantic Comedy 497 $9,233,744,931 $18,578,964 5.02% 7 Horror 435 $8,213,804,276 $18,882,309 4.47% 8 Documentary 1,602 $2,045,711,662 $1,276,974 1.11% 9 Musical 130 $1,901,046,400 $14,623,434 1.03% 10 Black Comedy 138 $1,168,828,509 $8,469,772 0.64% http://www.the-numbers.com/market/sources
  46. 46. 46 ENTERTAINMENT DIGITAL MARKETING
  47. 47. 47 Creating outstanding products and awareness they exist Entertainment brands have to compete in an increasingly crowded marketplace, the slices of the pie are getting smaller as more products compete for audiences. Hit broadcast-network TV shows have a fraction of the audience that they needed to stay on the air 20 years ago. But consumers still want something that looks as good as ever. Once film or television products are created they must be brought to viewers’ attention in a sea of digital irrelevance. Producers must develop digital strategies and take advantage of new cost savings opportunities and hope to find ways to make money. 2 problems Creating outstanding products Creating awareness that they exist. Productions that succeed in grabbing a small slice of the audiences’ attention and loyalty remain a mysterious exercise.
  48. 48. 48 What is Digital Marketing Digital Marketing is the use of digital channels to promote or market products and services to consumers and businesses. It is embodied by an extensive selection of service, product and brand marketing tactics, which mainly use the Internet as a core promotional medium, in addition to mobile and traditional TV and radio. Digital marketing is targeted, measurable, and interactive marketing of products or services using digital technologies to reach and convert leads into customers and retain them. Key objective: to promote brands, build preference and increase sales through various digital marketing techniques. Source: Digital Marketing Institute:
  49. 49. 49 Digital marketing techniques Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Search Engine Marketing (SEM) Content marketing Influencer marketing Content automation Campaign marketing e-Commerce marketing Social media marketing Any other form of digital media Extends to non- Internet channels that provide digital media Mobile phones (SMS and MMS) Callback and on- hold mobile ring tones. The fundamental concept in digital marketing is based on the inbound marketing approach. Social media optimization e-Mail direct marketing Display advertising e–Books Optical disks and games
  50. 50. 50 Digital marketing trends 2015 1. Content More Important Than Ever 2. Marketing Channels Will Be Even More Connected 3. Mobile Will Take Over 4. Marketing Campaigns Will Be More Data-Driven & More Hyper-Targeted 5. The Laggards Will Finally Adopt Source: Fortune
  51. 51. 51 Movie goers usage of social media Moviegoers use their social connections to instantly obtain movie information and to spread WoM. 40% say they value recommendations they see posted by their friends or family on social media.
  52. 52. 52 Tweeters, Instagramers Twitter users who go to the movies are 25% more likely than all social network users to attend a movie on its opening weekend, 55% tweet about movies regularly, are also the most frequent moviegoers, attending about nine movies a year. Instagram users also go to a lot of movies (average nine movies a year), are the most spontaneous with regard to what they see (36% regularly choosing a movie after arriving at the theater), are the most vocal about their movie experiences (60% say they post comments often about movies on their social networking sites).
  53. 53. 53 ENTERTAINMENT BRANDS
  54. 54. 54 Brands are cultural statement Mind share: how well the public knows your brand and cares about it. Mind share often precedes market share To cut through the daily clutter of messages and products, a brand needs to do more than identify a product: It must give it a personality. A brand that has the trust and allegiance of the consumer and that puts forward a simple, direct “high concept” idea, is positioned to survive in an increasingly crowded marketplace. Brands transcend particular products and carry with them a whole cultural statement. Millward Brown
  55. 55. 55 Entertainment brands Entertainment companies, whose products are purely cultural, have long recognized this trend. Acting on it, have not merely created strong brands; they have built brand empires. They have carved out pieces of our collective psyche that transcend any single product. We have a relationship with these companies that disposes us to accepting, or at least giving a courtesy look at, any product with their brand on it.
  56. 56. 56 Entrance into a word that embodies one single powerful idea: family, taste, money, fun Consumption of a brand´s products empowers the consumer with the qualities of the brand. The base principle remains the same: consume and become. • Disney doesn´t simply mean animated features or theme parks anymore: it means family. • Bloomberg is not just a terminal on a trader´s desk; it is instantaneous financial news and analysis. • The NBA isn´t about watching tall men put the ball in the basket with a high degree of accuracy; it´s about a fast, urban, street lifestyle, whit all the glitz and glamour of showbiz. • Cartier isn’t about jewelry or luxury but about desire. • A brand makes a lifestyle statement.
  57. 57. 57 From hits to brands to franchises No longer sufficient merely to turn out a hit movie, TV show, magazine, or book, because in many cases these products cannot be profitable on their own. A hit must become a franchise and, in so doing, become the hub from which a wide-reaching variety of products emanates. Hits behave like brands. By occupying every available niche in popular culture, hits become long-lived, wide-reaching brands.
  58. 58. 58 Familiarity factor linked to mainstream concepts Main drivers of “TV-like” Contents Packaging Relate to the trust level Content drivers If it has been broadcast on TV Production quality Target audience Programme title Producer Format Packaging drivers Service supplier brand Contents presentation Price “TV-like” Consumers like the endorsement of a company name they recognize. But the new offerings of the brand have to fill a need or supply a distinct pleasure of their own, a unique selling proposition embodied in the brand.
  59. 59. 59 FILM AND TV CONSUMPTION
  60. 60. 60 Top-platforms to watch a film in Europe • Film viewers mainly choose to watch films on television because it is cheaper • On DVD because it is more convenient (they can watch whenever they want and select the language) • In cinemas because it is the first window (the films are recent) and it provides the most complete film experience. • 84% of film viewers like 'watching films at home because it is • cheaper' • 81% like 'watching DVDs because they can watch the films • anytime they want' • 74% like 'going to the cinema because of the complete film • experience' • 66% like 'going to the cinema because they like watching the • latest films' Source:A profile of current and future audiovisual audience, European Commission, 2014
  61. 61. 61 Linear TV still most used Linear TV: Television service where the viewer has to watch a scheduled TV program at the particular time it’s offered, and on the particular channel it's presented on. • In general, people prefer to watch television on TV sets: watching on smaller screens is typically a fall-back rather then a choice • Broadcast TV is a non-rivalrous service: the quality of the broadcast signal is not affected by the quantity of viewers • Average viewing hours in Europe have risen slightly from 3,5 hours to just under 4 hours • TV advertising increased from $34.7 billion to $38.9 billion between 2004 and 2013 Source: Defined Term, Deloitte, Ericsson Media Lab
  62. 62. 62 Streaming TV is soaring Streaming content is an audio or video file on the Internet that is partially downloaded and then played as the remainder of the file is being downloaded. Live streaming is the method of constantly sending and receiving content over the Internet.
  63. 63. 63 Streaming and Web TV are becoming mainstream A seller’s market Digital-video producers, especially those focused on programming for smartphones, are enjoying something they didn’t have a few years ago Exclusive contents Netflix: Running about two dozen original series, including comedies, dramas, and cartoons, and it has slated 30 more for 2016, plus a steady stream of original documentaries, standup comedy specials, and the occasional feature film. YouTube Red: Teen aesthetics, Single by 30 (New Form Digital), a show about two teenagers who promise to marry each other if they wind up unattached at that unfathomable age. Go90 (Verizon): Rights to six other New Form Digital shows including #DoOver, about a woman who has to keep reliving her disastrous 25th-birthday party. 52 original series by the end of the year and programming deals with about 100 companies.
  64. 64. 64 Things people do while watching TV Source: Nielsen 2012 • 45% watch TV and use tablet simultaneously on a daily basis. • 69% do this several times a week. • 12% of tablet owners never watch TV while on their device. • 61% check e-mail on a tablet while also watching TV. • 47% of tablet owners visit a social networking site. • Women are more likely to visit a social networking sit than men, with 50% of women and 44% of men. • Men are more likely to check sports scores, and look up information about the show they are watching.
  65. 65. 65 Consumers prefer different devices for short-form and long-form TV programmes  Conventional long-form TV programmes, broadcast or on-demand, typically watched on TV sets, shorter video more on computers, smartphones, tablets  Different types of video suit different needs  Video clips are likely to be viewed through the day, fill small voids of time  Long-form watched in the evening, people want to relax, content curated by a third-party  As people grow older they prefer dramas like Breaking Bad or House of Cards
  66. 66. 66 MEDIA CONVERGENCE
  67. 67. 67 Media convergence: dissolution of boundaries Concentration, confluence, merging - these are some synonyms the convergence, a current term in the media and communications industries to describe the dissolution of boundaries between the media, telecom and information technology sectors. In 1983, the American political scientist Ithiel de Sola Pool described the concept of convergence as a driving force for change in the media industry in his work Technologies of Freedom – probably, this was the first time the concept was presented (Jenkins, 2006). The convergence of modes – as designated by Sola Pool - blurs the boundaries between point-to-point communication media (telephone, telegraph, etc) and mass media (press, radio, television): in this way, one physical medium transport of information that in the past only offered one type of service, now offers various services.
  68. 68. 68 Media convergence: dissolution of boundaries http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibJaqXVaOaI Henry Jenkins: What is media convergence?
  69. 69. 69 Media convergence: regulatory environment In the European Union, the Green Paper on the Convergence of the Telecommunications, Media and Information Technology sectors was established as a key element of the overall framework for the support of an information society, following the Green Paper on Telecommunications (1987) and various EU legislative initiatives in the audiovisual sector – such as the remarkable example of the Television Without Frontiers (1989) directive. To ensure that the benefits of convergence contribute to social and economic development of Europe was one of the aims of the Green Paper on Convergence, presented as a first step for to make way for the development of an regulatory environment that would enable the full realization of the opportunities offered by the information society in the interests of Europe and its citizens.
  70. 70. 71 HOW DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES TRANSFORMED CINEMA: PRE-PRODUCTION, PRODUCTION, POST- PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND EXHIBITION
  71. 71. 72 Film: a paradigma shift Filmmaking has traditionally been a very structured, expensive, and hierarchical process. Digital technologies open up new mechanisms and processes, which can offer alternatives to the stable systems of production, distribution, and exhibition. There has been a paradigm shift as digital and computer technologies are changing the parameters for how movies are made, distributed, and seen” Sources: Daly, K. M. (2010) “How Cinema is Digital”. In Einav, G. (2010) Transitioned Media: A Turning Point Into the Digital Realm. New York: Springer. Pp. 135 ANATOMY OF A FILM CREW IN PICTURES http://www.theblackandblue.com/2011/07/07/crew-anatomy/
  72. 72. 73 Film: a paradigm shift Sources: Daly, K. M. (2010) “How Cinema is Digital”. In Einav, G. (2010) Transitioned Media: A Turning Point Into the Digital Realm. New York: Springer. Pp. 135 “As a new medium, cinema becomes participatory, nonhierarchical, mobile, mutable, and characterized by excess as opposed to scarcity.” ANALOGUE CINEMA - Difficult - Expensive - Time consuming - Hierarchical - Passive reception DIGITAL CINEMA - Easy - Low cost - Less time consuming - Non-hierarchical - Audience participation
  73. 73. 74 Analogue cinema: La NuitAmericaine / Day for Night (1973) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSqfhjt-Gg8
  74. 74. 75 Persuasive digital «Digital technologies have penetrated all levels of the production and post- production of movies. Many of these developments are non-obvious, taking place in processes of moviemaking that are well behind the scenes.» Daly, 2010
  75. 75. 76 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Scriptwriting: MS Word, Final Draft, etc Production Web sites, Blogs or Social Networks (to build and maintain contact with the audience) Casting & Staffing: Fundable, IndieGoGo, ArtistShare, etc Viewing ‘dailies’ Editing: Avid, Final Cut, Adobe Premiere, etc Post-production & Visual / Audio Effects: Adobe After Effects, Autodesk Smoke, etc
  76. 76. 77 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Lower production costs  HD film cameras under 200€  mobile phones with good quality cameras  inexpensive or free editing software  machinima (use of real time 3D computer graphics render engines, from videogames and virtual worlds)
  77. 77. 78 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) «The lowered cost and ease of production does open up new spaces for moviemaking and new communities of moviemakers and viewers often overlapping.» Daly, 2010
  78. 78. 79 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Production IMAX, 3D, drones, miniature • IMAX and 3D: The attitude toward 3D during anticipation of a film is now mainly positive, enhancing the sense of event and special occasion, particularly when in association with IMAX. The capability for the technology to improve a film’s success is clear and with certain directors pushing the boundaries of 3D as a narrative device, the technology has proven to be more than just a gimmick to generate revenue. • Avatar: The ratio of 3D to 2D attendance was 90:10. It achieved just over $1,000,000,000 worldwide in only 17 days, the fifth movie in history ever to hit $1 billion. It is one of the most prestigious 3D films of all time. Cameron shot using a fusion camera system, where two camera lenses are about as far apart from each other as the average pair of human eyes, recording two separate images for each eye. Represented a dramatic leap in film technology, producing a cinematic experience to be remembered. • Hugo: Shot in 3D in a similar fashion to Avatar which helped Scorsese apply 3D as a storytelling device to add depth and intensity. Drones and miniature cameras for films, sports, news, nature programes but need more stability, range, speed. Super slow motion
  79. 79. 80 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Post production: editing and special effects THEN Editing - used to be a very time consuming and highly specialized skill. - one could only edit after the film had been developed. Special effects were not part of the editing process, but were created in a laboratory. NOW Basic editing software is available free on almost every PC and free editing programs are accessible online. Users can put together video clips and add sound tracks, titles, transitions, and special effects, as well as easily remix outside content with their own content.
  80. 80. 81 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Post production: editing and special effects The career of film editor Walter Murch’s goes hand in hand with the traditional and modern technologies of this craft. Murch was nominated 4 times for the film editing Oscar, all in different systems. More recently, Murch used Apple’s Final Cut Pro and Power Mac G4 computers to edit Anthony Minghella’s Cold Mountain (2003) – considered a leap for big- budget films, which mostly used the Avid systems.
  81. 81. 82 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Post production: editing and special effects Julia (1977) Moviola Apocalypse Now (1979) KEM flatbed The English Patient (1996) Avid Cold Mountain (2003) Final Cut Pro
  82. 82. 83 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Post production: editing and special effects http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYmlKAq1SU0 Walter Murch: “Until Recently, Film was a Digital Sandwich Between Analog Slices of Bread”
  83. 83. 84 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Post production: editing and special effects Special effects - what used to require a $30,000 special effects workstation can now be done at consumer price level on a home computer. Color correction – color correction is available from “prosumer” editing software along with a number of other effects. Fine tuning frame-by-frame: a.k-a. digital intermediary (DI). This allows filmmakers to change the color scheme of a background, put together scenery montages, etc. Distribution = catching point for filmmakers (high costs of producing prints + delivery). Digital technologies are breaking up the distribution oligopoly (falling storage and transmission costs).
  84. 84. 85 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Post production: editing and special effects George Lucas: “Distribution is a Supermarket” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bpu-QlVtjhU&feature=BFa&list=PL4443FC93FF19E065
  85. 85. 86 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Distribution: (old) and new models  DVDs  Digital downloads  Video on demand (VOD)  Subscription on Demand (SVOD)  Online communities  Online social networks  Streaming movies
  86. 86. 87 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Distribution: new models «The affordances of online communities and networks have enabled filmmakers to find their audiences in new ways, using Internet marketing and social networks and therefore opening up the legitimate possibility of self-distribution and smaller distribution outlets.» Daly, 2010: 140
  87. 87. 88 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Distribution: new models Audiences anywhere can collaborate with filmmakers, particularly in distribution and marketing, and even financing. TheMovieFund.com cinecrowd.com indiegogo.com
  88. 88. 89 All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Distribution: new models WithoutABox*: https://www.withoutabox.com/ * created in 2000, acquired in 2008 by IMDB (owned by Amazon)
  89. 89. 90 “«At every level digital technologies have created more collaborative environments in cinema production, distribution, and exhibition» All cinema is digital (one way or the other) Daly, 2010: 146
  90. 90. 91 All cinema is digital? Martin Scorsese: “Celluloid is Still Going to Be a Choice”
  91. 91. 92 CONSUMPTION EXPERIENCES
  92. 92. 93 IMAX: Gargantuan technology
  93. 93. 94 The big screen experience
  94. 94. 95 Home theatre: the no so small experience
  95. 95. 96 Short form web contents Comedian Jon Stewart returns in HBO short-form deal Deal with cable television channel HBO (TWX.N) to produce short-form digital content on current events in what will be his first announced entertainment project since quitting "The Daily Show" in August. Content will be shown on its digital platforms HBO NOW and HBO GO. HBO will also get the first look at other, unspecified, film and TV ventures from the comedian. Stewart will view current events through his unique prism" and work with a graphics company to produced timely short-form digital content that will be refreshed multiple times a day. Jerry Seinfeld, co-creator of the award-winning 1990s comedy series "Seinfeld," launched a popular web series in 2012 called "Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee," made up of short episodes, that is now in its sixth season and has been streamed about 100 million times.
  96. 96. 97 Short form web contents
  97. 97. 98 Short form interactive contents Snapchat: Videos formatted for viewing on a smartphone, from partners such as BuzzFeed and Comedy Central, and prompt viewers to swipe from one brief clip to another unless they opt for a longer segment. 100 million monthly active users, 6 billion videos viewed each day, triple the number in May, just 2 billion daily videos viewed shy of Facebook’s 8 billion. All video views are via mobile devices — there is no desktop component available. User-generated videos, from viewers watching the service’s live events (e.g. sporting events, college move-in day, ‘Literally Can’t Even‘, etc. a la Twitter Moments) or through its Discover offering. Services targeting different niches Refinery29’s short videos focus on women. Vimeo aims for art-house fare. Spotify is developing works that can be played “ambiently”—that is, listened to while your phone’s in your pocket.Sources: Snapchat, Financial Times
  98. 98. 99 Other forms of video consumption • 83% of Moms search online for answers to specific questions about being a parent. • 3 in 5 moms turn to online video for their answers. • 81% of YouTube-watching Moms watch how-to videos, which is significantly higher than the average viewer (75%). Source: Google+Ipsos Moms + YouTube: How Moms Use Video For Family Research
  99. 99. 10 0 Other forms of video consumption A two-year wait for editors and script writers Demand for scarce, expensive, good television content is at an all time high Over 350 scripted series in production in the US in 2014 Survey released in June by TiVo: 9 out of 10 people are engaging in “binge or marathon viewing”
  100. 100. 10 1 LITERATURE
  101. 101. 10 2 Literature • Catmull, E. (2008) How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity, Harvard Business Review • Finney, A. (2010) “The International Film Business: A Market Guide Beyond Hollywood”, Routledge • Jancovich, M., Faire, L., Stubbings, S. (2008) ”The Place of the Audience: Cultural Geographies of Film Consumption”, BFI Modern Classics • Lieberman, A., Esgate, P. (2013) “The Definitive Guide to Entertainment Marketing: Bringing the Moguls, the Media, and the Magic to the World”, FT Press • Ulin, J. (2010) “The Business of Media Distribution: Monetizing Film, TV, and Video Content in an Online World”, American Film Market Presents)
  102. 102. 10 3 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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